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they used before they were conquered. In our island, the Saxons extirpated or exterminated the Britons ; and therefore we have no British words left in our language. The Normans did not extirpate, and our language consequently a mixture of Saxon and French ; the Latin words being derived to us through the French. (Note 18.)

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I believe it will be found, that all the Revolutions in Asia and Africa, as well as in Europe, have been produced by conquest. What difference may be occasioned from the Revolutions in our days being produced by insurrections of the People, and not by conquest, I cannot say ; nor can I venture to form an opinion, on the probably consequences of the fall of the Roman Catholic Church ; for their wealth and power will fall together. The Bramin says, “ that sin came into the world by the confusion of casts.” I hope the motley race of inhabitants about to occupy so large a portion of America will not verify this opinion.

CHAP. XII.

On the British Possessions in India.

The India Company was

established solely with a view to trade ; and as the voyage to India was long, and supposed to be attended with great danger, an exclusive privilege of trading beyond the Cape of Good Hope was granted to the Company.

About the year 1740, the Mogul Em. pire fell to pieces, in consequence of the invasion of Nadir Shah, Kouli Khan. The different Governors, or Nabobs of Provinces, seized the Government of different districts. In the province of Arcot, or, as it is generally called, the Arcot Carnatic, the French India Company supported the claims of a native named Chunda Saheb, and soon discovered the inferiority of the native troops, when opposed to Europeans. The French ac

quired dominion rapidly ; this roused the jealousy of the English India Company. They set up claims on behalf of another native, called Mohammed Ali. After various success, the cause of Mohammed Ali prevailed.

About 1756, the English Factory in Bengal was plundered by Surajah Dowlah, the Nabob of that province; and the Europeans found in it treated with great cruelty. The British Troops, which had placed Mohammed Ali on the Throne of Arcot, were transported to Bengal ; Surajah Dowlah was defeated, and the Sovereignty of a large district seized by the India Company.

Much wealth was acquired for the Civil and Military Servants, as well as for the India Company, by this Conquest ; and from that hour, the desire of extending the Company's acquisitions in India, has never been relinquished.(Note19.)

It is said, that the India Company possesses Sovereignty over 80,000,000 of peo ple in India, and Revenue to the amount of 17,000,0001. sterling, a-year. Ceylon, the Isle of France, and the Cape of Good Hope, have been obtained as appendages necessary to the safety of their Indian Empire. A question naturally occurs, what benefit accrues to Great Britain from these Indian possessions ? They furnish neither army, nor navy, nor revenue, to be employed in Europe for the service of Great Britain : on the contrary, they require soldiers to be annually sent from Great Britain to India. Very commonly they require a navy, and sometimes even pecuniary assistance.

But it is said, that the wealth acquired by the civil and military servants is remitted to Great Britain, and has much contributed to give activity to improvements. I am not prepared absolutely to deny this assertion. To a certain extent, it

may be true; but I doubt whether this benefit has compensated the mischief introduced by our Indian acquisitions. When we see 80,000,000 of subjects at the distance of 10,000 miles, governed by twentyfour mercantile characters resident in Leadenhall Street, we are naturally led to

say, the Government of Empire cannot require so much skill as we common people generally believe. And the Board of Controul ingrafted on the Court of Directors must rather contribute to increase, than to diminish embarrassment. (Note 20.)

But the great advantage accruing from these Indian possessions, if it be an advantage—is patronage. Much of this patronage is disposed of by the Ministers of the Crown: some remains with the India Directors. When Jugurtha took his last view of Rome, he exclaimed: “ Vale venalis civitas, mox peritura si emptorem inveneris.” Is not the same exclamation applicable almost with equal truth to those who elect the House of Commons ? Is it not a fact that Members have sat in that House for seats purchased for them by an Indian Prince ?

Has it not been acknowledged publicly, that a Bengal writership was given by the Minister to one of his friends that he might sell it, and with the produce purchase a seat in the House of Commons ?

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