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between the great powers in the North and East of Europe, was commenced too late in the year for the production of any considerable military operation; those immediate caufes which accelerated that event will accordingly be the introduction to the narrative of their inutual hoftilities in our next volume. Other matters have, for the present, necessarily given way to those of greater importance, and will form an article of future retrospect.

Our domestic affairs have not been less carefully attended to, as we hope the discussion of the commercial treaty with France, and other subjects of national importance, will fufficiently testify.

We have been informed by a gentleman not long arrived from Italy, of some mifrepresentation and exaggeration of circumstances, in the account of the new cemetery near Florence, given in our last volume. We have ever embraced with pleasure every occasion that offered of bestowe ing due praise upon the excellent government of the Grand Duke; and are too deeply impressed with a regard for the humanity and beneficence of his character, to suffer any thing derogatory from it to appear without concern ; and this we testified in the passage alluded to, although we could not refufe ftating facts which seemed perfectly authenticated. We are not, however, ignorant that some of his reforms have, as well as the cemetery, been the cause of much diffatisfaction and complaint among his subjects; and that even his admirable code of penal law, notwithstanding the philanthropy and beneficence that breathe through every part of it, has not been received without disike and censure, and has even been productive of much distress to individuals; a consequence perhaps which no system of general reform, hastily adopted, can ever be entirely free from.

With respect to the matter in question, if we have been imposed upon in the accounts which we received of the cemetery, we are not singular in the imposition ; for an English gentleman, whose poetical and literary talents are well known, and who was immediately upon the spot, published a very severe satire upon the subject, from which it is evi. dent, that it appeared to him in the same light that it was afterwards represented to us.




For the YEAR 1787

Τ. Η Ε



E U R O P E.


сH A Р. 1. Mediation of France and Pruffia in the affairs of Holland. Recfons for

doubting the success of that mediation confirmed by the event. Negociations carried on at Nimeguen and the Hague. Conditions laid dozun by the States of Holland as the basis of an accommodation with the Stadtholder.

Causes which rendered these propofitions inadmisible.' M. de Ragneval suddenly brecks off thè negociation and returns to Paris. Court de Gocriz receives a letter of recal, and returns to Berlin. Viclent animasity and mutual recrimination of the contending parties on the failure of the negociotion. The new forn of government, established in the city of Utrecht, confidered as a model of perfection by the democratical party in other places. Difficult situation and temporizing .conduct of the States of Holland, with respect to the prevalent democratic spirit. Sudden and unaccountable changes in the political conduct and principles of the party in opposition to the Stadtholder displayed in various places. States of Friesland fird waver, and then, from being among the foremost in opposition, appear decidedly in favour of the Prince. M. de Rendorp changes fides in Amsterdam, and carries over a majority of the senate along with him. Immediate consequences of this change ; great alarm spread by it among the republican party. Means pursued by the leaders to remedy the defeation of Amsterdam. Procure addresses from several towns, with a viero of gain

ing thereby a decided majority of votes in the offembly of provincial states: Vol. XXIX.


Failing in this attempt, they propóse in the assembly a resolution to suspetid the Prince of Orange from bis remaining high offices of fadtholder and admiral.general. Foiled likewise in this, they endeavour to increaje ibe number of votes in the provincial assembly, by affording a right of repreJentation to several new towns; in which they are also defeated. Eftimate of the comparative Arength and numbers of the contending parties. Retrospeet of the meajurés pursued by Holland, for supporting the city of Utrecht in its contumacious opposition to the fates of the province. Unexpected re

volution in the assembly of the states of Holland, who, following the example of Amsterdam, adopt measures evidently favourable to the Stadt. bolder's interests. General confternation and critical fituation of the republican party. Defeated in all their late attempts ; with now a great majority of the provinces, and a greater of the people decidedly against them. Bold and hazardous measures become acts of prudence. Obkged 10 throw themselves upon the democratical party for support, and to call in the armed burgbers to new model and fetile t be ftate and constitution. These furround the senate-houses of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, purge them of those members who were adruerse to their designs, place all power in the hands of their own party, and establish a determined majority in the states of Holland. These prepare to affij Utrecht by force of arms against the Pro. vincial States. States general, wbo had hitherto preserved a striet neutrality, now take a decided part in oppofing the defign of Holland to support Utrecht by force of arms. Council of flate isue an order ftrially forbidding, the officers in the service of Holland from marching their troops into tbe territories of any other province. Prohibition confirmed by the States general. Reply from the plates of Holland. First blood drawn in a skirmis at Jutphaas, a village near Utrecht. States of Holland order iroops to the succour of Utrecht. Propose a test to their officers. A great ma. jority refuse the test; are fufpended and new ones appointed. Suspended officers taken into the protection of the States general, and their pay con. tinued. Manifesto published by the Stadtholder, amounting nearly to a dea claration of war against the ruling party in the province of Holland. Riots at Amsterdam. States general isue an order to general Van Reyfel, to break up the cordon or line of troops formed on the frontiers of Holland. Counter orders from the states of Holland. Colonel Balneavis carries off the regiment which he lately commanded himself, with a battalion of anether, from the fortress of Oudewater to the Stadtholder. This example causes a general revolt in the troops of Holland. URING the adverse tide of in any degree tend to prevent those

affairs which was setting in very irksome and dangerous conso strongly against the interests of sequences, which the present state the stadtholder, in the United Pro. of things and the violence of the vinces, towards the close of the year republican party could not other1786, his brother-in-law, the new wise, fail to produce. For the atking of Prasia, was unceasing in tainment of this purpose he shewed his endeavours to promote all such himself disposed to try any means measures of conciliation as could in however unpromising, and to coin

cide with any interests however dif- the greatest cordiality, immediately cordant, that afforded even a posil- appointed M. de Rayneval (who bility of success. Perhaps he thought had already acquired some confider. it necessary, at the opening of a new able credit in negociation, particureign, to hold out such instances of larly in concluding the late treaty moderation, justice, and a desire of of commerce with England) to be preserving the general tranquillity, the French king's representative in as might serve to secure the opi- the office of mediation, and so hear: nions of mankind in his favour, and ty did that court appear in the busito prepare them for that future de- nefs, that the French minister ar: cision which he foresaw would be rived at the Hague before the end inevitable. Perhaps likewise the of November 1786, where he was character of his predecessor, or the to act in concert with the Baron de public impression founded on it, Goertz, the extraordinary, and M. might not have been without its Thulemeyer; the resident minister effect in regulating his conduct up- of Pruffia, in endeavouring to acon this occasion.

complish the desired settlement. As the offer of his joint-media

But fair as these appearances tion with Great Britain had been were, it was little hoped by those flighted by the adverse faction (their who looked closely into the state mutual connections with the stadt- and nature of things, that this ne. holder, and avowed predilection for gociation should produce the effect his interests, affording no small apparently fought by one mediator; room for objecting to their arbitra- and eagerly wished by the other. tion) he endeavoured to remove They could not bring themselves to this impediment, by proposing that believe that France, who they knew France, the avowed friend and to be not only the nurse, protectress; close ally of the republic, hould, and encourager of the adverse face along with himself, undertake the tion, but to have been the prime kind office, but arduous task, of set. fomenter and inftigator of all their tling and composing the differences violences, should now at once unby which it was distracted. The do the effects of all her former craft season of the year was favourable, and labour, by becoming the inas the near approach of winter must ftrument of restoring the prince of necessarily restrain the active vio- Orange to any thing near that fare lence of the contending parties, af- of weight and power which he be. ford leisure for mediation, and, as 'fore held in the republic. This men's minds cooled by inaction, they would have been to sacrifice her would become more placable, and own immediate interefts to the gra. be the better disposed to liften to tification of the king of Pruffia, to the voice of conciliation.

abandon one of the longest and The proposal being communi. dearest objects of her policy, to miss cated by the Prussian minister to the only opportunity that had ever the court of Versailles, was receiv- offered of her establishing a supreme ed in such a manner, as fcemed and permanent controul in the af. flattering to the king's discernment fairs of the republic, and for ever in adopting the project. That court to lose, without benefit or effect, embracing it with every mark of all that gold which she had for



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feveral years so unsparingly bestow. ed little less than trusted to the cat ed in supporting her influence in of a die. She seemed of late to adopo Holland, and in feeding the con- a fairer policy, and to be studious tention. This was a source of ex- of establishing a different character ; pence fo abundantly supplied, that but if the relapsed now, it would a writer who appears to have pos- have a worse effect than merely, feffed very unusual sources of in- overthrowing what she had hitherto formation, and more than a com- done for that purpose. mon share of political acumen, On the other hand, it could fcarcehas ventured to asert, that one half ly be supposed, that the king of of the money thas expended, if it Prussia would sacrifice the interests had been properly applied in the of the stadtholder fo far, as to adAtadtholder's court, would have pro- mit of those great concellions, which duced an influence there, infinitely could alone answer the views of more beneficial in advancing and France, or afford any satisfaction to establishing her purposes, than any the high republicans. All concefthing she derived or could derive fions merely palliating would unfrom the services of the republican doubtedly be agreed to : some limi. leaders on whom it was bestowed *. tations perhaps admitted, in order

It was argued, that such a coinci- to prevent any encroachment of the dence on the part of France, with executive power upon the other ore the views of the king of Prussia, ders of the state and government; would not merely be a dereliction and every thing that tended to a of the cause and party which she had perfect oblivion of all that was past, so long espoused, but a scandalous to the conciliation of parties, to act of treachery. She had led them the security, and even gratification into a course of violent and inde- of the adverse faction, would cerfenfible measures, and consequently tainly have been granted with a involved them in circumstances of good grace and a willing mind. great danger ; and now to abandon But it was not to be conceived from them in the instant of their warmeft any part of the king of Prussia's hopes, when the object of their conduct which had yet appeared, long and mutual pursuit seemed much less from any due consideranearly within reach, would shock tion of the close ties of affinity and the feelings of all mankind, and ap- policy, which únited the two fami. pear as foolish as it would infamous, lies, that he would ever consent to, The crooked policy which she had or indeed suffer, except through in.

ursued for some ages, by which evitable necessity, the abridgement The became considered as the com- in any essential degree of those mon disturber of the tranquillity of rights, which, by the general voice Europe, and as facrificing all faith of the nation, and the universal conand principle to her own advantage, currence of all the parts and orders of had been the means of involving the commonwealth, had, in the year her in the greatest difficulties, and 1749, been annexed to the office of most dangerous fituations, so that Atadtholder, and rendered hereditaher very existence at one time seem- ry in the family, # See Introduction to the History of the Dutch Republic, &c. p. 272.

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