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Edinburgh Magazine,

OR

LITERARY MISCELLANY,

FOR

SEPTEMBER, 1789.

With a view of ELLIOCK, the Seat of Lord Elliock *.

Page

Page

Register of the Weather for Sep- for acting Private Plays.-By
tember,

R. Camberlard, Esq.

Present State of the Dispute be- Present State of the Spanish The-

tween those Chemists who sup- atre.-By M. Peyroni 185

port, and those who deny the Reflections on the Tragedy of

Doctrine of Phlogiston, 147 Mary Queen of Scots; 191

Account of the Life of Thonias Account of a remarkable Sleep-

Chufterton, with Criticisms on walker. From a Report made

his Genius and Writings, 153 to the Physical Society of Last-
Description of the Country be- fanne, by a Committee of Gen-

tween Quebec and Montreal, 158 Nemen appointed to examine

Description of Montreal, 163 him,

193

Curious Wardrobe Account of Reflections on the Custom of

Henry VIII. containing fome burying the Dead, and the
particularsrefpecting the Dref- Danger of precipitate Inter-
Tes in his Reign,

165

ment : By M. Durandi,
Account of the introduction of Anecdotes of Schroeter,

206

the Musical Drama into Eng- Anecdotes of the Pretender, La-

land, with some Stri&ures on dy Mary Toucbet, &c From

Mr Addifor's cenfure of the Memoirs and Anecdotes of

Italian Opera,

170

Philip Thicknefe,

208

A wonderful and tragical Rela- The Generosity of an Indian

tion of a Voyage from the In- Conqueror; a Tale: By the

dies. Ia a Letter to Mr D.

Abbé Dupin.

209

B. of London, Merchant, 177 Poetry.

213

Reidarks upon the Present Taste Monthly Register.

VOL. X. No. 57.

T

State

In the Crunty of Dumfries, near Drumlanrig. In this house was born the Ado
mirable Chricbton, whole Father, Chrichton of Elliock, was Lord Advocate of Scoto
Land in the reign of James VI.

198

Siate of the L'AROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's THER

MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sun-riz, and at noon ; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from the 3 11t of Augufi, 1789, to the 29th of Sept. near the foot of Arthur's Seat.

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58

52 51 54

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29.625
29:57
29:325
29.25
29.4.
29.5825
29.63
29.525
29.412
29.175
29.575
29.7625
29.9125
29.574
29.475
29.475
29.65
29.5
29.3125
29.11 25
29.5125
29.72

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0.06

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Clear.
Cloudy
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Ditto.
Small showers.
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Ditto.
Cloudy.
Ditto.
Rain.
Clear, small showers
Cloudy, sm. showers.
Clear.
Dicto.
Small Thowers.
Clear.
Small showers.
Rain.
Ditto.
Clear.
Cloudy, fm. showers.
Clear.
Rain.
Ditto.
Clear.
Rain.
Rain.
Clear.

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29.875 29.825 29.775 29.825 29.42 29.15 29.1

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Present State of the Dispute between these Chemists who fapport, and those who

deny, the Doctriviis; Phalvgilion *T was long known that metals ac- qual to 60 cubic inches, and absor

When cination ; that air was necessary to 2 grains of phosphorus were weigh-' the operation, that it was absorbed, ed, fome hours after it was burnt, it and that when the metals were revi- bad increased a grain in weight.” ved, they gave it out again. Ray, * Large matches made of linen Boyle, Hales &c. had observed this. rags, were dipped in melted brim

" That the fulphureous and acri- stone. The quantity of air which al particles of the fire, says Hales, was abforbed hy the burning match, are lodged in many of those bodies was 198 cubic inches, equal to roth which it acts upon, and thereby con- part of the whole air in the vessel.”. liderably augments their weight, is I made the same experiment in very evident in minium or red lead, a lesier vellel, which contained but which is observed to increase in 594 cubic inches of air, in which weight about oth part in undergo- 150 cubic inches were abforbed; ing the action of fire; the acquired i. e. full $th part of the whole air renat of the minium indicating the in the receiver." Exp. 103. Hales ahli ion of plenty of + fulphur in therefore had the same results from the speration : .for fulphur, as it is his experiments that we have; far found at molt vigorouily on light, we know that there is about of so it is apt to reflect the strongeit, pure air in atmofpheric air. viz. the red rays. And that there The same author found a lighted is good store of air added to the ini- candle under a receiver, abforb the Rium, I found by dillilling first 1922 air and then go out. He found that grains of lead, from whence I ostain the remaining air was infected, and ed only 7 cubic inches of air; but could not maintain combustion. from 1522 grains, which was a cu- “ The candlı, says he, cannot be bic inch of red lead, there arose in lighted again in this infected air by the like space of time 34 cubic in- a burning glass." Exp. 106. He ches of air.” Veg. Stat. Cap. 6. had likewise observed, as well as o

ther philofophers, that air was absorHales had also observed, that in bed in the process of refpiration. the combustion of sulphur, of phof- These experiments were known to paorus &c. there was an absorption all philofophers, and thus M. Lavoi. of air, a production of an acid, and fier explains himself with regard to an augmentation of weight. " Iwo them in his Opufcules p'shques et coy. grains of phosphorus, says he, Exp. wiques. “ Hales thewed that air 54. easily melted at some distance " contributed to the calcination of from the fire, flamed and filled the " metals, and maintained that to it Tetort with white fumes, it absorbed “ was owing the increased weight 3 cubic inches of air. A like quan. " of metallic calces. He likewise tity of phosphorus fired in a large “ observed that the phosphorus, or : receiver expanded into a space e- “ rather the pyrophorus of Hom.

berg, Continuation of Metherie's Retr

ve View. † The ancients understood by fulphur what Stahl afterwards caller the inflamma.. ble principle. But here Hales calls fulphur what Mayer names coufiican, and Scheele ske matter of beat.

Esp. 119:

T2

" berg, diminished the volume of “ mercurial precipitates I am talk, " the air in which it burned. He “ing of are not metallie calces ; or, ” concludes that the air of the at. " Jaftly, that there are calces which

mosphere enters into the compofi- may be reduced without the as. " tion of most bodies, and exists in “ fiftance of phlogiston.” “And a. “ them in a solid form, diverted of “ gain, “ The experiment: I have “its elasticity, and of the greater “ made oblige me to conclude, that

part of the properties we know it " in the mercurial calx in queltion, possesses ; that this air is in some “ the mercury owed its calciform measure the band of union in na- " llate, not to the loss of phlogiston, ture, that it is the cement of all “ which it did not suffer, but to its

bodies, the cause of hardness in " intimate combination with the e. “ fome, and of weight in others." « laftic Auid, the weight of wbich, Stahl, who was not acquaintedadded

" added to that of the mercury, is with the experiments of Hales, or

" the second cause of the augmenwho difregarded them, never speaks“ tation of weight observable in the of the action of air on the phenome. “ precipitates I have examined.” pa which the operations of chemill- It is this famous experiment which ry presented to him; he endeavour- tho’its author has not been acknow, ed to explain them all by his inflam- ledged, has served as the basis of the mable principle or phlogiston. reu doctrine. What M. Bayen af

Such was the fate of this branci firmed of mercury lias been extendo of science, when Venel, Black, Ca- ed to all the metals, to fulphur, to vendish, Priestly, &c. repeated the phosphorus, to charcoal, &c. viz. That experiments of Van Helmont, Boyle, their calciform late, or combustion, Hales &c. and fhewed that all bo- was not owing to the loss of phlodies contained a very great quanti- gitton which they did not suitain, ty of air, and that atmospheric air but to their combination with the was of prime importance in all the elastic fluid, (or pure air which operations of nature.

Priestly he wed could alone mainIt was then attempted to recon- tain combullion) the weight of which cile this new doctrine with that of being added to their own was the Stahl, and it was said that in the cal- cause of that augmentation of weight cination of metals, the combustion observed by Hales, and others in of fulphur, of phosphorus, &c. the in- metallic calces, and in the products flammable principle was disengaged, of the combustion of phosphorus or and air absorbed.

phosphoric acid, &c. Thus we may But M. Bayen afterwards redu- almost denoininate this doctrine the ced the calx of mercury, alone and System of M. Bayen. without charcoal, obtaining a quan. It could not be explained howe. tity of air, which Dr Priettly found ver by this hypothesis, whence came was pure air. 'An ounce of red pre- the infamnable air which was obcipitate gave, on different occalions, tained from a great number of a volume of elastic fuid equal to a. bustible bodies, such as, iron, zinc, bout 40 ounces of water, that is to &c. either by diffolving them in say, about 60 cubic inches of air. acids, or by expoling them in gun« These experiments, says he, throw barrels to fire, or by merely keeping .. light on the matter. I will no them in water, &c. Recourse was

longer hold the language of Stahl's had to another experiment. “ disciples, who will now either be M. Macquer having set fire to in“ forced to confine the doctrine of flammable air under a porcelaine Cpblogiston, or to confess that the dish, obtained a good deal of water.

com

I repeat;

I repeated the fame experiment with li was repied to this difficulty by
inflammable air, produced by fil. another experiment.
ings of Iteel well dried, and expo- Dr Black, in the year 1757, had
fed to a strong fire in a Imall mat. faid that all bodies have not the same
trass. I likewise obtażned a quanti- specific heat. Messrs Wilke, Wart,
ty of water, and concluded that the &c. supported the lame doctrine.
water was contained in the air. M. At last Crawford made some very
Cavendish drew another conclufion nice experiments to determine the
from the same experiment. He sup- specific heat of bodies. From these
posed that the water obtained was it appeared that pure air, of all the
a product of the combustion of the bodies that had been made the fub-
inflammable air and pure air, and ject of experiment, con ained the
that in general water is composed of greatest specific heat, being to water
these two airs.

as 87,000 to 1000. From that time the partifans of The defenders of the new docł. the new doctrine, adopting this lali rine profited by these experiments, hypothesis, explained, by the decom and affirmed that the heat and the potition of water, the origin of all fame given out by different combusthe inflammable air obtained from tible bodies, did not proceed from metals, from charcoal, &c. they like the bodies which pollefled oniya. wise profited by an experiment of fm ' quantity of specific or latent M. Wart, who had said that water heat, but were owing to pure air, could be decomposed by iron. Ac- the specific heat of which is fo concordingly they contrived to put wa- fiderable. A body does not burn ter into a tube of iron exposed to a except when in combination with white heat, and the inflammable air pure air. This air, lofing its aeri. ' obtained was owing, accorcing to form ftate, parts with the great quan.. them, to the decomposition of the tity of heat it contained, which bewater, the pure air of whicii uniting coming free, produces the heat and itself to the metal, calcined it. The the fame. iflammable air disengaged in the It is evident then that the whole solution of metals in acids proceeds of this new theory, is only an induclikewise, by this doctrine, from the tion drawn from four principal exdecomposition of water, &c. periments

Thus the hypothesis of M. Caven- 1. The absorption of air in the dih on the conttituent parts of air, combustion of bodies, the calcina-. coming to support the experiment of tion of metals, relpiration, &c. a cirM. Bayen, has been used to found cumitance observed by Kay, Bayle, a new doctrine.

Hales, &c. But there :ill remained a difficul- 2. The reduction of the calces of ty of some importance : for tho'mė. metals without addition of fubftan.. tals, fulphur, proptcrus, charcoal, ces, fontaining the inflammable prin&c. absorb pure air in their com- ciple; and aç the same time the difbuition and calcination, it did not engagement of air according to the follow that the principle, whatever experiment of M. Bayen. it was, which produced the flame 3. The specific heat of pure air, and the heat, might not be found in according to Crawford. these substances.

Therefore even 4. The composition of water, acthough they did not contain inflam- cording to Cavendish. mable air, they might be poffeffed All the other experiments brought of some other principle, which might in favour of this system, may be rebe the principle of indammability. duced to one of these four fundamen

tal

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