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The king, when that the mass was done, His heart nocht sicker (3) for to stand Went forth to see the potis (1) soon,

To win all or die with lionour, And at his liking saw them made,

For to maintain that stalwart stour, On either side right weill braid.

That he betime should hald his way; It was pitied, as I have tauld,

And nane should dwell with the but if that their faes on horse would ha!d

they Forth in that way, I trow they sal

That would stand with him to the end, Nocht weill escape for-outen a fall. And tak the ure (4) that God would send. Throughout the host then gart (2) he cry Then all answered with a cry, That all should arm them hastily,

And with a voice suid generally And busk them on their best manner; That nane for doubt of dtici (5) should And when they assembled were,

fail He gart array them for the fight:

Quhill (6) discomfit were the great bata And syne gart cry oure all on height,

taile. That wha soever he were that fand

Death of Sir Henry de Bohun. And when Gloster and Hereford were Sprent they samen intill a lyng ; (9) With their battle approach and near, Sir Henry inissed the noble kmg; Before them all there came ridand, And he that in his sturrups stude, With helm on heid and spear in hand, With the ax, that was hard and gude, Sir Henry the Boune, the worthy,

With sae great main, raucht him a dint, That was a wicht knicht, and a hardy, That nouther hat nor helm micht stut And to the Earl of Hereford cousin; The heavy dush, that he him gave, Armed in arms gude and fine;

That near the head till the harns clave. Came on a steed a bowshot near,

The hand-ax shaft frushit in tway; Bfore all other that there were :

And he down to the yird gan gae And knew the king, for that he saw All flatlings, for him failit micht. Him sae range his men on raw,

This was the first straik of the ficht. ... And by the crown that was set

When that the king repairt was, Also upon his bassinet.

That gart his men all leave the chase, And toward him he went in hy. (7)

The lordis oť his company And the king sae apertly (8)

Blamed him, as they durst, greatumly, Saw him come, forouth all his fears, That he him put in aventure, In hy till him the horse he steers.

To meet sae stith a knicht, and stour, (10) Aud when Sir Henry saw the king

In sic point as he then was seen. Come on, foroutin abasin,

For they said weel, micht have been Till him he rode in great hy.

Cause of their tynsal (11) everilk ane. He thought that he should weel lichtly The king answer has made them nane, Win him, and have him at his will, But mainit (12) his hand-ax shaft sae Sin' he him horsit saw sae ill,

Was with the straik broken in tway.

The Battle. The Scottismen commonally

For doubt of deid (14) they sall not foe.' Kneelit all douu, to God to pray,

* Now be it sae then !' said the king. And a short prayer there made they And then, but langer delaying, To God, to help them in that ficht. The gart tramp till the assembly. And when the English king had sicht On either side men micht then see Of thein kneeland, he said, in ly: Mony a wicht man and worthy, “You folk kueel tó ask mercy.”

Ready to do chivalry.
Sir lugram (15) said: - Ye say sooth now- Thus were they bound on either side;
They ask mercy, but not of you ;

And Englishmen, with mickle pride,
For their trespass to God they cry: That were intill their avaward, (15)
I tell you a thing sickerly,

To the battle that Sir Edward (16)
That you men will all win or die;

Governt and let, held straight their way. 1 The holes which had been dug in the field.

2 Caused. ordered. 3 Secure.

4 Chance (Fr, eur, hazard). 5 None or fear of death, 6 Till 7 Haste.

8 Openly. 9 Sprang forward in a line. 10 Steady a knight, and battle. 11 Loss. 12 Moaned, lamented. 13 Sir Ingram d'Umphruville,

14 Fear of death. 15 The van of the English army.

16 Edward Bruce..

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The horse with spurs hastened they, Some held on loft ; some tint the seat. and pricket upon them sturdily;

A lang time thus fechting they were; And they met them'richt hardily. That men nue noises micht hear there; Sae that, at their assembly there,

Men heard noucht but grains ana dints, Sic a frushing of spears were,

The flew fire, as men flays on flirts. That far away men micht it hear,

They foucht ilk ane sae eagerly, That at that meeting forouton were. That they made nanoise nor cry, Were steeds sticket mony ane;

But dang on other at their micht, And mony gude man borne doun and With wappins that were burnist bricht slain;

All four their battles with that were
They dang on other with wappins sair, Fechting in a front halily.
Some of the horse, that stickit were, Almighty God! how douchtily
Rushit and reclit richt rudely.

Sir Edward the Bruce and his men
The gude earl (1) thither took the way, Amang their facs conteinit them than!
With his battle, in gude array,

Fechting in sae gude covine, (4) And assemblit sae hardily,

Sae hardy, worthy, and eae fine, That men micht hear had they been by, That their vaward frushit was A great frush of the spears that brast. Almighty God! wha then micht sae There micht men see a hard battle, That Stewart Walter, and his route, And some defend and some assail; And the gude Douglas, that was sae stout, Sue that it seemit weel that they

Fechting into that stalwart stour; Were tint, amang sae great menyie, (2) He sould say that till all honour As thủy were plungit in the sea.

They were worthy that in that fight And when the Englishman has seen, Sae fast pressed their foc8' might. The earl and all his men, beden,

There micht mon see mony a steed Faucht sae stoutly, but effraying,

Flying astray, that lord had nane. Richt as they had nae abusing;

These micht men hear engenzies cry;
Then pressit they with all their micht, And Scottishmen cry hardily ;
And they, with spears and swords bricht, 'On them! On them! On them! They
And axes, that richt sharpy share

fail !
I'mids the visige, met them there. With that sae hard they gan assail,
Ther, men micht sie a stalwart stour, And skw all that they inicht o'erta'.
And mony men of great valour,

And the Scots arccri alsul (5)
Witi spears, maces, and knives,

Shot amang them sae deliveriy. And other wappius, wisslit (3) their lives; Engrieving them sae greatumly, Sie that mony fell douu ali deid.

That what for them, that with them The grass waxed with the blucie all red

faucht, Therë nicht men hear mony a dint, That sac great routis to them raucht, And wapping upon armours stint,

And pressittiom full experly; And see tumble knichts and sizeds, And what for arrowis, thot fully And mony rich and royal weeds

Mony gat wound's gan them ina', Defoullit foully under feet.

And slowiast off their horses alsua. The appearance of a mock host, composed of the servants of the Scotti h camp, complet us the panic of the English arany: t':e king 1! es, and Sir Giles d'Argentina, rather than • live shamefully and tea, bids the king farewell, and rushing again into the light, is slain. The narrative adds : Thry were,

to say sooth, sae aghast, Anal Bannockburn, betwixt the braes, And 112d sae fast, richt effrayity,

Of ne, of horse, sac steekit (C) was, That of them a full great pariy

That, ipon drowuit horse and men, I'd to the water of Forth, and there Men micht pass dry out-ower it then. The maist part of them drownit were.


About the year 1420, ANDREW WYNTOUN, or, as he describes himsell, Androwe of Wyntoune, a canon of St. Andrews, and prior of Si. Seri’s Monasiery in Lochleven, completed, in eight-syllabled metre, an- Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland,' including much universal history, and exiending down to liis own time: it may be considered as a Scottish member of the class of rhymed chronicles, and belongs in style to the authors in this section, though produced in part at a later period than Barbour's history. The prior undertook his chronicle at the suggestion of Sir John Weymss. He divides it into nine books, “in lenowre of the ordrys nyve.' It contains a considerable number of fabulous legen is, such as we may suppose to have been told beside the evening-fire of a monastery of those days, and which convey a curious idea of the credulity of the age. The chronicle has little poetical merit, and is greatly inferior to Barbour's ‘Bruce,' but is interesting for the view it affords of the language, attainments, and manners of the author's time and country. A fine edition of the work, edited by David Macpherson, was published in 1795. The time of Wyntoun's death has not been stated, but he is supposed to have died shortly after completing his chronicle.

liho Earl of Nnrreft' or Murray % Lost imong ou groat is company.

3 Exchanged. 4 Company. 5 Also.

6 Shut up.

Macbeth and the Treird Sisters.
A nycht he thowcht in hys dreamyng, And Dame Grwok, (4) his emys wyf,
That syttand he wes besyd the kyng Tuk, and led wyth hyr hys lyf,
At a sete in hwntyng; swa

And held hyr båthe hys wyf and queyne,
Intil his leisch had grewhundys twa: As befor than scho had beyne
He thowcht, quhile he wes swa syttand, Till hys eme qwene, lyvand
He sawe thre wemen by gangand; Quhen he was kyng with crowne rygnend
And thai wemen than thowct he

Hor lytil in honowre than had he Thre werd systrys mast lyk to be.

The greys (5) of affynyte. The first he hard say, gangang by, All thus quhen his eme was dede, 'Lo, yhondyr the Thane of Crumbawch- He succeedyt in his stede; ty ? (1)

And sevyntene wyntyr full rygnand
The tothir woman sayd agane,

As kyng-he wes than in-til Scotland.
Of Morave yhondyre I se the thane!' All hys tyme wes gret plenté
The thryd than sayd, 'I se the kyng !' Abowndand, bath on land and se.
All this he herd in his dreamyng.

He was in justice rycht lawchful,
Sone eftyre that, in his yhowthal, () And till hys legis all awful.
Of thyr thanydoms he thane wes made;. Quhen Leo the tend was Pape of Rome,(6)
Syne neyst he thowcht to be king, As pylgryne to the court he come;
Fra Dankanyis dayis had tane endyng. And in his almus he sew (7) sylver
The fantasy thus of his dreme

Till all pure folk that had myster; () Movyd hym mast to sla his eme; (3) And all ty me oysyd (9) he to wyrk As he dyd all furth in-dede,

Profitably for haly kyrke. before yhe herd one rede,

St. Serf and Satan.* While St. Serf, intile a stead,

The devil said : “ This questión Lay after matins in his bed,

I ask in our collatiónThe devil came, in foul intent

Say where was God, wit ye oucht,' For til found him with argument,

Before that heaven and

erd And said: 'St. Serf, by thy werk

wroucht?' I ken thou art a cunning clerk.'

St. Serf said: • In himself steadless St. Serf said: 'Gif I sae be,

His Godhead hampered never was.' Foul wretch, what is that for thee?' The devil then askit: 'What cause he had

St. Serf lived in the sixth century, and was the founder of the monastery of which the author was prior. The spelling of the abovo extract is modernised.

1 Cromarty. 2 Youthhood. 3 Uncle ( 4 Gruoch, 5 Degrees (Fr.gre).

6 A chronological error of nearly live hundred years, for Macbeth visited Rome during the Pontificate of Leo the Ninth. -- Irwing.

7 Scattered, distributed. 8 From the Danish mister, to want, 9 L'aed,


To make the creatures that he made ?' In Paradise, after his sin ?'
To that St. Serf answered there:

"Seven hours,' Serf said, .bade he there. Of creatures made he wos makér.

in.' A maher micht he never be,

"When was Eve made ?' saith Sathanas. But gif creatures made had he.'

• In Paradise, Serf said, she was.' The devil askit him : “Why God of the devil askit: Why that ye noucht

Men are quite delivered free, His werkis all full gude had wroucht?' Through Christ's passion precious boucht, St Serf answered: That Goddis will And we devils sae are noucht?' Was never to irake his werkis ill,

St. Serf said: 'For that ye
And as envious he had been seen,

Fell through your awn iniquity;
Gif nought but he full gude has been.' And through ourselves we never fell,
St. Serf the devil askit than :

But through your fallon false con él.' • Where God made Adam, the first man ? Then saw the devil that he could noucht, In Ebron Adam formit was,'

With all the wiles that he wrought,
St. Serf said. And till him Sathanas: Overcome St. Serf. He said then
Where was he, eft that, for his vice, He kenned him for a wise man.
He was put out of Paradise ?'

Forthy there he gave him quit,
St. Serf said: · Where he was made.' For he wan at him na profit.
The devil askit: How lang he bade

While Wyntoun was in liting his legendary chronicle in the priory at Lochleven, a secular priest, JOIN FORDUN, C:non of Aberdeeir cithedral, was gathering and recording the apnals of Scotland in Latin. Fordum bromelit his bistory, 'Scolichronicon,' down to the death of David I. in 1153, but had collecteil materials extending to the year 1385, about which time he is supposed to have diet. His history was then taken up and continued to the death of James I. (1437) by WALTER Bower or BOWMAKER, abbot of the monastery of St. Colm, in the Firth of Forth.



The translation of King Alfred, the Saxon Chronicle, Saxon laws, charters, and ecclesiastical histories, more or less tinctured with the Norman-French, are our earliest prose compositions. The first English book was Sir JOHN MANDEVILLE'S · Travels,' written in 1356. Mandeville was born at St. Alons in the year 1300, anil received the liberal education requisite for the profession of medicine. During the thirty-four years previous 10 1356, he travelled in Eastern countries (where he appears t') har vn been received with great kind. ness); and on liis return to England, wrote an account of all he had seen, mixed with innumerable fables, derived from preceding historians and romancers, as well as from bearsay. His book was originally written in Latin, then translated into French, and finally into Englishi, that every man of my nacioun may undirstonde it.' The following extract, in the original spelling, is from the edition of 1839, edited by J. O. Halliwell :


The Beginning of Mohammed. And yes schull understonde, that Machamote was born in Arabye, that was first a nore knave, that kepte cameles, that wenten with marchautes for marchandise ; and so befelle that he wente with the marchantes in to Egipt: and thei weren thanne cristene, in tho partyes. And at the deserts of Arabye he wente into a chapelle, where a eremyte duelte. And whan he entered into the chapelle, that was but a lytille and a low thing, and had but a lytyl dore and a low, than the entree began to wexe so gret, and so large, and so high, as though it hadde ben of a gret mynstre or the gate of a paleys. And this was the first myracle, the Sarazins seyn, that Machomete dide in his youthe. Aftere began he for to wexe wyse and ryche, and he was a grete astronomer. In the following the spelling is simplified:

A Mohammedan's Lecture on Christian Vices. And therefore I shall tell you what the Soudan told me upon a day, in his chamber. He let voiden out of his chamber all manner of men, lords and other; for he would speak with me in counsel. And there he asked me how the Christian men governed 'em in our country: An I said [to] him: Right well, thonked be God.' And he said [to) me : Truly nay; for ye Christian men ne reckon right not how untruly to serve God. Ye should given ensample to the lewed people for to do well, and ye given 'em ensample to don evil. For the commons, upon festival days, when they shoulden go to church to serve God, then gon they to taverns, and ben there in gluttony all the day nd all night, and eaten and drinken, as beasts that have no reason, and wit not when they have

And therewithal they benso prond, that they knowen not how to ben clothed; now long, now short, now strait, now large, now sworded, now daggered, and in all manner guises. The shoulden ben simple, meek, and true, and full of alms-deed, as Jesu was, in whom they trow; but they ben all the contrary, and ever iuclined to the evil, and to don evil. And they ben so covetous, that for a little silver they sellen 'eir daughters, 'eir sisters, and 'eir own wives, to putten 'em to lechery. And one withdraweih the wife of another; and none of 'em holdeth faith to another, but they defoulen 'eir law, that Jesu Christ betook 'em keep for 'eir salvation. And thus for 'eir sins, hun (have) they lost all this lond that we bolden. For 'eir sins here, hath God taken 'em in our honds, not only by strength of ourself, but for 'eir sins. For we knowen well in very sooth, that when ye scrve God, God will help you; and when he is with you, no man inay be against you. And that kuow we well by our prophecies. that Christian men shall winnen this lond again oni of our honds, when they serven God more devoutly. But as long as they ben of foul and unclean living (as they ben now), we have to dread of 'em in no kind; for here God will not helpen em in no wise.'

And then I asked him how he knew the state of Christian men. And he answerd me, that he knew all the state of the commons also by his messengers; that he sent to all londs, in manner as they were merchants of precious stones, of cloths of gold, and of other things, for to knowen the manner of every country amongs Christian men. And then he let clepe in all the lords that he made voiden first out of his chamber; and there he shewed me four that were great lords in the country, that tolden me of my country, and of many other Christian countries, as well as if they had been of the same country; and they spak French right well, and the Soudan also, whereof I had great marvel. Alas, that it is great slander to our faith and to our laws, when folk that ben withouten law shall reproven us, and undernemen us of our sins. And they that shoulden ben converted to Christ and to the law of Jesu, by our good example and by our acceptable life to God, ben through our wickedness and evil living, far fro us; and strangers fro the holy and very belief shall thus appellen us and holden us for wicked levirs and cursed. And truly they say sooth. For the Sar:ceus ben good and faithful. For they keep n entirely the commandment of the holy book Alcoran, that God sent 'em by vis messager, Mohammed; to the wbick as they Byen, St. Gabriel, the angel, oftentime told the will of God.

E. L. v. 1-3

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