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Rome's idolatry, they take offence at all Chriftian religion; by which it appeared that Rome is the greateft enemy of the Jews converfion.
nor build houfes; but live in tents, and often remove from one place to another, with their family, bag and baggage. And feeing I find that, by the Italian tongue, I can converse with the Jews or any other nation, in all the parts of the world where I have been, if God give me an opportunity, I fhall willingly attend their next council. The good Lord profper it. Amen.
For the place of the Jews next meeting, it is probable it will be in Syria, in which country I alfo was, and did there converfe with the fect of the Rechabites living in Syria; they till obferve their old customs and rules, they neither fow nor plant,
A comparative View of Sweden and Denmark, and of the Perfons and Manners of their respective Inhabitants.
HE ftrait of the Sound feparates
centuries, the Swedes were of a much
than they are at pre
inhabitants of which countries are certainly defcended from the fame origin, they live under the fame climate, and they speak the fame language; but there are circumftances which form a striking contraft, not only between the two countries, but between the people that inhabit them.
'On digging, in July 1764, in the church-yard of the old cloister of Wreta, there were found, at the depth of two yards, feveral ftone coffins containing human bones of an astonishing fize. Upon digging further there was discovered, in a fine white fand at the depth of
In Denmark the hills are small, the ground even but ftony, the woods of fmall extent, the plains immenfe, the lakes fmall, and there are no ri-four yards, a perfect skeleton well vers; the habits of the men are long, preferved, about eight feet long. and red is the prevailing colour. In When the foundations of the tower Sweden nothing is to be feen but at Linkioping were laid, two fkemountains, rocks, vallies, forests, vastletons of the fame fize were discolakes, and great rivers; the cloathsvered, one of which had the imare worn short, and their colour is preflion of a deep wound in the blue. fkull.
The bones contained in the
The Swede is of an active, firm make; he is lively, induftrious, gay, ftone coffin of king Inge Halftanand affable. The Dane, whofe fi-ons, in the church of Wreta, are gure is not so fiender, is more flug-nearly of the fame dimensions, and gifh, he is fond of reft, does not la- history says, that the kings Stenbour with the fame activity, his hu-kilfon and Ragwald Knaphofding mour is more flegmatic and ferious, were ftill taller than he. They his temperament is cold, but he is lived in the beginning of the 14th conftant in friendship, though he does' century. Skeletons of the fame not fo readily form connections. fize are often found in old church Some of the literati of the country yards when they dig deep.' maintain, that in the 11th and 12th
The different dialects of their language
446 Voyage en Suede, &c.'-By a Dutch Officer.
fent; in proof of which, the following facts are recorded in the Memoirs of their academy.
guage are characteristic of the different genius of the two nations; both of them pronounce with a finging tone, but the Swede fings quicker, ends many words with vowels, particularly with a, as in fome provinces boka a book, hista a horse, baka a mountain; accenting quickly and accutely the laft fyllable, while the former was pronounced grave. But the Dane has a flow pronounciation, fomewhat guttural, and he terminates many words in confonants, as book, heft, baken: fo that two Swedes fpeaking together infpire gaity, while the lugubrious accents of two Danes, affect thofe with melancholy who do not understand their language.
The Danish and Swedish women are handfome, amiable, and well educated; they are in general fair, with a delicate complexion, blue eyes and fine hair but the Swedish women have the most animated look, a more expreffive countenance, a more elegant hape, and they are more fprightly: the Danish ladies are apt to grow fat and languid. I imagine the former are more amorous, and the latter more fufceptible of tenderneis and attachment. In Denmark, the women of the middling and lower ranks are exceedingly fond of drefs, and facrifice every thing to their apparel, which is generally compofed of various colours, the red always predominant, In Sweden, women of every ftation go veiled; even the country girls, when
they are labouring in the fields, never want a veil of black crape; and this is neceffary to defend their eyes against the fplendour of the fnow, during their long winters; and against the reverberation of the fun's rays from the rocks, during their long days in fummer.
The Swedes differ lefs from their original progenitors than the Danes. Many ftrangers come to fettle among thefe lait, either attracted by the nature of their government, or by that of their poffeffions: these frangers become naturalized in the country, and in the towns; many noble and plebeian families, many perfons employed in the political and military lines, many artificers and artists are foreigners, efpecially Germans; while in Sweden, except a very few families, all are Swedes or of Swedish extraction. By the tenth article of the new conftitution,
No foreigner of whatever rank or condition,' (though he were a prince) can hold any office political, civil, or military; nor can he enjoy any poft, except at court.' Both nations love the fciences and polite literature, and have diftinguithed themfelves in both. The Swedes reckon many learned men, who not only have acquired and ftill maintain a diftinguifhed place among their countrymen, but who have at the fame time obtained the admiration and efteem,of all Europe. Who has not heard of Linnæus †; of Bergmann; of Celfius; of Menanderhielm;
*The inhabitants of Smoland are thought to be the people who have departed leaft from the manners and appearance of their ancestors the Goths. They contract no marriages out of their own parish, or at least out of the province, and from time immemorial no inhabitant of any other province has fettled in this; accordingly the people here, have the reputation of being the talleft and moft robuft in all Sweden.
+1 expected to have found at Upfal, fays our traveller, fome monument of the veneration which the Swedes pay to the memory of the late Linnæus; but I was difappointed. I asked my guide where the tomb of that great man was; the tomb? faid he, he has none, he was buried fomewhere in this church, but I don't know in what place:' upon which he and I went to fearch for the spot; we read
to other countries, and enrich their own at their return, with the knowledge they have acquired of new laws, and the mainers of other nations. Both are distinguisbed by an eafy and frank politenefs; but the Danish nobles do not poffefs the fame fpirit of hofpitality, that relict of primitive times, which the Swedish nobility pique thenfelves on perpetuating t.
of Wargentin; of de Geer, the Reaumur of Sweden; and of the learned historiographer Lagerbring. The Danes on the other hand have to boast of Tycho-Brahé; of Roemer; of Gafpard Bartholin; of Simon Pauli; of Wormius; of Holberg, and of feveral others: permit me likewife to add to this catalogue four men, as diftinguished for their private worth as for their extenfive learning, who now do honour to Copenhagen; M. de Kratzenftein rector of the univerfity and profeffor of experimental philofophy; de Suhm the chamberlain; de Trefcauw profelor of Divinity; and Kalifchen profeffor of anatomy.
A great part of the Swedish as well as of the Danifh nobility, after having received at home an excellent preliminary education, travel
The royal Swedish regiment in the fervice of France, gives an opportunity to the youth of going abroad for fome time. Those who are deftined for the military, but ef pecially for the marine department, are obliged to enter into the fervice of fome foreign power, before they can expect advancement in their own country; by this practice, those who have ambition, and that in general they
all the infcriptions we could find on the pavement; at laft we difcovered a stone half hid by a bench, on which was engraven, Hic jacet Linneus Profeffor, &c. without any diftinguifhing mark, or appropriate infcription, but in every thing like the ftones laid over a common citizen; I confefs, I was a little hurt at it. Luckily faid I, the monument he has erected to himself by his works are imperishable, and will endure, when the hardest marble that ought to have formed his ftatue shall have crumbled into clay."
The following is an extract of a letter F received in February 1789, from the learned and worthy profeffor de Trefcauw.
It is to M. de Suhm that we are indebted for the most accurate accounts we have with regard to the hiftory of Denmark. This learned man has a perfect acquaintance with the ancient languages, and his induftry in hiftorical researches is incredible. He has published fourteen volumes in 4to. chiefly on the hiftory of the North, viz. One on the origin of nations in general: One on the origin of the northern nations: One on Odin and the mythology of the northern nations: Two on the migration of the northern nations: Four on the critical history of Denmark: Four on the hiftory of Denmark, with tables in folio,-and One, containing hiftorical collections relative to the Danish history.
It is a pity that thefe works are not tranflated. As the author does not enter upon the Norwegian hiftory, Schionning, another hiftorian equally respectable, has publifhed that hiftory, in three vols. 4to. As he was a Norwegian and deeply acquainted with its hiflory, proofs of which he has given in the new edition of the hiftory of Snorro in Latin, and in his work on the ancient geography of Norway, nothing can be more compleat than this work; but a tranflation is wanted. To fupply this want, Meffrs. Gehhardi and Christiani have published a work, or rather two works on the hiftory of Denmark, of Norway, and of the Dutchies of Slefwig and Holftein, in feveral volumes in 4to. and 8vo. in which they have profited by the performances of de Suhm and Schionning.
+It is a general cufiom in Sweden, efpecially in the northern provinces, that the great lords have apartments in their caftles and country feats, which are deftined for the reception of fuch travellers as are recommended to them; thefe they occupy even in the abfence of the lord, and then a domeftic called Verwalter takes care of them, and provides them with every thing necellary either for maintenance or accommodation.
they all have, acquire an inclination for inftruction, and for being one day useful to their country.
The Danish military feldom go to ferve abroad; but the officers of the marine are very much encouraged to enter for fome time into foreign fervice, and there are always fome of them either in the English or Ruffian navy, and fome of them even go on board of merchant ships.
The king of Sweden, from time to time, fends young artifts to Rome or to Paris, in order to ftudy the mafter pieces of painting and fculpture, both ancient and modern, that are to be feen there. Many of them make great proficiency; but as the arts do not meet with the fame encouragement in Sweden as in Denmark, they have not yet made fuch progrefs in the former kingdom, notwithstanding the natural aptitude of the Swedes to excel. The Danes have an hiftorical painter*, whofe performances might be put in competition with those of a Weft or of a Pierre. The court has bestowed on him an annual penfion of 1000 crowns, for which he is engaged to produce, every year on the king's birth day, a painting of fome memorable incident in the Danish history. As thefe pictures are finished, they are hung up in the magnificent hall, called the Knight's hall, which was defigned and executed by a French architect named Desjardins. The king has allowed Juel, a celebrated portrait painter, to establish himself in the castle. As he keeps a copy of every portrait, his hall is hung with thofe of a number of people of both fexes, and of every rank, and I have never seen more striking likeneffes. A ftranger may there by anticipation, on Lavater's principles, become acquainted with the different members that compofe the beft company at Copenhagen. A landfcape painter (Pauliffen) is now tra
velling at the expence of the Prince Royal, through the most picturesque regions of Norway, Denmark, and Jutland. This young man, who studied his art among the mountains of Switzerland, and in the environs of Rome, and who paints with much fire, is commiffioned to make a collection of paintings from the most ftriking views he meets with in his tour, for the ornament of a faloon in the caftle. Profeffor Hoyer, fecre. tary to the academy of painting, fculpture, and architecture, is a miniature painter of first-rate merit; he excels in the elegance of his compofition and in the delicacy of his pencil. Preifler the engraver is celebrated for his judgment, and for the expreflion of his pieces. Two fculptors and ftatuaries, the profeffors Wiedefelt and Stanley, have diftinguifhed themfelves, the former for the accuracy of his contours, the other for the richness and fire of his compofitions; both have cultivated their talte among the antiquities of Greece and of Italy, and by the fludy of the finest modern works in France. The court finds them conftant employment. A violin player called Lemm, is a favourite at Copenhagen, and I am told by perfons who have heard him at Rome, that he was there very much applauded.
All the artists I have now mentioned are Danes by birth, and undoubtedly do honour to their country by their talents, the cultivation of which they owe to the munificence of the government, which furnifhed them with the means of perfecting themselves in foreign countries.
There are many excellent artificers in Sweden, in all kinds of trades and manufactures; tho' they would be still more excellent, if they had not a thousand obftacles to combat. Their chequed cloth, the way they prepare their leather, the manufac Profeffor Abelgaard.
ture of gloves, their œconomical mofity and jealousy that reign be furnaces, and many other works, are tween the two nations, the Swedish fufficient proofs of their induftry handicraftsmen and manufacturers are and activity. Some manufactures in much encouraged in Denmark; they Denmark exceed theirs, particular- are found intelligent, ingenious, and ly those of cloth, of filk, of printed indefatigable, and thofe Danes who linen, and hats. fet on foot any enterprife, do them the juftice to prefer them to their own countrymen, I faw a little colony from Scania, to the number of forty or fifty perfons, fettled on the eftate of a friend of mine, and who were employed in clearing it. Treble the number of Danes were working befide them. I obferved that the moft difficult operations, those that required the greatest attention, and which it was neceffary to abandon to the kill of the labourer, were always given to the Swedes, by the infpector, who was a native of Holftein. At reaping time too, the Swedes were preferred. In the felling and cutting of wood, the Danish forefter employed his own countrymen as little as poffible, and I was convinced that he did right. A Swede fometimes performed as much' as three Danes. What furprifed me ftill more was, that as foon as the evening bell announced the ceffation of labour, the Swedes repaired to their mofs-clad earthen huts, with their wives and children, where, as a relief from their toil, they danced either to the found of a violin they had among them, or to the finging of their wives or their daughters, a ball that was repeated every evening when the weather permitted; while the worn-out Danes retired either to drink brandy, or went to bed. At a little rural feaft that was given by my friend, the Scanians would not mingle with the reft; they retired to a corner of the field, where they diverted themselves in their own way. The Danish mufic and dancing were too languid for them. They preferred their own quick steps and fprightly airs.
In the fpring feafon, many Swedes
The Swedish peafant, vigorous, active, and induftrious,reaps the fruits of his labours for himself and his family, after deducting the tenths and his rent. If he is obliged to per'form fome fervices for which he gets no return, he confoles himself with the thought, that he is a member of a body which forms the fourth order in the state, and that he has a vote in the government of his country. This idea gives an energy to his difpofition which is wanting in Denmark. There, on the contrary, the ftate of the peafant is little diftant from lavery, he is chained to the foil which he labours for his lord, and is bound to perform fervices which are unfpeakably grievous, and thus feems the moft miferable of beings. This ftate of fervitude, joined to his natural indolence, gives him an air of humiliation, which his neighbour on the other fide of the Sound is totally free from.
Hitherto, no one has followed the example of the late Count Bernstorf, (who a few years ago gave his peafants their freedom) notwithstanding the quadruple products of his lands, and the prefent wealth of thofe very pealants, who were formerly as poor and miferable as their neighbours. To perpetuate the memory of their benefactor, they have, laft year, erected to his honour, a magnificent monument of Norwegian marble, executed by the profeffor of sculpture Wiedefelt. This monument, on which there is an infcription in letters of gold, is placed in one of the Count's freed eftates, about a league from Copenhagen, by the fide of the great road that leads to Elfineur. Notwithstanding the ancient ani