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was first printed in 1590. The hero of this play- Threatening the world with high astounding terms,
So shall he have his life, and all the rest ;
THE FOOL OF THE OLD Play.
From a Print by Breughei, copied in Douce's “ Nlustrations of
Shakespeare." before Damascus. Interest therefore centres in the question, How will the pitiless warrior deal with the
Once entered successfully upon the career of a father and the kindred of his chosen bride? The
dramatist, Marlowe settled in London, became, like tirst part of the play ends with the triumph of his
Shakespeare, an actor, and seems once to have been love." He suffers Zenocrate to free her father, and
hurt by an accident upon the stage of the Curtain then crowns her as his queen. In the second part
in Shoreditch. “ The Tragical History of Doctor of the play, called from Marlowe by the great success of the first, the setting forth of the career of conquest
Faustus” was the play of Marlowe's that soon
followed the “Second Part of Tamburlaine,"and mainis continued, the death of Zenocrate being the only
tained its author's credit with another great success. softer theme. The play ends with the death of
The legend of Dr. Faustus had been gathered, in Tamburlaine, who, with pride of success, rises to the
1587, about recent traditions of a real person who topmost height of boastfulness. In the first line of his short prologue to this play, published in 1587 at Frankfort on the Main, which
is said to have died in the year 1538. The book Marlowe began his career as a dramatist by re
first gave to Europe the history of Dr. Faustus, nouncing rhyme. The whole play is in resonant blank
attracted wide attention and was immediately verse, and, abiding by this measure in later plays, fastened upon by Marlowe as good matter for a play, Marlowe gave it the predominance it had acquired
which seems to have been written in 1588. before his death as the fit verse for dramatic poetry. It was he also who developed this measure to the
1 In this figure of the clown, and in the sketch given, at the end of best form it attained before it was perfected by the last chapter, of properties of the Vice and Fool of the old plays, Shakespeare. In the second line of his prologue observe that the fool's cap is crested with a cock's-comb, to which a Marlowe repudiated for his drama the customary
figure of the whole head of the cock was sometimes added. Thence
the word corcomb as equivalent to one who acts the fool. The bells intrusion of rough jesting by the clown.
on the fool's cap and dress, the bladder for poisy banging about, and This was Christopher Marlowe's prologue to his the pouch (represented also in Elizabeth's time by wide slops, as of · Tamburlaine."
the modern clown) to hold bis baggings, need no comment. The
stick with the fool's head and ass's ears carved on it was the bandle From jigging veins of rhyming mother-wits,
(Italian" babbola," a child's plaything). The clown used this as And such conceits as clownage keeps in pay,
his badge of office, and, as represented in the sketch above, often
had whimsical discourse with the fool's head upon it. It was to this We'll lead you to the stately tent of war,
familiar g age property that Cromwell referred when he said of the Where you shall hear the Scythian Tamburlaine
mace of the Parliament, in 1653, " Take away that bauble !"
Contemporary notices of the original Faustus are Melancthon's, writing a book of small talk which was not wanting
not published until 1602, told of Faust as a wellThe learned Trithemius, Abbot of Spanheim, in a known magician who lived “in the time of our letter of the 20th of August, 1507, mentioned Magister fathers.” Georgius Sabellicus, Faustus junior, as a pretender to In 1587, on the 18th of April, two students of the magic, met with at Gelnhausen.
University of Tübingen were imprisoned for writing Conrad Mudt, Latinised Mutianus Rufus, a friend a Comedy of Faustus. In autumn of the same year of Melancthon and Reuchlin, whom Luther praised there appeared at the book fair of Frankfort on the for his culture and who died in 1526, wrote on the Main, the German book from which all subsequent 3rd of October, 1513, from Erfurth, of the visit paid versions of the Faustus legend have descended. Its to that town a few days before by Georgius Faustus author was strongly Protestant, probably a pastor, Hemitheus Hedibergensis, as a braggart and a fool and he made Faustus the hero of any stories of magic, who affected magic, whom he had heard talking in a serious or comic, that could be added to the popular tavern, and who had raised the theologians against tradition of his life and death, for the purpose of him.
giving wide popularity to a lesson against pride of Under the date 1525, there is recorded in Vogel's knowledge and presumption towards God, or helping “Annals of Leipzig” (published in 1714), Dr. Johann to bring into contempt “the Pope that Pagan full of Faust's visit to the Auerbach cellar, and there is pride." The book was at once fastened upon by many this date over one of the two pictures in the cellar readers. A metrical version of it into English was showing (1) how Faustus rode out into the street licensed by Aylmer, Bishop of London, before the end on one of its casks of wine, and (2) how he regaled of the year. In 1588 there was a rhymed version of the students with the wine so carried off.
it into German, also a translation into low German, In the year 1539, Dr. Philip Begardi, in a book and a new edition of the original with some slight called "Index Sanitatis,” speaks of the vast reputa- changes. In 1589 there appeared a version of the tion of one Faustus for skill in physic and magic, first German Faust book into French, by Victor Palma and of many people who had complained to Begardi Cayet. The English pure version was made from that Faustus had swindled them. But, he adds, the second edition of the original, that of 1588, and what matter? Hin ist hin-gone is gone. This is undated, but probably was made at once. There comment may possibly refer to Faust as dead and was a revised edition of it in 1592. In 1592 there not worth saving any more about (tradition made his was a Dutch translation from the second German death-year 1538), but it may also mean that it is of edition. This gives the time of the carrying off of no use for the cheated to complain of losses they Faustus by the devil as the night between the 23rd will not recover: that it is of no use to cry over and 24th of October, 1538. The English version also spilt milk. But about this time Faustus must have gives 1538 as the year, and it is a date, as we have lied, for in the undated second volume of Table Talk seen, consistent with trustworthy references to his
-“ Convivialium Sermonum,” by the Protestant actual life. theologian Johann Gast (Vol. I. was published in Marlowe's play was probably written in 1588, soon 1543)—there are stories of Faustus as dead, and they after the original story had found its way to England. for the first time publish the statement that his body He treated the legend as a poet, bringing out with all after death would not lie with its face to heaven, but his power its central thought-man in the pride of tive times, when so placeri, turned itself face down- knowledge turning from his God. The voices of his War, and that the devil took him.
good and evil angel in the ear of Faustus, one bidding In 1361 the great naturalist, Conrad Gesner, writing him repent and hope, the other bidding him despair, to a friend on the 16th of August, referred to Faustus were devised by Marlowe himself for the better as a famous conjuror who died “ not long ago.” painting of a soul within the toils of Satan; and the
In 1562 Johann Vennel, Latinised Manlius, pub-i beautiful scene in which an old man seeks to warn lished at Basle a Common-place Book (* Locorum Faustus was developed into poetry out of a very Communium Collectanea ") of notes taken during : trivial incident in the original. To the play as first many years, chiefly of what he had heard in conver- published in 1604 additions had been maile for which, sations with Melancthon, and also of things told to on the 22nd of November, 1602, Dr. Bride and S. him by various learned men. He ascribed to Me Rawley received four pounds. The popularity of lancthon stories about Faustus, whom he had known. the subject caused the piece to be very freely dealt This Faustus was born at kundling (Knittlingen, a with by the players; and although in the published frontier town of Wurtemberg), not far from his own version (which includes at least four pounds' worth of native town of Bretten, in Baden. Faustus, Me additions) the clown scenes bear a smaller proportion lancthon sail, stiriind at Cracow, and learnt magic, to the whole than in the original story, there can be which was only taught there. It was, indeed, no doubt that the appetite of the many for “such according to the views then held of the secrets of conceits as clownage keeps in pay" hw led to a large nature, a liberal science in the eyes of many adranced addition of matter of this kind which Marlowe himthinkers of the sixtrenth century, who never thought self had avoided. He has no clown in any other of trading on the imorant with vain pretensions. play. There was evidence of more change in the Afterwarıls, kaivl Melanethon to Mennel, Faustus next printed edition, that of 1616. There were other roamed abwut, and he was at a village inn in Wurtem. additions in 1624 and 1631, and one in 1663. spmilt berg when he was taken by the devil.
by much later changes and additions. The text liere In 1587 Philip Camerarius, son of a close friend of 1 given is the earliest, that of 1601.
DOCTOR FAUSTUS. From the title-page of an old undated German Tract on Magic,
“D. Faustus Dreyfacher Höllen-Zwang."
To sound the depth of that thou wilt profess :
Reads. Si una eademque res legatur duobus, alter rem, alter valorem
rei,8 &c. A pretty case of paltry legacies !
(Reus. Exhæreditare filium non potest pater, nisi, 8c.9 Such is the subject of the Institute And universal body of the law : This study fits a mercenary drudge, Who aims at nothing but external trash; Too servile and illiberal for me. When all is done, divinity is best : Jerome's Bible, Faustus; view it well.
[Reads. Stipendium peccati mors est. Ha! Stipendium, fc. The reward of sin is death: that's hard.
[Reads. ] Si peccasse negamus, fallimur, et nulla est in nobis veritas ; If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us. Why, then, belike we must sin, and so consequently die : Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this, Che sera, sera, What will be, shall be ? Divinity, adieu ! These metaphysics of magicians And necromantic books are heavenly ; Lines, circles, scenes, letters, and characters; Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires. O what a world of profit and delight, Of power, of honour, of omnipotence, Is promis'd to the studious artisan! All things that move between the quiet poles Shall be at my command: emperors and kings Are but obeyed in their provinces, Nor can they raise the wind, or rend the clouds ;
TRAGICAL HISTORY OF DOCTOR FAUSTUS.
[Exit. Faustus discovered in his study. Faust. Settle thy studies, Faustus, and begin
1 Mate, deprive of force, confound. See “ Shorter English Poems," Note 1, page 174.
· Rhodes. Roda is given in the English version of the Faust book as the birth-place of Faustus. 3 Whereas, where. So in " Henry VI.,” Part II., act i., sc. 2:
"You do intend to ride unto St. Alban's
Whereas the King and Queen do mean to hawk." • Here probably the speaker drew a curtain before quitting the stage.
5 “To discuss well is the end of logic.” In what follows it will be observed that Faustus is looking to the chief aim of each of his studies -"levels at the end of every art."
6 Where the philosopher ends, the physician begins.
? Bills, official writings, from "bulla," a seal. Physician's prescriptions were so called, as here.
8 When one and the same thing is bequeathed to two persons one has the thing, the other the value of the thing, &c.
A father cannot disinherit a son unless, &c. These are beginnings of passages in the Institutes of Justinian.
But his dominion that exceeds in this
[Erit. Faust. Their conference will be a greater help to me Than all my labours, plod I ne'er so fast.
Enter Good Angel and Evil Angel.
E. Ang. Go forward, Faustus, in that famous art
Faust. How am I glutted with conceit of this !
Enter VALDES and CORNELIUS.
Know that your words have won me at the last
Vald. Faustus, these books, thy wit, and our experience,
Faust. Valdes, as resolute am I in this
Corn. The miracles that magic will perform
Faust. Nothing, Cornelius. Oh, this cheers my soul!
Vald. Then haste thee to some solitary grove, And bear wise Bacon's and Albertus'' works,
1 His dominion that, the dominion of him who.
: Paldes and Cornelius are not taken from the Faust book. Marlowe invented their names. The Good Angel and Evil Angel are also added by Marlowe throughout.
* The Prince of Parma. Don John died on the 1st of October, 1578, and was succeeded in civil and military command in the Netherlands boy Alexander Farnese, his nephew, cool, artful, and the ablest governor get sent to the Netherlands from Spain. In July, 1581, the States. General at the Hague repudiated Philip II. by an Act of Abjuration, which recited his crimes against the people. The Prince of Orange then accepted the sovereignty of Holland and Zealand. Farnese showed military talent, but approved of the assassination of William on the 19th of July, 1584. In 1586 Farnese became, by the death of his fatber, Duke of Parma. In October of that year Sir Philip Sidney received his death-wound before Zutphen. In June, 1587, the Duke of Parma besieged Sluys. In November the Duke of Parma was at the head of 40,000 men, and Philip of Spain planned his action against England, with pretended negotiations for peace. The Duke of Parma was withdrawn to France in 1590, and absent from the Netherlands in 1591.
• The fiery keel at Antwerp's bridge. Farnese, after the fall of Ghent, besieged Antwerp, and made a stupendous bridge across the Scheldt to eat the city off from the maritime provinces and the sea. Use of a fireship was then devised by an Italian engineer, and by its explosion eizet hundred were killed. This was in 1585.
5 Agrippa. Cornelius Agrippa, whose reputation for magic probably caused Marlowe to call one of his German magicians here Cornelius. Valdes recalls the old French “ Vaudès," an enchanter, thought by some to have been applied to Peter Waldus and the Waldenses.
6 Almain rutters, German “ reiter,” troopers.
7 The possessions of Spain in the New World much aided Philip of Spain in his conflict with the Protestants.
& Well seen, skilled ; once a common English phrase obtained probably by imitation of a classical form,“ spectatus," which in Latin was used in a like sense. So Shakespeare writes in “The Taming of the Shrew," "It's a schoolmaster well seen in music."
9 Roger Bacon died, aged seventy-eight, in 1292. Albertus Magnus died, not younger than seventy-five, in 1280. Advanced students of nature passed with the unlearned for magicians. Even Virgil was bg
The Hebrew Psalter, and New Testament;
Corn. Valdes, first let him know the words of art;
Vald. First I'll instruct thee in the rudiments,
Faust. Then come and dine with me, and, after meat, We'll canvass every quiddity' thereof; For, ere I sleep, I'll try what I can do : This night I'll conjure, though I die therefore. [Exeunt.
Enter two Scholars. First Schol. I wonder what's become of Faustus, that was wont to make our schools ring with sic probo.?
Sec. Schol. That shall we know, for see, here comes his boy.
First Schol. Go to, sirrah! leave your jesting, and tell us where he is.
Wag. That follows not necessary by force of argument, that you, being licentiates, should stand upon: therefore acknowledge your error, and be attentive.
Sec. Schol. Why, didst thou not say thou knewest ?
Wag. Yes, sir, I will tell you: yet, if you were not dunces, you would never ask me such a question; for is not he corpus naturale ?' and is not that mobile ? then wherefore should you ask me such a question ? But that I am by nature phlegmatic, slow to wrath, and prone to lechery (to love, I would say), it were not for you to come within forty foot of the place of execution, although I do not doubt to see you both hanged the next sessions. Thus having triumphed over you, I will set my countenance like a precisian, and begin to speak thus:--Truly, my dear brethren, my master is within at dinner, with Valdes and Cornelius, as this wine, if it could speak, would inform your worships : and so, the Lord bless you, preserve you, and keep you, my dear brethren, my dear brethren!
[Erit. First Schol. Nay, then, I fear he has fallen into that
damned art for which they two are infamous through the world.
Sec. Schol. Were he a stranger, and not allied to me, yet should I grieve for him. But, come, let us go and inform the Rector, and see if he by his grave counsel can reclaiır. him.
First Schol. Oh, but I fear me nothing can reclaim him! Sec. Schol. Yet let us try what we can do. [Ereunt.
Enter Faustus to conjure.
the popular tales made into an enchanter. Roger Bacon was a Fran. cisan Friar, the foremost English thinker in the thirteenth century. Albertus, a Suabian, who was called Magnus by the Latinising of his surname Groot, was a Dominican Friar and Provincial of his Order, which was established for the maintenance of strict orthodoxy and resistance to the devil. His reputation for learning gave Albertus a popnlar character like that of his English contemporary Roger Bacon, and each of them became hero of a legend of a brazen head.
I Quiddity, Low Latiu “quiditas," somethingness, a scholastic term for the nature or essence of a thing. Then it came to be used for any subtle turn or nicety; thus in the First Part of “Henry IV.," act i., sc. 2, Falstatf says to Prince Hal, “ How now, mad wag, what, in thy quips and thy quiddities !" And Cranmer to Gardiner, “I trow some mathematical quiddity, they cannot tell what." (Quoted in Nares' “ Glossary," edited by Halliwell and Wright.)
So I prove it. 3 Latin "non sequitur." The jesting is with phrases of the schools. * Body natural. Mobile, movable.
6 Hest, First-English “hæst," command.
7 “Be gods of Acheron propitious to me! Farewell to Jehovah's triple deity! Spirits of fire, air, and of water, hail! Belzebub, Prince of the Orient, monarch of burning hell, and Demogorgon, we propitiate you, that Mephistophilis may appear and rise, that you may (cause him to break forth). By Jove, Gehenna, and the consecrated water I now sprinkle, and the sign of the cross I now make, and by our vows, let there now rise to us the said Mephistophiles.” Supposing “tume. raris,” a corrupt word, to have some sort of relation to "tumeo" and “tumesco," I have jumped at a sort of meaning for it (cause him to break forth) which may serve badly in place of none. In later quartos the text reads "suryat Mephistophilis Dragon, quod tumeraris." The name of the familiar of Faustus first appears in the Frankfort book of 1587, which was entitled “Historia von D. Johann Fausteu, dem weit beschreyten Zauberer und Schwartzkünstler, Wie er sich gegen dem Teuffel auf eine benandte Zeit verschrieben, Was er inzwis. chen für seltzame Abenthewr gesehen, selbs angerichtet und getrieben, biss er endtlich seinen wohlverdienten lohn empfangen. Mehrertheils auss seinen eygenen hinderlassenen Schrifften, allen hochtragenden fürwitzigen und Gottlosen Menschen zum schrecklichen Beyspiel, ab schewlichen Exempel und trewhertziger Warnung zusammengezogen und in Druck verfertigt. Jacobi IIII. Seydt Gott underthänig, wider. stehet dem Teuffel, so fleuhet er von euch." A long title ending with the text “Submit yourselves to God, resist the Devil, and he will flee from you.” In this first Faust book, the name as written by its inventor was Mephostophiles. Among guesses at what the inventor of the name meant by it, one is that he meant one who was not a lover of light, from un, pūs aud pilos, as it were Mephotophiles with the s of püs inserted. To Beelzebub the Jews assigned the sovereignty of evil spirits. There are several references in the New Testament to this belief. Matthew x. 25, “ It is enough for the disciple if he be as his master. . . . If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, bow much more shall they call thein of his household ? ** Mark iii. 22, “ He hath Beelzebub, and by the Prince of Devils casteth he out devils ;" also Luke xi. 15, “ through Beelzebub the Chief of the Devils." Báalzebub was the form of Baal (Báal means Lord), worshipped at Ekron. The added word gives for the whole meaning. Lord of the Fly. Baalzebul, another form of the word, is said to
3 I will set my countenance like a precisian. Both "precisian" and "puritan" were names used in 154*, but in a comic scene there is no security against later interpolat I text, however, no addition an be later than 1004, the of