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and nothing more. National prosperity in the supposed community of ten men, shows itself in very different ways : in where it is shown, that, by taking the the plentiful meal, the comfortable produce of labour from the proprietors dwelling, the decent furniture and of it, and giving it to those who do dress, the healthy and happy counte- not labour and do not give the proprienances, and the good morals of the tors of such produce anything in return, labouring classes of the people. These poverty, or at least, a less degree of ease are the ways in which national prospe- and enjoyment, must be the consequence. rity shows itself; and whatever is not The poor-rates alone are now equal in attended with these signs, is not na- amount to the whole of the nationalexpentional prosperity. Need I ask you, diture, including the interest of the debt then, if heavy taxation be calculated to when the late King came to the throne ; produce these effects ? Have our la- and the charges of managing the taxes ; bourers a plentiful meal of food fit for that is to say, the wages, salaries, or alman? Do they taste meat once in a lowances, to the tax-gatherers of various day Are they decently clothed ? descriptions; the bare charge which we Have they the means of obtaining fir- pay on this account, amounts to very ing? Are they and their children little short of as much as the whole of healthy and happy? I put these ques- the taxes amounted to when King Wilfions to you, Gentlemen, who have the liam was crowned. means of knowing the facts, and who This charge; that is to say, what we must, I am afraid, answer them all in pay to the tax-gatherers, in one shape or the negative.

another, is stated in the account laid beBut, why need we here leave anything fore Parliament for the last year, at to conjecture, when we have the unde- 2,986,2011., a sum equal to a year's niable proof before us, in the accounts, wages of 92,500 labourers at iwelve laid before Parliament, of the amount of shillings a week, which may, I suppose, the poor-tates, at two different periods, be looked upon as the average wages of and, of course, at two different stages in labourers, take all the kingdom through. our taxation ; namely, in the year 1784, Is this no evil? Are we to be persuaded, and in the year 1903 ? At the former that, to take the means of supporting period, the taxes of the year, as we have 92,500 families, consisting, upon the seen above, amounted to 13,300,921l. ; usual computation (5 to a family), of and then the poor-rates amounted to 461,000 souls; that to take away the 2,105,6231. At the latter period, the means of supporting all these, and giving taxes of the year (as will be seen from those means to support others, whose the official statement in Register, vol. business it is to tax the rest, instead of iv. page 1471) amounted to 41,931,7471.; adding to the stock of the community and the poor-rates had then risen to by their labour ; are we to be persuaded 5,246,5061. What must they, then, that this is no evil; and that, too, though amount to at this day, when the year's we see the poor-rates grown from 2 taxes amount to upwards of 70 millions millions to 5 millions in the space of 10 of pounds?

years ? are we to be persuaded to beHere then, we have a pretty good lieve this ? Verily, if we are, it is a proof, that taxation and pauperism, go great shame for us to pretend to laugh hand in hand. We have seen what was at the Mahoniedans. produced by the Anti-JACOBIN War. Having now taken a view of the proThe taxes continued nearly the same gress of the National Debt together with from 1784 to 1793, the year in which that of the national expenses and taxes ; Pitt began that war; so that, by the and having (by stepping a little aside for Anti-JACOBIN War, alone the poor-rates a moment) seen something of their effect were augmented, in nominal amount, upon national prosperity, we will, in the from 2,105,6231. to 5,246,5061.; at which next letter, agreeably to the intention we shall not be surprised, if we apply to before expressed, inquire into the this case the principle above illustrated schemes for arresting this fearful pro

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gress; or, as they are generally denomi- , remain as you are; I will not take the trouble' nated, plans for paying off, or reducing

to bray you in a mortar. the National Debt ; a subject of very friend, the electors of the Tower Hamlets will

When I have unfolded your ecclesiastical great importance, because, as we must bray both you and him whom you are atnow be satisfied, the bank-notes have tempting to shield, by falsehood, from the increased with the debt, and, of course, merited indignation and contempt of an enthe reducing of the debt would, if it lightened public.

I am, Sir, were accomplished, tend to the re

Your most obedient servant, duction of the quantity of bank-notes,

MICHAEL SCALES. by the excess of which it is, as the

P.S. I expect to receive this from you, by bullion committee have declared, that order of your master Midas, with a polite the gold coin has been driven from message as before, "Sir, your letter is au circulation.

advertisement, price fifteen guineas; other

wise it cannot appear."
I am, Gentlemen
Your faithful Friend,
WM. COBBETT.

44, Aldgate, 6th Oct., 1832. State Prison, Newgate,

Sir,-After your treatment of me when I Tuesday, Ilth Sept. 1810.

was before the Court of Aldermen-when you (To be continued.)

published their string of disgusting charges against me-when I could not, by any possi. bility, answer them-and when I wrote to you, complaining of your villany and injustice in

publishing such an e.c-parte statement, you MR. ALDERMAN SCALES AND refused even to insert my letter, because it DR. LUSHINGTON.

was more condemnatory of your conduct than of the conduct of my accusers. When, I say,

I bave received such a signal, and, perhaps, To the Editor of the Times.

irreparable injury at your hands, can I wonder The Scriptare says,

that you gave such a garbled, such a partial, « If

yoa bray a fool in a mortar, such a prostituted account, as to truth, of the he will be a fool still.”

meeting at the Court House, Whitechapel, 44, Aldgate, 6th Oct., 1832.

saying your reporter could not take a note, SIR,-In your paper of this day, you think on account of the crowd, when he had the to screen your protege, Dr Lushington, whole of the cryer's desk to himself, and sat from bis public disgrace, hy publishing a real with as much ease and comfort as a parson or a sham letter from a Mr. Smith, Hackney- does in his pulpit? road, the whole of which letter is false, be- I say that no reporter furnished the account givning, middle, and end. Not one of the you bave published. It is your account, made persons you have named were there, nor one by yourself, in your Promethean den, to screen person or friend from my ward; nor did I get Dr. Lushington from the indignation of his up any previous meeting ; nor did I speak to fellow-countrymen. a single person, or request even one friend or I repeat, that that report was concocted in neighbour to go to the meeting. I went your Pandora's box, and by yourself; and I alone, but returned with one thousand friends. firmly believe there is no other political vilI beard of the meeting accidentally ou that lain capable of such baseness as yourself. afternoon, and the gentleman who told me of Dr. Lushington looked me in the face! did it was Mr. R. Little, Wine-merchant, No. 4, be? No: neither he nor you dare look me Somerset-place, Commercial-road, who said in the face. I want much to be acquainted I should not be heard if I went, as it was with you! If I once can catch you out of your little better than a hole-and-corner meeting of Plutonion cave, although you are said to be the Doctor's friends, which literally was the Cerberus-like, you shall have reason to know case. So much for the value of information me ever after. furnished by the first journal in Europe. I have not forgotten your speaking cowardBab!! The first journal is truth : the worst ice in producing my letter to the Court of journal is falsehood. You know, at the same Aldermen, “ in which I threatened to horse. time, that I am no more a butcher now, than whip you," on purpose to create a prejudice your master, Walter, is now a printers' tinker. against me. That day will never arrive wben I shall be What is any rational man to do with such ashamed of having been a butcher. I never an invisible thick-skinned scouodrel as you was, nor ever shall be, like you, one of Midas's are? A borsewhip is the mildest correction jackalls.

you deserve, but a hurricane that would rid If you and Dr. Lushington are so ignorant the earth of such a polluted political magic as not to know that my friends reside in every lantern as your newspaper is, would be to part of the Tower Hamlets, then you must confer a real benefit upon all civilised society.

i

I rejoice to know that we have such a man nearest Market Town, and with the Popuas Mr. Black, a writer for the public, the lation, and other interesting, particulars editor of the Morning Chronicle, with bis relativg tu each ; besides wbich there are honest heart, clear head, and brilliant abili

MAPS ; ties, which are daily devoted to the instruction of mankind. We have the editor of the True First, one of the whole country, showing the

Sun, with bis puble efforts in bebalf of the local siluation of the Counties relatively to į people; we have the Ballot, with the extra- each other; and, then, each County is also

ordinary endowments of nature bestowed upon preceded by a Map, showing, in the same its editor, cultivated by art, and perfected by

manner, the local situation of the Cities, esperience; and have we not the Examiner, Borougbs, and Market Towas. at once the Juveval and Calliope of the weekly

FOUR TABLES press; and have we not you, whom the uo. Are added ; first, a Statistical Table of all the thinking public patronize as the Plutus of newsmeo, wben, in fact, you deserve no more

Counties, and then three Tables, showing

the new Divisions and Distributions enacted respect than a Thersites or a Caliban. I am, Sir,

by the Reform-Law of 4th June, 1832.
Your obedieot servant,
MICHAEL SCALES.

EXPLANATORY PREFACE.
To the Editor of the Times.

Taat space and time, which, in pre

faces, are usually employed in setting GEOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY.

forth the objects and the utility of the

work, I shall here employ in describing Tuis book is now published, and is the contents of this work, and in exfor sale at Bolt-court, and at the book- plaining certain parts of it, which, I shops in general. So large and ex- think, may stand in need of explanation; pensive a book, including forty-three in doing which, I shall proceed in the maps, never was sold for less than twice order in which the matters lie before the price before. Here all the new me. divisions of counties, and everything I. The book begins with a GENERAL else relating to the new parliamentary Account of England and Wales ; FIRST, distribution, is to be found in the stating the geographical situation, the smallest compass, and in an arrange- boundaries, the extent, and the populament the most commodious. I here tion of the whole country; SECOND, again insert THE TITLE and the explana- showing how the country is divided into tory preface. The reader will be asto- COUNTIES, and into their subdivisions, nished at the mass of matter ; and when this part being accompanied with a map, he sees the book, he will think that we showing how the counties are locally are got into cheap times indeed, when situated relatively to each other; THIRD, such a book can be sold for twelve shil- showing how the counties are distributed lings. But it was iny desire to bring it into Circuits, and pointing out the within the compass of book-clubs of assize-towns in the several circuits ; the working people.

FOURTH, showing how the counties, or

parts of counties, are distributed into A GEOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY DIOCESES ; and, Fifth, showing how the OF ENGLAND AND WALES; counties are now divided for PARLIACONTAINING

MENTARY PURPOSES. The names, in Alphabetical Order, of all the II. After this comes an INDEX TO THE Coasties, with their several Subdivisions, DICTIONARY, containing the names, in into Hundreds, Lathes, Rapes, Wapentakes, Wards, or Divisions, and an Ac- alphabetical order, of the cities, boroughs, coast of the Distribution of the Counties market-towns, villages, hamlets, and into Cireuits, Dioceses, and Parliamentary tithings, in all the counties, and having, Divisions.

against the name of each, the name of ALSO,

the county, under which the particulars The names (under tbat of each County re: relating to each place will be found. spectively), in Alphabetical Order, of all

III. THE DICTIONARY. Here the the Cities, 'Boroughs, Market Towns, Vil. lages, Hamlets, aud Tithings, with the English counties, in alphabetical order, Distance of each from London, or from the come first; and then the Welsh counties, in the same order. Then, under each | action at Tilford, how are we to know county, come the names of all the cities, where Tilford is, and what sort of a boroughs, market-towns, villages, ham- place it is? We might, from some cirlets and tithings in that county. Imme- cumstance, learn that it was in the diately preceding the name of each county of SURREY; but one should not county there is a map, describing the know whether it were a town or village, boundaries of the county, and pointing or what it was, nor in what part of the out the local situation of its cities, bo- county it lay. My book, in the Indes, roughs, and market-towns. Under the tells us that it is in SURREY; in the name of each county there is an account Dictionary, it tells us, that it is a Tita: of its soil, extent, products, population, Ing, that it is in the parish of Farx rental, poor-rates, and of all other the sam, and that Farnham is a MARKETinteresting particulars belonging to it; town, distant therefrom in a NW. diunder the name of each city and other rection, that is, at 39 miles distance principal place, there is a history of it from London; and the county-map as far as regards matters of general in- shows us, that this market-town lies terest or of great curiosity; and, where at the WESTERN EXTREMITY OF THE ever there was formerly a monastic es- County. In many cases it was unnetablishment, the nature and value of it cessary to state the distances of hamlets are mentioned under the name of the and tithings from any other place; but place, whether that place be a city in all such cases the parish (being city, or hamlet. The distance from Lon-borough, town, or village) is made don is stated, in the case of cities, known ; which makes our knowledge boroughs, and market-towns. And, in on the subject quite minute enough. For the case of the villages, hamlets, and instance, in the county of SURREY, Bag. tithings, their distances, and also their shot is a hamlet, the distance of which bearings, from the nearest city, borough, from CAERTSEY, the nearest town, is not or market-town, are stated ; and in all stated; but the book tells us, that it is cases the population is stated. In places in the village and parish of WINDLEwhere there are markets or fairs, the sham, and that that village is 7{ miles days for holding them are stated, and from CuerTSEY; so that here is mention is made of the commodities nothing wanting. There now remain dealt in at the fairs. With regard to to be explained some things ; which, if localities, it is not the great and well-left unexplained, might lead to error. known places, but the small and obscure First, under the name, in the Dictionplaces, of which we want a knowledge. ary, of each county, is given the numHow many scores of places have I re- ber of parishes it contains. This freceived letters from, and there being no quently leaves out townships, a great post-mark, or it being illegible, and it inany of which have separate parochial not being named in the date of the jurisdiction ; but it was impossible, in letter, have been unable to send an all cases, to come to a correct knowanswer with any chance of its reaching ledge of the facts relating to this matits destination! Of how many places ter; and, therefore, the parishes, so call. do we daily read in the newspapers, and ed, have, in the statistical table as well as in pamphlets and books, of which places in the Dictionary, generally been taken we never before heard, of the local as they stood in the official returns to situation of which we know nothing ; Parliament. Second, as the Dictionary and yet, with regard to which, we, for part was compiled before the Reformsome reason or other, wish to possess a law was passed, the number of members knowledge! It was from the great of Parliament returned by the several and almost constant inconvenience which counties, cities, and boroughs, stands in I experienced as to this matter, that in this part of the book, according to the duced me to undertake this most la- rotten-borough system; but this matter borious work. For instance, if we were is amply set to rights in the tables, to read or hear something of a trans- which are at the close of the book, and

which it is now my business to de- and I believe only one, bas been comscribe.

mitted here; and that is, in the stateIV. Next after the Dictionary comes ment of the number of acres of land to & STATISTICAL TABLE (which is called each person and to each house in the No. I.); which states, against the name county of Middlesex. As I firmly beof each county in England, and against lieve, that a fiftieth part as much really that of the whole of Wales, the follow-useful information was

never before ing pieces of information; namely, its given in so small a compass; so am I square miles, its acres of land; its num- quite sure, that a hundredth part as ber of parishes; number of market. much was never before published at a towns; number of members of Parlia- similar price. This Table, the whole of ment according to the rewo-lavo; num- which the reader sees at two openings ber of former monastic establishments; of the book, has cost me, first and last, number of public charities; number of months of labour. parishes which have no churches ; V. In Table No. II. we come to the number of parishes the population of new and important PARLIAMENTARY Dieach of which is under a hundred per- VISIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONS. This Table sons; number of parishes which have again ranges the counties in their alno parsonage-houses ; number of pa-phabetical order, and shows, at one rishes in which the parsonage-houses are view, the distribution of the country for unfit to live in; annual amount of the the purposes connected with the eleccounty poor-rates according to return tion of members to serve in Parliament of 1818, that being the last presented; (according to the act of 1832); naming number of paupers at that time; the the counties, describing the divisions annual rental of the county at the same (where there are divisions) in the countime, no return having since been made; ties, stating the places for holding the total population of the county according election courts, stating the polling to return of 1821 ; number of houses places in each county or division of a in the county in 1821, no return on county, naming the cities and boroughs that subject having been made since; in the county returning members to the proportion between the poor-rates Parliament, and stating the number of and the rental of the county; the pro- members for each county, each division portion between the number of paupers of the county, and each city and boand the number of houses in the county; rough ; and, finally, the whole number the county poor-rates in 1776, by way of members returned by each county. of comparison; the number of persons VI. But as the cities and boroughs to each square mile in the county; the are, in the Table No. II. not accompanumber of acres of land to each person nied by a statement of their population, in the county; the number of acres of Table No. III. gives thein with their land to each house in the county; the population in their new boundaries; whole of the male population in 1821, and also the counties of England with no distinction, in this respect, hav- their present population, separate from ing been made in the last return; that of the cities and boroughs; and number of agricultural families, handi- then the total population of each craft families, and other families, all county, and the total number of memaccording to the return of 1821, no bers that each county is to return. information of this sort being given in Wales, for want of any return relative the last return; number of agricultural to it respecting these matters is given males in the county; number of able (as to its population) in this Table withlabourers ; number of acres of land in out the distinctions just mentioned. the county to each of its able labourers ! VII. In order that no part of this In a table like this, containing such a most interesting and most memorable mass of hgures, it was next to impossi- change, made by the Reform-law, may ble to avoid, either in author or printer, be left without information relative to something in the way of error, and one, it, and that information may be always

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