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Rod. You would not bawl so loud then.
Jal. Come, come, let's go
[Exit abore. Rod. Let's follow him aloof, And note how the Cardinal will laugh at him.
[Exeunt, abore, MALATESTI, RODERIGO,
and GRISOLAX. Bos. There's for you first, 'Cause you shall not unbarricade the door To let in rescue.
[Kills the Servant.
Bos. Slain by my hand unwittingly.
Card. Oh, mercy!
Bos. Now it seems thy greatness was only outward;
[Stabs him. Card. Thou hast hurt me. Bos. Again!
Stabs him again.
Card. Help me; I am your brother!
Ferd. The devil!
[He wounds the Cardinal, and, in the scuffle,
gives Bosola his death-wound. There flies your ransom.
Card. Oh, justice!
Ferd. Now you 're brave fellows. Cæsar's fortune was harder than Pompey's; Cæsar died in the arms of prosperity, Pompey at the feet of disgrace. You both die in the field. The pain 's nothing: pain many times is taken away with the apprehension of greater, as the toothache with the sight of the barber that comes to pull it out: there 's philosophy
Enter Cardinal, with a book.
Now, art thou come ?
Bos. Thus it lightens into action :
('ard. Ha!-Help! our guard !
Bos. Thou art deceived ; They are out of thy howling.
Card. Hold; and I will faithfully divide Revenues with thee.
Bos. Thy prayers and proffers Are both unseasonable.
Card. Raise the watch! we are betray'd !
Bos. I have confined your flight:
Card. Help! we are betrayed !
Rod. Yes, yes, 'tis he:
Card. Here's a plot upon me; I am assaulted! I am lost, l'nless some rescue!
Gris. He doth this pretty well;
Card. The sword 's at my throat !
Bos. Now my revenge is perfect.-Sink, thou main cause
(Kills FERDINAND. Of my undoing! – The last part of my life Hath done me best service.
Ferd. Give me some wet hay; I am broken-winded.
Bos. He seems to come to himself,
Ferd. My sister, O my sister! there's the cause on't. Whether we fall by ambition, blood, or lust, Like diamonds, we are cut with our own dust. Dies
Card. Thou hast thy payment too.
represented England and Spain. White wins, for the White Knight (Charles, Prince of Wales) takes the Black Knight (the Conde de Gondomar) by discovery, and checkmates the Black King. Gondomar complained of the bringing of high personages, including the King of England and the King of Spain, by allegory upon the stage, and of the frequent insults to Spain throughout the play. The Privy Council took proceedings, and the play was suppressed; but no severe measures were taken with dramatist or actors, for they had duly obtained the licence of the Master of the Revels, and they represented the strong feeiing of England.
There remain two dramatists of high mark-Philip Massinger and John Ford--who wrote in the reign of James, and produced some of their best plays in the time of Charles the First, which we have next to illustrate.?
Bos. Yes, I hold my weary soul in my teeth ;
Pes. How now, my lord !
Bos. Revenge for the Duchess of Malfi murder'd
Pes. How now, my lord !
Card. Look to my brother :
pray, Be laid by and never thought of.
[Dies. Pes. How fatally, it seems, he did withstand His own rescue!
Mal. Thou wretched thing of blood,
Bos. In a mist; I know not how :
Enter Delio, and Antonio's Son. Mal. Oh, sir, you come too late!
Delio. I heard so, and Was armed for 't, ere I came. Let us make noble use Of this great ruin; and join all our force To establish this young hopeful gentleman In's mother's right. These wretched eminent things Leave no more fame behind 'em, than should one Fall in a frost, and leave his print in snow; As soon as the sun shines, it ever melts, Both form and matter. I have ever thought Nature doth nothing so great for great men As when she's pleas'd to make them lords of truth: Integrity of life is Fame's best friend, Which nobly, beyond death, shall crown the end. (Exeunt.
In August, 1624, the Spanish Ambassador, Count Gondomar, protested against an English play by Thomas Middleton, which had been acted in June that summer, and expressed England's delight at the failure of the Spanish marriage. The play was called “A Game of Chess.” White and Black in the play
CHAPTER VII. UNDER CHARLES I. AND THE COMMONWEALTH. —
A.D. 1625 TO A.D. 1660. Philip MASSINGER was about nineteen years old at the time of the death of Queen Elizabeth, and had not long passed forty when King James I. died.
The number of plays that can be given in this volume beans, course, a very small proportion to the whole wealth of the English drama. There are dramatists of second rank, like William Alesanler, Earl of Stirling, who produced four “Monarcbic Tragedies" in law
1 Rushes formerly strewn on the floor of halls and rooms.
Massinger was about ten years older than James “ The Duke of Milan," in 1623. No other plays by Shirley, the last of the good dramatists born under Massinger were printed in the reign of James I., Elizabeth. He was about ten years younger than and the earliest work of his printed under Charles I. Ben Jonson, who still lived, with broken health, and was “ The Roman Actor,” in 1629. ranked as master poet, during the first twelve years Massinger shows in “The Roman Actor” respect of the reign of Charles I. Ben Jonson died in 1637, for his art as a dramatist, and hatred of tyranny in the year in which Milton wrote “ Lycidas ;" Francis its most absolute form, personified by Domitian. But Beaumont had died in the same year as Shakespeare his plays contain frequent traces of political opinions, (1616); John Fletcher died in the same year as and it is evident that Massinger was much less King James (1625); John Ford was only about distinctly than his fellow-dramatists upon the king's two years younger than Massinger. We look next, side when Charles I. came into contest with his therefore, to Massinger and Ford.
Parliament. In 1638, when ship-money was in question, Massinger produced a play—now lost-called “King and Subject,” on the story of Don Pedro the Cruel. From this piece one allusion has been quoted with the record that King Charles at Newmarket, with his own hand, wrote upon it, “ This is too insolent, and to be changed.” Said the king in the play,
Philip Massinger, son of Arthur Massinger, a gentleman of the household of the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton, near Salisbury, was well educated, and entered as a commoner of St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, in May, 1602. Antony Wood says that his exhibition was from the Earl of Pembroke, and that he gave his mind more to poetry and romance, for about four years or more, than to logic and philosophy, which he ought to have studied, as he was patronised to that end. He left Oxford without a degree about the year 1606, when, perhaps by the death of his father, he seems to have been thrown upon his own resources. An undated document, perhaps of 1614, showx Massinger to have been poor and a playwright when it was written. His first printed play was * The Virgin Martyr," in 1622. Then followed
REMAINS OF A ROMAN THEATRE AT ORANGE IN THE SOUTH Or
FRANCE. (Copied by permission from Fergusson's " History of Architecture," 1835.)
1906, and 1605; occasional plays written by true poets, like Samuel Daniel's " Pbilotas," printed in 1605; and single plays of considerable literary interest, like " The Return from Parnassus," acted at Christmes by the students of St. John's College, Cambridge, and printed in lean, whicb the limits of this book oblige me to pass over. The book 3 Divt history, but a series of specimens, with no more narrative than is necessary to explain coherently when and by whom each prece was written. Readers who desire fuller details may receive mach help from Professor A. W. Ward's two volumes of "A History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen Anne" (Macmullan, 1875), an interesting and very serviceable book, based evidently apoo honest independent reading of the works described.
Æsop. What do we act to-day?
Lat. Agave's frenzy,
Par. It skills not what ;
Will hardly satisfy the day's expense.
2 Lict. And there to answer What shall be urged against you.
Par. We obey you. Nay, droop not, fellows; innocence should be bold. We, that have personated in the scene The ancient heroes and the falls of princes, With loud applause; being to act ourselves, Must do it with undaunted confidence. Whate'er our sentence be, think 'tis in sport : And, though condemned, let 's hear it without sorrow, As if we were to live again to-morrow.
1 Lict. 'Tis spoken like yourself.
Pleasures of worse natures, Latinus says, are gladly entertained. The most censorious of the Roman gentry will pay lavishly to buy their shame.
Par. Yet grudge us,
Esop. For the profit, Paris,
Par. Our aim is glory, and to leave our names To aftertime.
Lat. And, would they give us leave,
Esop. We have enemies,
Par. I expect
Lat. 'Tis frequent in the city, he hath subdued
Enter Ælius LAMIA, JUnits Rusticus, and PALPHURITS
Sura. Lam. Whither
Lat. I am glad the state is
Par. That reverend place, in which the affairs of kings
(Exeunt Lictors, Paris, Latints, and Esoprs
Rust. Noble Lamia,
Sura. Tis true, and 'tis my wonder,
Lam. Yet his brother,
Enter two Lictors. Par. Jove hasten it! With us ?-I now believe The consul's threats, Æsopus.
1 Lict. You are summoned To appear to-day in senate.
1 Pompey's Theatre in the Campus Martius was the first stone theatre built in Rome. There had been wooden theatres, and one built B.C. 59, a few years before Pompey's, would hold 80,000 persons, and had 3,000 statues between its pillars. Pompey overcame the objection to stone theatres by making the benches of his lead up as steps to a temple of Venus Victorious. The opening of Pompey's Theatre, which would hold 40,000 persons, was celebrated by combats of beasts in which 500 lions and twenty elephants were killed. When in this theatre the play of “Clytemnestra" was acted, six hundred mules were introduced to give pomp to the show. The Flavian Amphitheatre, called afterwards the Coliseum, was begun by Ves. pasian and completed in Domitian's reign.
* The salary of six sestertii. Sestertius meant two and a-half, and was the name of a small silver coin, equivalent to two and a half of the copper coins called arres, and to about twopence in Englislı money. Six sestertii would, therefore, mean about a shilling.
s Aventine, one of the seven hills of Rome. “My strong Aventine," the strong rock I build on.
* The Gemonies. “Gemoning" in Latin is that which is associated with sighs and groans. The Gemouies, or “gemonix scale," were steps on the Aventine Hill to which bodies of exeruted criminals were dragged by hooks to be thrown into the Tiber flowing below.
Was fired with the relation of your story :
The husband enters, and the wife is taken from him by a centurion and soldiers, who are at the bidding of Parthenius.
Rust. In his young years
Sura. I have letters
Rust. Let's to the curia,
Lam. And since we cannot
That the state, sick in him, the gods to friend, - Though at the worst, will now begin to mend. [Exeunt.
The scene then changes to the house of the Senator Ælius Lamia, whose fair wife, Domitia, the emperor has marked out for his own. Domitian's freedman, Parthenius, visits her on his master's errand.
A ROMAN COUPLE. From a Statue in the Justinian Gallery, Rome.
Enter Domitia and PARTHENIUS.
Parth. I pay it, lady,
[Presents a letter.
Dom. Rise. I am transported,
Parth. What, but your beauty ?
Lam. Can you, Domitia, Consent to this?
Dom. 'Twould argue a base mind
Lam. To the gods