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In France the Revolution is not yet completed : for although a Representative. Government is established, those who are entrusted with the exercise of that Government are considered by the People as desirous of destroying it. The attention of the People is, therefore, employed anxiously to watch over the Executive Government, and to defeat its efforts. I will add, that the improvements already derived from the Revolution in France are so great and so visible, that the People will never submit to see the ancien regime re-established.

In Spain we at present only see the beginning of a revolution ; but the seed is sown, and a Revolutionary Government will be established in that country. Probably Governments will be established in the Spanish Colonies of a character similar to that, which is about to be established in the mother country. This will be fortunate; for similitude of government will promote their intercourse and connection with each other. One circumstance will probably be an immediate consequence of a revolution in Spain. If the Spanish Government remains unaltered, Cuba must very soon belong either to the United States of America or to Great Britain. But if Revolutionary Governments are established in Old Spain and the Spanish Colonies on the Continent, Cuba may adopt a similar Government, and become a member of that confederacy. A revolution in Old Spain, if accompanied by the establishment of free Governments in her Colonies, will produce a most rapid improvement. Her agriculture, her manufactures,her commerce, and her naval power, will soon increase to such an extent as must give her great weight in the affairs of Europe. I have said her naval


for an unfettered intercourse between Old Spain and the Spanish Colonies will create a marine, equal to that which now exists in any other state in Europe.

I am not sufficiently acquainted with the state of Germany, or Italy, to be able to form any opinion how far it is probable, that a Revolutionary Government may be established in either of those two countries.

In Great Britain we have a Representa

tive Government. Some few abuses have been allowed to creep into it : correct those abuses, and Revolution will not take place. But if those abuses are not corrected, an Oligarchy will be established, which will fetter Royalty, humiliate Aristocracy, and trample on the People. Such an Oligarchy will be removeable only by Revolution.


On the Consequences of the Revolution in


Toulouse, March 14, 1820. An account has been this morning received in this city, that the King of Spain has accepted the Constitution declared by the Cortes in 1812. The circumstance must influence the happiness of many millions. I have already made some remarks on the probability of such an event: but now that the Revolution in Spain is complete, I am unavoidably led to extend


reflections. The first circumstance which will occur to every man is, that there is now a second revolution in Europe, brought about by the standing army of the country. For although the commercial cities and men of education were joined with the army in producing this Revolution, yet the army was certainly the most efficient instrument. Knowledge had spread itself in the Spanish army, and it rose to rescue its country from wretchedness and ignominy.

The first country in which we have seen a new Government established by Revolution is America. The obstinate perseverance of George III., in his endeavours to compel the inhabitants of the British Colonies to submit to a violation of their rights, has given birth to a new nation, called the United States of America. The Government established in this nation is without King, or Nobles, or political Church : and history does not afford us an example of any nation, in which the happiness of the inhabitants, or the prosperity of the whole, considered collectively, has been more rapidly increased. There were primary causes, which must at some moment or other have produced a change in the French Government : but the Revolution in America certainly accelerated the Revolution in France.

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