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r. The King can refufe his confent to the acts of the legislative body.-2. That retufal fhall not be indefinite, but fufpen five.-3. That fufpenfion fhall be limited to two legiflatures.-4. And the duration of each legislature shall be for two years only.

Thus the term of the refusal of the King's Royal fanction is, after a long and violent difcuffion, finally limited to two legiflatures. The refolution is expreffed in the following words, on the motion of the Prefident of the National Affembly: "The fufpenfive refufal of the King fhall not ceafe till after the fecond legislature to that which proposes the law.”

This motion was carried by a majority of 516, the numbers being 724 against 208. By this it is understood, that the King's negative to any law fhall continue for two Affemblies (that is, four years); but if the third Affembly fhall pafs the law, then the King's negative ccafes. Sept. 18. The great queftion on the unity or divifion of the Affembly was determined: For the Affembly's remaining in one chamber,

849
89

For its divifion,
Neuter,

122

This decifion almost annihilates the powers of the nobility and clergy, as the Third Eftate, or Commons, will be able to out vote them in every queftion.

The determination of the three grand articles of the conftitution, viz. the permanency of the National Affembly, the forming one Houfe, and the King's fufpenfive veto, has produced a calm in the hemifphere of 'politics, fuch as has not been experienced for many weeks.

The following is the fubftance of the King's meflage to the National Affembly, which they refused to read:

"That, to fpare any further time being loft on this deliberation, his Majefty thought fit to acquaint the members, that a fufpending negative was all that was requifite to carry on the government, and in fact the bounds of his wifhes."

Paris, Sept. 19. Since the roth inft. when the Royal fanction was determined, the Affembly has decided on no one point of the new conftitution, except the hereditary fucceffion of the Crown, though the country groans under the most villainous defpotifm, for want of energy in the executive government.

On the 15th, the queftion of the fuc-ceffion to the Crown came into debate; and although every perfon was of the

fame opinion, that the Crown' fhould be hereditary in the reigning family," yet the laft words of this article, on being more amply difcuffed the next day, were confidered as feeming to annul the treaty of Utrecht, by which the King of Spain renounces for ever, for himself and his defcendants, the fucceffion to the Crown of France, for the heirs of the Crown of Spain being diftant branches of the reigning family, it might be inferred that the article framed in this manner, renewed their pretenfions, in cafe of default of heirs-male in the moft proximate branches. The Duke of Orleans would also be particularly affected by such a decree, for being only next in relationship to the heirs of the Crown of Spain, his pretenfions would be annulled, if the article in the treaty of Utrecht, excluding the Crown of Spain, was not in full force.

On the 16th inft. therefore, it was propofed by M. Cazales, and fupported by many other members, that in order to put an end to the debates on this subject, which was a moft delicate point to touch on, it would be the most convenient, "That in cafe of default of male and legitimate children in the Houfe of Bourbon, the care of chufing a fucceffor fhould be left to a National Convention of the States General.'

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Anfwer of the King.

Sept. 18. M. Clermont de Tonnerre acquainted the Affembly, that he had received from his Majefly a memorial, containing obfervations on certain articles decreed by the National Affembly.

The King commences by obferving, that many of the articles, prefented to him to fanction, are only the text of laws upon which they ought to occupy themfelves; that, in approving the general fpirit of thefe refolutions, there were yet feveral of them to which he could give only his affent provifionally; and that, however, he would qualify his opinions, or even renounce them altogether, if, upon confideration, the Affembly should perfevere in their firft refolutions.

The King then recapitulates the different articles tranfmitted to him, and accompanies them with observations more or lefs detailed, as the object appeared to his

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his council more or lefs interefting. Art. 1. Suppreffion of the feudal fyftem.

The King approves of the fuppreffion of mortmain, contained in this article, but that it would be very unjuft to deprive the proprietors of the personal fervices without any indemnity. That, in regard to the feudal rights, he chearfully adopted the difpofition that declared them to be recoverable, provided the recovery was made in an equitable manner, but that the extinction of the right of fines would be prejudicial to the State, as the lords would re-unite to their eftates all the neighbouring manors, and it was well known that vaft eftates were peculiarly hurtful to the commonweal.

2. Suppreffion of the pigeon-houses. The King adopts this article without modification.

3. Suppreffion of the game laws. The King approves the difpofition of this article, and has given orders to stop all profecutions, and to release from punifhment all thofe convicted of treipaifing against thefe laws, but recommends to the Afflembly to take care, that this right of hunting, fhall not be the means of increafing the carrying of arms.

4. Suppreffion of feignorial tribunals. The King will also approve of this as foon as the Affembly shall have made known to him the new organization for the judicial power.

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5. Suppreffion of tythes.

If the common good (fays the King) is to depend upon juftice, I think that, upon this occafion, it is effential to reflect upon this unlimited fuppreffion.' He accepts, with the moft lively acknowledgements, the facrifices made by the Nobleffe and Clergy, although he obferves, that they may not have reflected on the numerical extent of the tythes of France, which are from fixty to eighty millions a-year. That the proprietors of the lands would alone profit from the munificence, each in proportion to the extent of his Jands; that merchants, traders, and all thofe who had no property in lands, would not profit from this liberality; that many perfons would gain thirty millions of annual revenue by this fuppreffion, without reafon; that, perhaps, it would be more effential in the prefent derangement of the finances, to convert this fuppreffion to the affiftance of the. State; that it was incumbent on them to inquire if the income of the Clergy, when deprived, would be fufficient to the fupport of the church, and to its indif

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7. Suppreffion of the fale of offices. The King approves this article, provided that they give affurance that the judges, who shall be fubftituted in the room of thofe who now exercife the functions, fhall be worthy of his confidence, and of that of his people. His Majefty adds, that, if the judges are henceforward to be paid by new contributions, fuch an inftitution would opprefs the people; and that the fuppreffion of the Tale of offices includes that of revenal rights, which form a confiderable part of the public revenue.

8. Suppreffion of the casual rights of rector.

9. Suppreffion of privileges refpecting fubfidies.

The King approves these two articles. 10. Suppreffion of the privileges of the provinces.

The King approves, provided it meets with no oppofition from the privileged provinces.

11. Admissibility of citizens to all offi

ces.

His Majefty approves this, and wishes all his fubjects indifcriminately fhould fill thofe places wherein they can serve the State; he will fee, with pleasure, merit afpiring to employment.

12. Suppreffion of the firft-fruits. The right belongs to the Court of Rome, in confequence of treaties, contracts, and acts paffed between Sovereigns; neither of the parties can be deprived of their rights unheard; but the wifh of the National Affembly fhall induce the King to negociate the matter with the Court of Rome.

13. Suppreffion of the firft-fruits of livings, &c.

The King obferves that these rights cannot be fuppreffed without indemnity: if those and the tythes are fuppreffed, the Clergy cannot contribute proportions to the revenue.

14. Suppreffion of a plurality of bencfices.

The King affents to this article. 15. Examination of Court-penfions. The King pledges himfelt not to object to the examination, required by the National Affembly, of those penfions; but he is of opinion fuch an inquifition

might occafion alarms; he, therefore, propofes to the Affembly to examine, if a reduction, founded on general principles, would not be preferable.

As to the decree, relative to the exportation and importation of grain, his Majefty promifes his fanction, but obferves, that, while the prefent fermentation reigns throughout the kingdom, it would be a want of difcretion to put a law of that nature in force with feverity. The King concludes his difcourfe by recommending to the National Affembly to think feriously of the impofts: adding, that he had already several times requefted them to take into confideration this important object; but that his requeft had not yet been complied with."

Our readers will anticipate the reception of this memorial. If the Clergy and the Nobility gave mark of approbation when M. de Clermont Tonnerre read it, the Commons, who juftly dread its confequences, fhewed far other difpofitions. The first motion was for its being immediately printed and diftributed throughout the provinces, which motion was received with approbation.

The public converfation is wholly engaged on his Majefty's anfwer to the decrees of the National Affembly on the 4th of Auguft, and following days; To the Ariftocratic party, it is a matter of great exultation, while the Oppofition, who are fiied, The Party of the Palais Royal, and by fome, The BloodHounds of Hell, murmur extremely at it, and threaten an infurrection of the friends to liberty.

The Ariftocratic party has gained much ground within thefe very few days. Several of the oppofite leaders, who had the greatest weight among their own party, both for talents and judgment, feem leaning towards the King, and now fupport his meafures, if not by an open avowal, at leaft by a tacit compliance. Of thefe we may reckon the Count de Clermont Tonnerre, Meffieurs Maury, Cazales, Mounier. Thourer, &.It was thefe gentlemen who used to temperate the propofitions of the very violent patriots, without, however, facrificing the caufe of the people.

On the 19th, the Prefident of the National Affembly was deputed to his Majefty, to entreat him to take the refolutions of the 4th of Auguft again into his confideration.

After waiting three hours and an half, the Prefident returned with this short anfwer:

"Come to me again to-morrow evering."

M. de Gouy Arcy called the attention of the Affembly from this fubject to a topic more preffing and more afflictive. He faid they had loft much time, not lefs perhaps than fix weeks, in difcuffing incidental motions, while there were terrible truths which ought not to be concealed, and which they ought to meet like men. The ftorm was ready to burft on their heads, and it would be criminal to be filent.

The public treasure was the foul of the State; and as the ceffation of the palpitations of the heart indicated the death of the human body, fo the want of money announced the political death of a nation.

The fecond loan, he faid, had not been more fuccefsful than the first-The bankers in France, the banks of Amfterdam, Geneva, and Hamburgh, were not difpofed to lend their money, because they confidered the loan merely as a palliative, and thought wifely that fuch a momentary expedient would ferve only to accumulate the burden of the nation; that as yet there had been no more than ten millions of the loan brought into the public treasury; that on the 1st of October the public payments would cease, and a bankruptcy was inevitable.

The Duke d'Aguillon, Prefident of the committee of finances, declared that it was without authority that M. de Gouy, although a member of the committee, had publifhed the alarming tidings; that his account was perhaps exaggerated, and that certainly the committee had not information before them to ground fuch a declaration as he had made. He moved, that two days in the week might be fet apart for difcuffing the fubject of the finances; which was agreed to.

Sept. 21. His Majesty's final answer to the fecond petition of the National Affembly was given on Sunday evening to the Prefident, who waited on the King according to appointment. The anfwer was fhort, and contained in the following words:

His Majefty permits the decrees of the 4th of Auguft to be published.”

To give a proper idea how far thefe refolutions are likely to be attended with benefit, we fhall quote the words of a very elegant speaker in the National Affembly, as delivered on Friday laft, when the fubject was under debate.

The Vicomte de Mirabeau.

We muft

count.

must confess that our decrees of the 4th which it was threatened on this acof Auguft were made with too much hafte, and have not been properly digefted. We have thrown every thing out of its fyftem-we cannot even make the old materials ferve for the conftruction of a new edifice :-we have yet done nothing which can serve as the smallest benefit to the State.'

He began by observing, that the nances were at this present moment in the greatest embarraffment: That the fums iffued on account of the importa tion of corn had occafioned a balance of trade against the State, to the amount of fifty millions of livres; that the retreat of foreigners, and the emigration of opu lent citizens, had created a scarcity of money; and that the diftruft infpired by the flownefs of the proceedings of the National Affembly, had occafioned the concealment of immenfe fums.

24. The National Affembly, after a fhort debate on the different articles, proceeded, yefterday, unanimoufly to decree the following articles of the confli

tution.

1. All powers flow effentially from, and can only emanate from, the nation.. 2. The legislative power refides in the National Affembly, compofed of the reprefentatives of the nation freely and legally elected.

3. No act of the legislative body fhall be deemed law, unlefs confented to by the reprefentatives of the nation, and fanctioned by the King.

4. The fupreme executive power refides in the hands of the King.

5. The judicial power can in no cafe be exercised by the King, nor by the legiflative body; but justice shall be rendered in the name of the King, by the tribunals established by the law, according to the principles of the conftitution.

The Compte de Mirabeau then brought forward his former motion refpecting the regency, infifting that this was the place to introduce it-It is as follows, The regency can be held and exercised only by a man born in France.'

The nobles and clergy filenced him by the loudeft and moft tumultuous cries; but he infifted on bringing it on this day. It is needlefs to obferve, that this is indeed an important queftion, as it excludes at once the Spanish branch and Madame Maria Antoinette of Auftria.

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This distrust, he added, had prevented foreigners from fubfcribing to the laft loan. It was therefore effentially neceffary that this auguft body fhould take into their moft ferious confideration the greatness of the prefent evil, its urgency, and the approaching diforders with which the kingdom was menaced.

At the opening of the National Af fembly, M. Neckar faid, the public revenue was confiderably more than at this moment, as feveral of the provinces have made refolutions not to pay certain duties. The deficit was then 6 millions. There must now be added fix millions more, making the total of the deficit 62 millions. They must find mean, to extinguish this deficiency.

He propofed the means of warding off the public calamities, with retrenchments to be made on the war department, the Royal Stud, the King's eftablishment, the establishment of the Princes of the Blood, the penfions, &c. which, when added together, will amount to about 64 millions, and form a proper counterpoife to the deficit.

As to extraordinaries, M. Neckar obferved, that 70 millions of livres were wanting for the present year; for the enfuing 80 millions, and that in fine, they could not go on without a fum total of from 150 to 160 millions.

To obtain this fum, M. Neckar propofed, that on all the inhabitants of the kingdom, a tax fhould be laid, not of a hundredth part of their landed property, because then life-annuitants and placemen would be excluded, but of a net fourth of their revenue.

As to the actual circumstances of the State, M. Neckar faid, they could not be more alarming. That the King had directed the officers of the Mint to receive all plate and trinkets, and to pay 54 livres in fix months without intereff,

or

or to give 58 livres of the new loan, if they would convert the price. That the Caifle d'Efcompte fhould be erected into a national bank, by appropriating funds which fhould be a fufficient fecurity to those who should trust their money to it. That above all, the National Affembly fhould agree to the two edicts on the public taxes.

In fine, after fome feafonable rebuke on the flowness of their proceedings, M. Neckar propofed

1. To ceafe from all other difcuffions until the great fubject of the finances fhould be concluded. 2. To confider immediately of a temporary contribution, to relieve them from their prefent diftrefs. 3. To order the payment of all 4. To authorife the Caiffe d'Efcompte to affift the State. 5. To employ every poffible means to give the executive power its old and requifite e

the taxes.

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Royal Patriotifm.

The King, deeply affected by the exhaufted ftate of the finances, has facrificed his plate to the neceffities of the State. It is eftimated to produce 1,500,ooo livres. A small fum, indeed!-but rather given as an example for others to follow.

The Queen has made a fimilar facri

fice.

At ten o'clock this morning, this evermemorable contribution, which will refound through Europe, and alike exalt and establish the fame and the credit of France, was fent from Verfailles to the Mint, at Paris!

The National Affembly, affected by this ftriking and almoft unexampled act of patriotism and benevolence, deeming it unfit to fuffer the King to ftrip himfelf of his perfonal poffeffions for the relief of the State, at the moment when

the nation is affembled, ordered its Prefident to intreat the King, that his intended facrifice might be abandoned.

M. de Clermont Tunnerre, having difcharged his miffion, addressed the ALfembly thus:

GENTLEMEN,

Purfuant to the orders of the National Affembly, I have had the honour of expreffing to his Majefty the wish of the Affembly, and its extreme affliction on the personal facrifice his Majesty propofes to make, by contigning his plate to the Mint. To this the King replied.'

'Those sentiments of the National Assembly afflict me ftrongly. I perfift in the refolution which the example of my people has infpired, and which the fcarcity of the circulating coin has dictated. Neither the Queen nor I attach any importance to thefe facrifices.'

A great number of the nobility, &c. following the example of the Sovereign, have fent in their plate for the use of the public. The Nuns of the convent of the Ballechafce have alfo fent in their plate. The Marquis de Montalambert has fent a cabinet of antique me-' dals, which has taken thirty years to complete, to be fold for the public ufe. Many individuals of both fexes have alfo fent prefents of jewels, plate, &c. M. Berthier, who has fix children, has fent 49 gold plates and 40 medals, with a note fignifying that he fhould blush to ufe plate, when his Sovereign has fet the example of melting his own.

The number of contributions daily increafe; and now that their Majefties have made a facrifice of their plate and jewels, it is held infamous to make use of either. Every thing of mere luxury is devoted to the public, and we have no doubt, but in the course of this week, an immenfe fum will be brought into the public treafury. A public auction of jewels, trinkets, and other valuables, will be announced, and foreigners coming to purchase will be protected on the faith of the nation.

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