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Rod. You would not bawl so loud then.

Jal. Come, come, let's go
To bed : he told us thus much aforehand.
Pes. He wished you should not come at him; but,

believe 't,
The accent of the voice sounds not in jest :
I'll down to him, howsoever, and with engines
Force ope the doors.

[Exit abore. Rod. Let's follow him aloof, And note how the Cardinal will laugh at him.

[Exeunt, abore, MALATESTI, RODERIGO,

and GRISOLAX. Bos. There's for you first, 'Cause you shall not unbarricade the door To let in rescue.

[Kills the Servant.
Card. What cause hast thou to pursue my life?
Bos. Look there.
Card. Antonio !

Bos. Slain by my hand unwittingly.
Pray, and be sudden: when thou kill'dst thy sister,
Thou took'st from Justice her most equal balance,
And left her naught but her sword.

Card. Oh, mercy!

Bos. Now it seems thy greatness was only outward;
For thou fall’st faster of thyself than calamity
Can drive thee. I'll not waste longer time; there!

[Stabs him. Card. Thou hast hurt me. Bos. Again!

Stabs him again.
Card. Shall I die like a leveret,
Without any assistance?-Help, help, help!
I am slain!

Ferd. The alarum! give me a fresh horse ;
Rally the vaunt-guard, or the day is lost.
Yield, yield! I give you the honour of arms,
Shake my sword over you; will you yield ?

Card. Help me; I am your brother!

Ferd. The devil!
My brother fight upon the adverse party!

[He wounds the Cardinal, and, in the scuffle,

gives Bosola his death-wound. There flies your ransom.

Card. Oh, justice!
I suffer now for what hath former bin :
Sorrow is held the eldest child of sin.

Ferd. Now you 're brave fellows. Cæsar's fortune was harder than Pompey's; Cæsar died in the arms of prosperity, Pompey at the feet of disgrace. You both die in the field. The pain 's nothing: pain many times is taken away with the apprehension of greater, as the toothache with the sight of the barber that comes to pull it out: there 's philosophy



Enter Cardinal, with a book.
Card. I am puzzled in a question about hell:
He says, in hell there's one material fire,
And yet it shall not burn all men alike.
lay him by. How tedious is a guilty conscience !
When I look into the fish-ponds in my garden,
Jethinks I see a thing armed with a rake,
That seems to strike at me.
Enter Bosola, and Servant bearing Antonio's body.

Now, art thou come ?
Thou look’st ghastly :
There sits in thy face some great determination
Mixed with some fear.

Bos. Thus it lightens into action :
I am come to kill thee.

('ard. Ha!-Help! our guard !

Bos. Thou art deceived ; They are out of thy howling.

Card. Hold; and I will faithfully divide Revenues with thee.

Bos. Thy prayers and proffers Are both unseasonable.

Card. Raise the watch! we are betray'd !

Bos. I have confined your flight:
I'll suffer your retreat to Julia's chamber,
But no further.

Card. Help! we are betrayed !
Enter, above, Pescara, MALATESTI, RODERIGO, and Grisolas.

Mal. Listen.
Card. My dukedom for rescue!
Rod. Fie upon his counterfeiting!
Hal. Why, 'tis not the Cardinal.

Rod. Yes, yes, 'tis he:
But I'll see him hanged ere I'll go down to him.

Card. Here's a plot upon me; I am assaulted! I am lost, l'nless some rescue!

Gris. He doth this pretty well;
But it will not serve to laugh me out of mine honour.

Card. The sword 's at my throat !

for you.

Bos. Now my revenge is perfect.-Sink, thou main cause

(Kills FERDINAND. Of my undoing! – The last part of my life Hath done me best service.

Ferd. Give me some wet hay; I am broken-winded.
I do account this world but a dog-kennel:
I will vault credit and affect high pleasures
Beyond death.

Bos. He seems to come to himself,
Now he's so near the bottom.

Ferd. My sister, O my sister! there's the cause on't. Whether we fall by ambition, blood, or lust, Like diamonds, we are cut with our own dust. Dies

Card. Thou hast thy payment too.

represented England and Spain. White wins, for the White Knight (Charles, Prince of Wales) takes the Black Knight (the Conde de Gondomar) by discovery, and checkmates the Black King. Gondomar complained of the bringing of high personages, including the King of England and the King of Spain, by allegory upon the stage, and of the frequent insults to Spain throughout the play. The Privy Council took proceedings, and the play was suppressed; but no severe measures were taken with dramatist or actors, for they had duly obtained the licence of the Master of the Revels, and they represented the strong feeiing of England.

There remain two dramatists of high mark-Philip Massinger and John Ford--who wrote in the reign of James, and produced some of their best plays in the time of Charles the First, which we have next to illustrate.?

let me


Bos. Yes, I hold my weary soul in my teeth ;
'Tis ready to part from me. I do glory
That thou, which stood’st like a huge pyramid
Begun upon a large and ample base,
Shalt end in a little point, a kind of nothing.

Pes. How now, my lord !
Mal. Oh, sad disaster!
Rod. How comes this?

Bos. Revenge for the Duchess of Malfi murder'd
By the Arragonian brethren ; for Antonio
Slain by this hand; for lustful Julia
Poisoned by this man; and lastly for myself,
That was an actor in the main of all
Much 'gainst mine own good nature, yet i' the end

Pes. How now, my lord !

Card. Look to my brother :
He gave us these large wounds, as we were struggling
Here i' the rushes. And now,


pray, Be laid by and never thought of.

[Dies. Pes. How fatally, it seems, he did withstand His own rescue!

Mal. Thou wretched thing of blood,
How came Antonio by his death?

Bos. In a mist; I know not how :
Such a mistake as I have often seen
In a play. Oh, I am gone!
We are only like dead walls or vaulted graves,
That, ruined, yield no echo. Fare you well.
It may be pain, but no harm, to me to die
In so good a quarrel. Oh, this gloomy world!
In what a shadow, or deep pit of darkness,
Doth womanish and fearful mankind live!
Let worthy minds ne'er stagger in distrust
To suffer death or shame for what is just :
Mine is another voyage.

Pes. The noble Delio, as I came to the palace,
Told me of Antonio's being here, and showed me
A pretty gentleman, his son and heir.

Enter Delio, and Antonio's Son. Mal. Oh, sir, you come too late!

Delio. I heard so, and Was armed for 't, ere I came. Let us make noble use Of this great ruin; and join all our force To establish this young hopeful gentleman In's mother's right. These wretched eminent things Leave no more fame behind 'em, than should one Fall in a frost, and leave his print in snow; As soon as the sun shines, it ever melts, Both form and matter. I have ever thought Nature doth nothing so great for great men As when she's pleas'd to make them lords of truth: Integrity of life is Fame's best friend, Which nobly, beyond death, shall crown the end. (Exeunt.

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In August, 1624, the Spanish Ambassador, Count Gondomar, protested against an English play by Thomas Middleton, which had been acted in June that summer, and expressed England's delight at the failure of the Spanish marriage. The play was called “A Game of Chess.” White and Black in the play


A.D. 1625 TO A.D. 1660. Philip MASSINGER was about nineteen years old at the time of the death of Queen Elizabeth, and had not long passed forty when King James I. died.

The number of plays that can be given in this volume beans, course, a very small proportion to the whole wealth of the English drama. There are dramatists of second rank, like William Alesanler, Earl of Stirling, who produced four “Monarcbic Tragedies" in law

1 Rushes formerly strewn on the floor of halls and rooms.

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Massinger was about ten years older than James “ The Duke of Milan," in 1623. No other plays by Shirley, the last of the good dramatists born under Massinger were printed in the reign of James I., Elizabeth. He was about ten years younger than and the earliest work of his printed under Charles I. Ben Jonson, who still lived, with broken health, and was “ The Roman Actor,” in 1629. ranked as master poet, during the first twelve years Massinger shows in “The Roman Actor” respect of the reign of Charles I. Ben Jonson died in 1637, for his art as a dramatist, and hatred of tyranny in the year in which Milton wrote “ Lycidas ;" Francis its most absolute form, personified by Domitian. But Beaumont had died in the same year as Shakespeare his plays contain frequent traces of political opinions, (1616); John Fletcher died in the same year as and it is evident that Massinger was much less King James (1625); John Ford was only about distinctly than his fellow-dramatists upon the king's two years younger than Massinger. We look next, side when Charles I. came into contest with his therefore, to Massinger and Ford.

Parliament. In 1638, when ship-money was in question, Massinger produced a play—now lost-called “King and Subject,” on the story of Don Pedro the Cruel. From this piece one allusion has been quoted with the record that King Charles at Newmarket, with his own hand, wrote upon it, “ This is too insolent, and to be changed.” Said the king in the play,

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From the Portrait in Coxeter's Edition of his Plays (1761).

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Philip Massinger, son of Arthur Massinger, a gentleman of the household of the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton, near Salisbury, was well educated, and entered as a commoner of St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, in May, 1602. Antony Wood says that his exhibition was from the Earl of Pembroke, and that he gave his mind more to poetry and romance, for about four years or more, than to logic and philosophy, which he ought to have studied, as he was patronised to that end. He left Oxford without a degree about the year 1606, when, perhaps by the death of his father, he seems to have been thrown upon his own resources. An undated document, perhaps of 1614, showx Massinger to have been poor and a playwright when it was written. His first printed play was * The Virgin Martyr," in 1622. Then followed

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FRANCE. (Copied by permission from Fergusson's " History of Architecture," 1835.)

1906, and 1605; occasional plays written by true poets, like Samuel Daniel's " Pbilotas," printed in 1605; and single plays of considerable literary interest, like " The Return from Parnassus," acted at Christmes by the students of St. John's College, Cambridge, and printed in lean, whicb the limits of this book oblige me to pass over. The book 3 Divt history, but a series of specimens, with no more narrative than is necessary to explain coherently when and by whom each prece was written. Readers who desire fuller details may receive mach help from Professor A. W. Ward's two volumes of "A History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen Anne" (Macmullan, 1875), an interesting and very serviceable book, based evidently apoo honest independent reading of the works described.

Æsop. What do we act to-day?

Lat. Agave's frenzy,
With Pentheus' bloody end.

Par. It skills not what ;
The times are dull, and all that we receive

Will hardly satisfy the day's expense.
The Greeks, to whom we owe the first invention
Both of the buskined scene and humble sock,
That reign in every noble family,
Declaim against us; and our theatre,
Great Pompey's work,' that hath given full delight
Both to the ear and eye of fifty thousand
Spectators in one day, as if it were
Some unknown desert, or great Rome unpeopled,
Is quite forsaken.

2 Lict. And there to answer What shall be urged against you.

Par. We obey you. Nay, droop not, fellows; innocence should be bold. We, that have personated in the scene The ancient heroes and the falls of princes, With loud applause; being to act ourselves, Must do it with undaunted confidence. Whate'er our sentence be, think 'tis in sport : And, though condemned, let 's hear it without sorrow, As if we were to live again to-morrow.

1 Lict. 'Tis spoken like yourself.

Pleasures of worse natures, Latinus says, are gladly entertained. The most censorious of the Roman gentry will pay lavishly to buy their shame.


Par. Yet grudge us,
That with delight join profit, and endeavour
To build their minds up fair, and on the stage
Decipher to the life what honours wait
On good and glorious actions, and the shame
That treads upon the heels of vice, the salary
Of six sestertii.?

Esop. For the profit, Paris,
And mercenary gain, they are things beneath us;
Since, while you hold your grace and power with Cæsar,
We, from your bounty, find a large supply,
Nor can one thought of want ever approach us.

Par. Our aim is glory, and to leave our names To aftertime.

Lat. And, would they give us leave,
There ends all our ambition.

Esop. We have enemies,
And great ones too, I fear. 'Tis given out lately,
The consul Aretinus, Cæsar's spy,
Said at his table, ere a month expired,
For being galled in our last comedy,
He'd silence us for ever.

Par. I expect
No favour from him ; my strong Aventine 3 is
That great Domitian, whom we oft have cheer'd
'In his most sullen moods, will once return,
Who can repair with ease the consul's ruins.

Lat. 'Tis frequent in the city, he hath subdued
The Caiti and the Daci, and, ere long,
The second time will enter Rome in triumph.

Enter Ælius LAMIA, JUnits Rusticus, and PALPHURITS

Sura. Lam. Whither


Paris :
1 Lict. He's cited to the senate.

Lat. I am glad the state is
So free from matters of more weight and trouble,
That it has vacant time to look on us.

Par. That reverend place, in which the affairs of kings
And provinces were determined, to descend
To the censure of a bitter word or jest
Dropped from a poet's pen! Peace to your lordships!
We are glad that you are safe.

(Exeunt Lictors, Paris, Latints, and Esoprs
Lam. What times are these!
To what's Rome fallen! may we, being alone,
Speak our thoughts freely of the prince and state,
And not fear the informer?

Rust. Noble Lamia,
So dangerous the age is, and such bad acts
Are practised everywhere, we hardly sleep,
Nay, cannot dream with safety. All our actions
Are called in question ; to be nobly born
Is now a crime ; and to deserve too well,
Held capital treason. Sons accuse their fathers,
Fathers their sons; and, but to win a smile
From one in grace at court, our chastest matrons
Make shipwreck of their honours. To be virtuous
Is to be guilty. They are only safe
That know to soothe the prince's appetite,
And serve his lusts.

Sura. Tis true, and 'tis my wonder,
That two sons of so different a nature
Should spring from good Vespasian. We had a Titus,
Styled, justly, “ the Delight of all Mankind,"
Who did esteem that day lost in his life,
In which some one or other tasted not
Of his magnificent bounties. One that had
A ready tear when he was forc'd to sign
The death of an offender: and so far
From pride, that he disdain'd not the converse
Even of the poorest Roman.

Lam. Yet his brother,
Domitian, that now sways the power of things,
Is so inclined to blood, that no day passes
In which some are not fastened to the hook,
Or thrown down from the Gemonies. His freedmen
Scorn the nobility, and he himself,
As if he were not made of flesh and blood,
Forgets he is a man.


Enter two Lictors. Par. Jove hasten it! With us ?-I now believe The consul's threats, Æsopus.

1 Lict. You are summoned To appear to-day in senate.

1 Pompey's Theatre in the Campus Martius was the first stone theatre built in Rome. There had been wooden theatres, and one built B.C. 59, a few years before Pompey's, would hold 80,000 persons, and had 3,000 statues between its pillars. Pompey overcame the objection to stone theatres by making the benches of his lead up as steps to a temple of Venus Victorious. The opening of Pompey's Theatre, which would hold 40,000 persons, was celebrated by combats of beasts in which 500 lions and twenty elephants were killed. When in this theatre the play of “Clytemnestra" was acted, six hundred mules were introduced to give pomp to the show. The Flavian Amphitheatre, called afterwards the Coliseum, was begun by Ves. pasian and completed in Domitian's reign.

* The salary of six sestertii. Sestertius meant two and a-half, and was the name of a small silver coin, equivalent to two and a half of the copper coins called arres, and to about twopence in Englislı money. Six sestertii would, therefore, mean about a shilling.

s Aventine, one of the seven hills of Rome. “My strong Aventine," the strong rock I build on.

* The Gemonies. “Gemoning" in Latin is that which is associated with sighs and groans. The Gemouies, or “gemonix scale," were steps on the Aventine Hill to which bodies of exeruted criminals were dragged by hooks to be thrown into the Tiber flowing below.

Was fired with the relation of your story :
I am rewarded in the act, and happy
In that my project prospered.

The husband enters, and the wife is taken from him by a centurion and soldiers, who are at the bidding of Parthenius.

Rust. In his young years
He showed what he would be when grown to ripeness :
His greatest pleasure was, being a child,
With a sharp-pointed bodkin to kill flies,
Whose rooms now men supply. For his escape
In the Vitellian war, he raised a temple
To Jupiter, and proudly placed his figure
In the bosom of the god : and, in his edicts,
He does not blush, or start, to style himself
(As if the name of emperor were base)
Great Lord and God Domitian.

Sura. I have letters
He's on his way to Rome, and purposes
To enter with all glory. The flattering senate
Decrees him divine honours; and to cross it
Were death with studied torments:—for my part,
I will obey the time; it is in vain
To strive against the torrent.

Rust. Let's to the curia,
And, though unwillingly, give our suffrages
Before we are compelled.

Lam. And since we cannot
With safety use the active, let's make use of
The passive fortitude, with this assurance,

That the state, sick in him, the gods to friend, - Though at the worst, will now begin to mend. [Exeunt.


The scene then changes to the house of the Senator Ælius Lamia, whose fair wife, Domitia, the emperor has marked out for his own. Domitian's freedman, Parthenius, visits her on his master's errand.

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A ROMAN COUPLE. From a Statue in the Justinian Gallery, Rome.

Enter Domitia and PARTHENIUS.
Dom. To me this reverence !

Parth. I pay it, lady,
As a debt due to her that's Cæsar's mistress :
For understand with joy, he that commands
All that the sun gives warmth to, is your servant;
Be not amazed, but fit you to your fortunes.
Think upon state and greatness, and the honours
That wait upon Augusta, for that name,
Ere long, comes to you :-still you doubt your vassal –

[Presents a letter.
But, when you've read this letter, writ and signed
With his imperial hand, you will be freed
From fear and jealousy; and, I beseech you,
When all the beauties of the earth bow to you,
And senators shall take it for an honour,
As I do now, to kiss these happy feet ;

When every smile you give is a preferment,
And you dispose of provinces to your creatures ;
Think on Parthenius.

Dom. Rise. I am transported,
And hardly dare believe what is assured here.
The means, my good Parthenius, that wrought Cæsar,
Our god on earth, to cast an eye of favour
l'pon his humble handmaid?

Parth. What, but your beauty ?
When nature framed you for her masterpiece,
As the pure abstract of all rese in woman,
She had no other ends but to design you
To the most eminent place. I will not say
(For it would smell of arrogance, to insinuate
The service I have done you) with what zeal
I oft have made relation of your virtues,
Or how I've sung your goodness, or how Cæsar

Lam. Can you, Domitia, Consent to this?

Dom. 'Twould argue a base mind
To live a servant, when I may command.
I now am Cæsar's: and yet, in respect
I once was yours, when you come to the palace,
Provided you deserve it in your service,
You shall find me your good mistress. Wait me, Parthenius ;
And now farewell, poor Lamia. [Exeunt all but LAMIA.

Lam. To the gods
I bend my knees (for tyranny hath banished
Justice from men), and as they would deserve
Their altars, and our vows, humbly invoke them,
That this my ravished wife may prove as fatal
To proud Domitian, and her embraces
Afford him, in the end, as little joy,
As wanton Helen brought to him of Troy!

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