Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

Lest you with Nineveh be overthrown.
Lo, how the sun's inflamed torch prevails,
Scorching the parchéd furrows of the earth:
Here will I sit me down, and fix mine eye
Upon the ruins of yon wretched town:
And, lo, a pleasant shade, a spreading vine,
To shelter Jonas in this sunny heat !
What means my God ? the day is done and spent :
Lord, shall my prophecy be brought to naught?
When falls the fire ? when will the judge be wroth ?
I pray thee, Lord, remember what I said,
When I was yet within my country-land:
Jehovah is too merciful, I fear.
Oh, let me fly, before a prophet fault!
For thou art merciful, the Lord my God,
Full of compassion, and of sufferance,
And dost repent taking punishment.
Why stays thy hand ? O Lord, first take my life,
Before my prophecy be brought to naught!
Ah, he is wroth! behold, the gladsome vine,

(A serpent devoureth the vine.
That did defend me from the sunny heat,
Is wither'd quite, and swallow'd by a serpent !
Now furious Phlegon triumphs on my brows,
And heat prevails, and I am faint in heart.

Enter the Angel.
Angel. Art thou so angry, Jonas? tell me why.

Jonas. Jehovah, I with burning heat am plung'd,
And shadow'd only by a silly vine;
Behold, a serpent hath devoured it :
And, lo, the sun, incens'd by eastern wind,
Afflicts me with canicular aspéct.
Would God that I might die! for, well I wot,
"Twere better I were dead than rest alive.

Angel. Jonas, art thou so angry for the vine?
Jonas. Yea, I am angry to the death, my God.

Angel. Thou hast compassion, Jonas, on a vine,
On which thou never labour didst bestow;
Thou never gav'st it life or power to grow,
But suddenly it sprung, and suddenly died :
And should not I have great compassion
On Nineveh, the city of the world,
Wherein there are a hundred thousand souls,
And twenty thousand infants that ne wot
The right hand from the left, beside much cattle ?
0 Jonas, look into their temples now,
And see the true contrition of their king,
The subjects' tears, the sinners' true remorse!
Then from the Lord proclaim a mercy-day,
For he is pitiful as he is just.

Jonas. I go, my God, to finish thy command. [Erit Angel.
Oh, who can tell the wonders of my God,
Or talk his praises with a fervent tongue ?
He bringeth down to hell, and lifts to heaven;
He draws the yoke of bondage from the just,
And looks upon the heathen with piteous eyes :
To him all praise and honour be ascrib'd.
Oh, who can tell the wonders of my God ?
He makes the infant to proclaim his truth,
The ass to speak to save the prophet's life,
The earth and sea to yield increase for man.
Who can describe the compass of his power,
Or testify in terms his endless might?
My ravish'd sprite, oh, whither dost thou wend?
Go and proclaim the mercy of my God;
Relieve the careful-hearted Ninevites ;

And, as thou wert the messenger of death,
Go bring glad tidings of recover'd grace.

[Erit. Enter Adam. Adam. Well, Goodman Jonas, I would you had never come from Jewry to this country; you have made me look like a lean rib of roast beef, or like the picture of Lent painted upon a red-herring-cob. Alas, masters, we are commanded by the proclamation to fast and pray! by my troth, I could prettily so-so away with praying; but for fasting, why, 'tis so contrary to my nature that I had rather suffer a short hanging than a long fasting. Mark me, the words be these, “ Thou shalt take no manner of food for so many days.” I had as lief he should have said, “ Thou shalt hang thyself for so many days." And yet, in faith, I need not find fault with the proclamation, for I have a buttery and a pantry and a kitchen about me; for proof, ecce signum! This right slop is my pantry, behold a manchet [Draws it out]; this place is my kitchen, for, lo, a piece of beef [Draws it out],-oh, let me repeat that sweet word again! for, lo, a piece of beef. This is my buttery, for, see, see, my friends, to my great joy, a bottle of beer [Draws it out]. Thus, alas, I make shift to wear out this fasting ; I drive away the time. But there go searchers about to seek if any man breaks the king's command. Oh, here they be; in with your victuals, Adam.

[Puts them back into his slops.

Enter two Searchers. First Search. How duly the men of Nineveh keep the proclamation! how are they armed to repentance! We have searched through the whole city, and have not as yet found one that breaks the fast.

Sec. Search. The sign of the more grace :—but stay, here sits one, methinks, at his prayers; let us see who it is.

First Search. 'Tis Adam, the smith's man.-How now, Adam !

Adam. Trouble me not; “ Thou shalt take no manner or food, but fast and pray."

First Search. How devoutly he sits at his orisons! but stay, methinks I feel a smell of some meat or bread about him.

Sec. Scarch. So thinks me too.—You, sirrah, what victuals have you about you ?

Adam. Victuals! O horrible blasphemy! Hinder me not of my prayer, nor drive me not into a choler. Victuals ! why, hcardest thou not the sentence, “Thou shalt take no food, but fast and pray ?”

Sec. Search. Truth, so it should be; but, methinks, I smell meat about thee.

Adam. About me, my friends! these words are actions in the case. About me! no, no, hang those gluttons that cannot


fast and pray.

First Search. Well, for all your words, we must search you.

Adam. Search me! take heed what you do; my hose are my castles, 'tis burglary if you break ope a slop: no offer must lift up an iron hatch; take heed, my slops are iron.

[They search ADAN. Sec. Search. O villain !-See how he hath gotten rictuals. bread, beef, and beer, where the king commanded upon pain of death none should eat for so many days, no, not the sucking infant !

Adam. Alas, sir, this is nothing but a modicum non noce? mt medicus daret ;? why, sir, a bit to comfort my stomach.

First Search. Villain, thou shalt be hanged for it.
Adam. These are your words, “ I shall be hanged for it ;**


i Manchet, a roll of the finest white bread.

Such a harmless modicum as a physician would give.

but first answer me to this question, how many days have we to fast still ?

Sec. Search. Five days.
Adam. Five days! a long time: then I must be hanged ?
First Search. Ay, marry, must thou.

Adam. I am your man, I am for you, sir, for I had rather be hanged than abide so long a fast. What, five days! Come, I'll untruss. Is your halter, and the gallows, the ladder, and all such furniture in readiness ?

First Search. I warrant thee, shalt want none of these.
Adam. But hear you, must I be hangel?
First Search. Ay, marry.

Adam. And for eating of meat. Then, friends, know ye by these presents, I will eat up all my meat, and drink up all my drink, for it shall never be said, I was hanged with an empty stomach.

First Search. Come away, knave : wilt thou stand feeding now?

Adam. If you be so hasty, hang yourself an hour, while I come to you; for surely I will eat up my meat.

Sec. Search. Come, let's draw him away perforce.

Adam. You say there are five days yet to fast; these are Four Funds

Sec. Search. Ay, sir.

Adam. I am for you: come, let's away, and yet let me be put in the Chronicles.

[Exeunt. Ester Joxas, RASNI with his Kings and Lords, ALVIDA

with her Ladies, and Attendants. Jomc. Come, careful king, cast off thy mournful weeds, Exbarthy cloudy looks to sinoothéd smiles; Toy tan bare pierc'd the piteous throne of grace; Thy ste ze incense pleasing to the Lord, Havr ta put-utie rings for thy former pride: Prat, ani pilis name that gave thee peace. Ai Te air symphs, ye lovely Vinerites, Sabate west and fasted 'fore the Lord, H-1.temper d his revenge : Barva to tempt him any more : LA 9:5 393 di your beautous looks Easy a bib-presuming mind; Fes-te castith to the grou), And - 2 be be lifts aloft.

LOID i with actol bent of eye, Brah. God of boste

rés serise of Lan. TE: 4 lei awrs N. A tai my heart 5 te;

Or as the kids that food on Sephor' plans,
So be the seed und offspring of


loins! Enter the Usurer, TIRANYRULUM, and Alcon. Usurer. Come forth, my friends, whom wittingly I wrong'd; Before this man of God receive your due; Before our king I mean to make my poneo. Jonas, behold, in sign of my remorse, I here restore into these poor men's hands Their goods which I unjustly have detuin'd; And may the heavens no pardon my mindeed As I am penitent for my offence!

Thras. And what through want from othere I purlin'd,
Behold, O king, I proffor 'fore thy throne,
To be restor'd to such as owo the same.

Jonas. A virtuous deed, pleasing to (iod and man.
Would God, all cities drowned in liko wluumo
Would take example of these Ninevites !

Rasni. Such be the fruits of Nineveh's reprint;
And much for ever may our dealings be,
That he that call'd us homo in height of win
May smile to see our hearty poniunco.--
Viceroys, proclaim a fast unto the Lord;
Let Israel's God be honour'd in our land;
Let all occasion of corruption dio,
For who shall fault therein shall mufier death:
Bear witness, God, of my unfeignéd zal.
Come, holy man, an thou shalt counwl mo,
My court and city whall r«fornéd be.
Jonas. Wend on in peace, and prosecute this courne,

(Eseunt all creepl Joxas.
You islanders, on whom the milder air
Doth sweetly breathe the balm of kind in renme,
Whom lands are fatun'd with the dew of heaven),
And made more fruitful than Atasan plaine ;
You whum delicious plenuri dindke volt,
Whom eyes are blinded with #aurity,
Unmark yourw:lven, cint ror clean anide,
() Londos, maiden of the mixtra ma-inli,
Wrapt in the bodia and swathing but Ankara,
In this more mins than Sineveh contain:
Cata:pt A Gud, dumpite of tot«7.41 am
Nezint of aw, denire w wrung thu yo.

Corruptin, 10l lurt, druska3.15*, 6: 1

ówoin are they broue with in 3141SA, () przed udut rum sty A k ****

Thy nigirin trim.yout 27. lmt , ! Ta prvakin Ty, y*** ****, Tha'ların raz. yot 1 N 12. 11:, ázsa, tulee such ::

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

دیده بود و به همه ما باید از همه را

پرستی کا راز بھی به بیماری بھی است. یعنی که به بی بی برخه 17

Toe T :

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

o the

[ocr errors]

popular plays of its time, and the Court entertain- earlier time, was formed from a version of the ment by Thomas Nash, “Summer's Last Will and “Menæchmi” of Plautus. Before 1593 no play of Testament,” presented at a nobleman's house in Croy- Shakespeare's was printed. In that year, indeed, he don before Queen Elizabeth in the year 1592. Both first appeared in print by publishing his early poem, Nash and Lyly were among the players who, in 1589, “Venus and Adonis,” which he described as joined in a war of pamphlets with the Puritan authors first heir of mine invention." It is noticeable, howof the Martin Marprelate tracts.

ever, that the jealousy of Greene, when sick of body While the art of the English dramatist was being as of mind, produced the only harsh words known to formed, in the years between 1586 and 1593, there have been ever spoken of Shakespeare. The book in was, in the plays written, a reflection of the patriotic which they occurred was printed after Greene's death and religious feeling of the people, rich and poor, by his fellow-dramatist, Henry Chettle, who took, in who flocked to see them. There was also a wide the next book of his own, “ Kindhart's Dream,” variety in choice of subjects. Intrigues of love were published in 1593, the earliest opportunity of publicly by no means, as they afterwards became, the theme expressing his regret that he had not suppressed the of almost every story told upon the stage. The esta- unjust censure of Shakespeare. “That I did not,” blished dramatists during these years were strictly he said, “I am sorry as if the original fault had Elizabethan writers. The chief of them—Peele, been my fault, because myself have seen his demeanour Greene, and Marlowe—did not survive Elizabeth. no less civil than he excellent in the quality he proGreene died poor and distressed in 1592, Marlowe fesses ; besides, divers of worship have reported his was killed in a tavern brawl in 1593, and Peele was uprightness of dealing, which argues his honesty, spoken of as miserably dead in 1598. Lodge lived - and his facetious grace in writing that approves his into the next reign, but not as a playwright: he

art." became Doctor of Physic, and, as a Roman Catholic, had a good practice among men of his own religion. Shakespeare had been about seven years in London when the death of Marlowe, following closely on the death of Greene, left him easy possession of the first place among dramatists. During the seven years which may be considered his time of apprenticeship, for study of life in the resorts of men and of the way to place its problems on the stage, Shakespeare had made himself generally useful at the theatre as actor, as adapter of old plays to secure for them a second lease of popularity, and now and then as original writer. In 1589, when his age was a little more than twenty-five, and he had been about three years in London, Shakespeare was one of sixteen actors who had shares in the Blackfriars Theatre. In 1592, when Robert Greene died on the 3rd of September, he left behind him at the end of a posthumous prose book, called “A Groat'sworth of Wit bought with a Million of Repentance," an address “To those gentlemen, his quondam acquaintance, that spend their wits in making plays, in which there was this reference to Shakespeare : There is an upstart crow beautified with our feathers, that, with his Tiger's heart wrapt in a


From the Portrait prefixed to the First Folio of his Plays (1623). player's hide" (parody of a line in the Third Part of Henry VI., Act I., scene 4, “O tiger's heart, wrapt in a woman's hide ”), “supposes he is as well able to

CHAPTER V. bombast out a blank verse as the best of you ; and, being an absolute Johannes Factotum, is in his own

FROM THE DEATH OF MARLOWE TO THE DEATH OF conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.” This

QUEEN ELIZABETH. -- A.D. 1593 TO A.D. 1603. indicates in Greene, who was dying painfully, im- ThomAS LODGE had already left the stage ; and patience of the rising credit of Shakespeare. With George Peele is not known to have written more his family to keep, his father in 1592 still very poor than one or two plays after the early deaths of and walking in fear of arrests, Shakespeare was, no Greene and Marlowe. A new generation was not doubt, in those years a Johannes Factotum—Jack of yet ready to take their places. During the six all Trades—at the Blackfriars Theatre, ready to apply years following the death of Greene, Shakespeare his genius to any honest opportunity of earning. Of

Of attained an absolute supremacy. In 1598 Francis his work on the work of others, the three parts of Meres published a Euphuistic book called “ Palladis Henry VI. are examples. Probably he had written Tamia, Wit's Treasury," designed to show the young before 1593 no other original plays than the “Two how parallels were to be found for English poets Gentlemen of Verona" and "Love's Labour's Lost ;” among the Greeks and Latins. Thus the book spoke the “Comedy of Errors,” also belonging to that of Shakespeare : “ As the soul of Euphorbus was

[ocr errors]




In A.D. 1603.]


[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

The por

[ocr errors]

thought to live in Pythagoras, so the sweet witty | taking out a grant of arms for his father. It was in soul of Ovid lives in mellifluous and honey-tongued that year, when his age was about thirty-two, that Shakespeare ; witness his · Venus and Adonis, he lost his only son Hamnet, who died at the age of his Lucrece,' his sugаred Sonnets among his twelve. In the next year, 1597, Shakespeare was private friends, &c. As Plautus and Seneca are helping his father and mother to recover his mother's accounted the best for comedy and tragedy among acres at Ashbies, which they had lost by foreclosure the Latins, so Shakespeare among the English is of the mortgage on them, and it was then that he the most excellent in both kinds for the stage ; for bought the house in Stratford where he meant to comedy, witness his "Gentlemen of Verona,' his spend his latter years in full enjoyment of home with * , · Errors,' his Love's Labour's Lost,' his Love's his wife and daughters. New Place, which had been Labour's Won,' his Midsummer Night's Dream,' built by Sir Hugh Clopton in Henry VII.'s reign, and his Merchant of Venice;' for tragedy, his was the best house in the best street of his native · Richard II.,' · Richard III.,' 'Henry IV.,' town, and was bought by Shakespeare in the year * King John,' Titus Andronicus,' and his Romeo before Meres chronicled his successes on the stage. and Juliet.' As Epius Stolo said that the Muses Before looking to Shakespeare's mind we may say would speak with Plautus' tongue if they would of his body that bad art has succeeded only in giving speak Latin, so I say that the Muses would speak us a confused impression of his face. with Shakespeare's fine filed phrase, if they would trait engraved by Martin Droeshuyt before the first speak English.” To the evidence here given as to folio of his plays published in 1623, seven years after the plays which Shakespeare had written in the year his death—a portrait which is praised as a faithful 1598, may be added the facts that “Titus Andro- likeness by Ben Jonson—and the bust which in nicus ”—a play from another hand, originally called 1623 had already been set up in Stratford Charch, “ Titus and Vespasian," only retouched by Shake- are certainly attempts made by two people to represpeare—and the “Second Part of Henry IV.” were sent, one by painting and the other by sculpture, printed in 1594, the “ Third Part of Henry VI.” in what they saw when they looked at him. In what 1595; the only work of his that was wholly original is called the Chandos portrait, which is traced back and printed by that date being the two poems, “Venus and Adonis” in 1593, and “ Lucrece" in 1594. But in 1597, the year before Meres published his record of the estimation in which Shakespeare was then beld, there was sign of his popularity in the publishing, by three different booksellers, of three of The plays in Meres's list—“Romeo and Juliet," - Richard II.," and “ Richard III." In 1598

Love's Labour's Lost ” and Part I. of “Henry
IV." were printed. The other plays printed from
that date to the end of Elizabeth's reign, and there-
bure to be taken with any others in the list of Francis
Meres as beyond doubt Elizabethan, were in 1599
none; in 1600, "A Midsummer Night's Dream,”
“The Merchant of Venice,” “Henry V.,” and “Much

A lo ałwat Sothing;" in 1601, none; in 1602, “The
Merry Wives of Windsor;" and in 1603, Hamlet.”

In Shakespeare's private life there is evidence that
te made wise use of the six years of rapid advance
is im-rity from 1592 to 1598, that is to say, from
tid Greene's grumble over the beginnings of

Enrer's success to the date of Meres's testiLI full accomplishment. The success of ti Loizaberlain's ('ompany, to which ShakeIl mist have been due chiefly to his - ij stierful development of power.

In 1.-::- bi built and opened a new theatre of Inice Globe, on Bankside. This was round,


Weeks, except the thatching over of the

* for use in suminer: the sinaller house
Er., which was covered in, being retained

utrinter theatre. Before building the

ZIEHEN COSTS HE-ART "..jt. Krir Company haul usul the Curtain

1. 12. Shakes-are's father at Stratford - - Offcial list of recusants, as one of

Ti, Tavn for not coming to church was

; biz debt. In 1591; Shakespeare was

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


there may be a picture of Shakriisits
earlier date in his life than that would

Sose rooleat on pege 104.

« ZurückWeiter »