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tive against Poets, Pipers, Players, Jesters, and poet the monarch. For he doth not only show the such-like Caterpillars of a Commonwealth.” Here way, but giveth so sweet a prospect into the way as he condemned alike poets and players. But it is will entice any man to enter into it. Nay, he doth noticeable that in speaking of the dramatists he as if your journey should lie through a fair vinedeals with the probable answer of “some Archplayer yard, at the first give you a cluster of grapes; that or other that hath read a little,” who might say that full of that taste you may long to pass further. He the immorality of the old comedies was no part of the beginneth not with obscure definitions, which must plays then seeking the favour of the people. blur the margent with interpretations and load the comedies that are exercised in our days are better memory with doubtfulness; but he cometh to you sifted. They show no such bran. The first smelt with words set in delightful proportions, either of Plautus, these taste of Menander. The lewdness accompanied with or prepared for the well-enchantof gouls is altered and changed to the love of

young ing skill of music; and with a tale forsooth he men; force to friendship; wooing allowed by assur- cometh unto you; with a tale which holdeth ance of wedding. Nor are the abuses of the world children from play, and old men from the chimneyrevealed; every man in a play may see his own

And pretending no more, doth intend the faults, and learn by this glass to amend his manners. winning of the mind from wickedness to virtue; Deformities are checked in jest and mated in earnest. even as the child is often brought to take most The sweetness of music and pleasure of sports temper wholesome things by hiding them in such others as the bitterness of rebukes." In such wise Gosson, have a pleasant taste, which if one should begin to while attacking the stage, represents the claim it then tell them the nature of aloes or rhubarb they would put forward to be a teacher of duty and upholder of all sooner take their physic at their ears than at their that was honest and of good report. The plays that mouth. So it is in men (most of which are childish have come down to us from those times bear witness

in the best things, till they be cradled in their to the truth of such a plea, and Gosson does not graves), glad they will be to hear the tales of contradict it. For what is his reply? “They are Hercules,

Achilles, Cyrus, and Æneas, and hearing either so blind that they cannot, or so blunt that them must needs hear the right description of they will not, see why this exercise should not be wisdom, valour, and justice; which, if they had been suffered as a profitable recreation.

For my part,

barely, that is to say philosophically, set out, they I am neither so fond a physician nor so bad a cook would swear they be brought to school again." Sir but I can allow my patient a cup of wine to meals, Philip Sidney spoke here for his fellow-poets and although it be hot; and pleasant fancies to drive for his time as well as for himself. In that spirit down his meat if his stomach be queasy. Notwith- every good poet of Elizabeth's reign approached his standing, if people will be instructed, God be work. The crudeness of construction in the early thanked, we have divines enough to discharge that, plays is criticised in Sidney's “ Apologie for Poetrie. and more by a great many than are well hearkened He wrote before there was a play written by Lyly, to.” The substantial ground of offence was retention Peele, Greene, Marlowe, or any one of the chief of the old custom of Sunday entertainment--Sabbath precursors of Shakespeare; when the plays were conflict between the trumpets summoning to plays such as have been represented thus far by our and the bells summoning to prayers.

specimens. Of Comedy and Tragedy in themselves Gosson dedicated his “School of Abuse” to Philip Sidney wrote :Sidney. Edmund Spenser, who was then a young man of about six-and-twenty, publishing his “Shepherd's Calendar” while for a short time in employ

To the arguments of abuse I will after answer; only thus ment of the Earl of Leicester, wrote in October,

much now is to be said, that the Comedy is an imitation of

the common crrors of our life, which he representeth in the 1579, to his friend, Gabriel Harvey, “ New books I hear of none, but only of one that, writing a

impossible that any beholder can be content to be such a one. certain book and dedicating it to Master Sidney,

Now, as in geometry, the oblique must be known as well as was for his labour scorned ; if at least it be in the

the right, and in arithmetic, the odd as well as the even; so goodness of that nature to scorn. Such folly is it

in the actions of our life, who seeth not the filthiness of eril, not to regard aforehand the inclination and quality

wanteth a great foil to perceive the beauty of virtue. This of him to whom we dedicate our books.” Thore can

doth the comedy handle so, in our private and domestical be little doubt that a Puritan outcry against poets, matters, as, with hearing it, we get, as it were, an experience brought home to him by the dedication of Gosson's of what is to be looked for, of a niggardly Demen, of a crafty pamphlet, caused Philip Sidney to write, in 1580 or Davus, of a flattering Gnatho, of a vain-glorious Thraso ; and 1581, his “ Apologie for Poetrie,” which was not not only to know what effects are to be expected, but to know published until 1595, after its author's death. This who be such, by the signifying badge given them by the book recsoned boldly and calmly for the poet's art comedian. And little reason hath any man to say, that min that it is first among the exercises of man's learn the evil by seeing it so set out, since, as I said befor', intellect. The poet must delight and teach. All there is no man living, but by the force truth hath in nature, worthy pursuits of men “one and other, having this no sooner seeth these men play their parts, but wisheth them scope, to know, and by knowledge to lift up the in “pistrinum;", although perchance the sack of his own mind from the dungeon of the body to the enjoying of his own divine essence.” “Now, thereon,” said

• New books



1 In pistrinum. Corn was pounded usually in the pistrivum by oren Philip Sidney, "of all sciences (I speak still of

or asses. Slaves when lazy or worthless were often put “in påstn. human and according to the human conceit) is our

num " to do asses' work,

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faults lie so behind his back, that he seeth not himself to it is in sense, even sense may imagine; and art hath taught dance the same measure, whereto yet nothing can more open and all ancient examples justified, and at this day the his eyes than to see his own actions contemptibly set forth ; ordinary players in Italy will not err in. Yet will some so that the right use of comedy will, I think, by nobody be bring in an example of the Eunuch in Terence, that conblimed.

taineth matter of two days, yet far short of twenty years. And much less of the high and excellent Tragedy, that True it is, and so was it to be played in two days, and so puncth the greatest wounds, and showeth forth the ulcers fitted to the time it set forth. And though Plautus have in that are covered with tissue ; that maketh kings fear to be one place done amiss, let us hit it with him, and not miss tyrants, and tyrants to manifest their tyrannical humours; with him. But they will say, How then shall we set forth a that with stirring the effects of admiration and commisera- story which contains both many places and many times ? tion teacheth the uncertainty of this world, and upon how And do they not know, that a tragedy is tied to the laws of weak foundations gilded roofs are builded; that maketh us poesy, and not of history; not bound to follow the story, but know, " qui sceptra duro savus imperio regit, timet timentes, having liberty either to feign a quite new matter, or to frame metus in auctorem redit.”] But how much it can move, the history to the most tragical convenience? Again, many Plutarch yieldeth a notable testimony of the abominable things may be told, which cannot be showed; if they know tyrant Alexander Pheraus; from whose eyes a tragedy, well the difference betwixt reporting and representing. As for made and represented, drew abundance of tears, who without example, I may speak, though I am here, of Peru, and in all pity had murdered infinite numbers, and some of his own speech digress from that to the description of Calicut; but in blood; so as he that was not ashamed to make matters for action I cannot represent it without Pacolet's horse. And tragedies, yet could not resist the sweet violence of a tragedy. so was the manner the ancients took by some “ Nuntius,” to And if it wrought no farther good in him, it was that he, in recount things done in former time, or other place. despite of himself, withdrew himself from hearkening to that Lastly, if they will represent an history, they must not, as which might mollify his hardened heart.

Horace saith, begin "ab ovo," but they must come to the

principal point of that one action which they will represent. Of the defect of art in our earliest plays, Sidney

By example this will be best expressed : I have a story of

young Polydorus, delivered, for safety's sake, with great wrote:

riches, by his father Priamus to Polymnestor, King of

Thrace, in the Trojan war time. He, after some years, Our tragedies and comedies, not without cause, are cried hearing of the overthrow of Priamus, for to make the treasure out against, observing rules neither of honest civility nor his own, murdereth the child ; the body of the child is taken shilful portry. Excepting Gorboduc (again I say of those up; Hecuba, she, the same day, findeth & sleight to be that I have seen) which notwithstanding, as it is full of revenged most cruelly of the tyrant. Where, now, would stately speeches and well-sounding phrases, climbing to the one of our tragedy-writers begin, but with the delivery of height of Seneca his style, and as full of notable morality, the child? Then should he sail over into Thrace, and so which it doth most delightfully teach and so obtain the spend I know not how many years, and travel numbers Hry end of poesy; yet, in truth, it is very defectuous in of places. But where doth Euripides : Even with the the circumstances, which grieves me, because it might not finding of the body; leaving the rest to be told by the spirit Ii-main as an exact model of all lies. For it is faulty of Polydorus. This needs no farther to be enlarged; the both in place and time, the two necessary companions of all dullest wit may conceive it. corporal actions. For where the stage should alway repre- But, besides these gross absurdities, how all their plays be sent but one place; and the uttermost time presupposed in it, neither right tragedies nor right comedies, mingling kings should be, both by Aristotle's precept, and common reason, and clowns, not because the matter so carrieth it, but thrust but one day; there is both many days and many places in- in the clown by head and shoulders to play a part in majestical artificially imagined.

matters, with neither decency nor discretion ; so as neither But if it be so in Gorboduc, how much more in all the the admiration and commiseration, nor the right sportfulness, rest? where you shall have Asia of the one side, and Afric is by their mongrel tragi-comedy obtained. I know Apuleius of the other, and so many other under kingdoms, that the did somewhat so, but that is a thing recounted with space of player, when he comes in, must ever begin with telling where time, not represented in one moment: and I know the he is, or else the tale will not be conceived. Now shall you ancients have one or two examples of tragi-comedies as have three ladies walk to gather flowers, and then we must Plautus hath Amphytrio. But, if we mark them well, we kur lieve the stage to be a garden. By and by, we hear news shall find, that they never, or very daintily, match hornpipes of shipwreck in the same place, then we are to blame if we and funerals. So falleth it out, that having indeed no right accept it not for a rock. I'pon the back of that comes out a comedy in that comical part of our tragedy, we have nothing biderus monster with fire and smoke, and then the miserable

but scurrility, unworthy of any chaste ears; or some extreme tu holdats are bound to take it for a cave; while, in the mean show of doltishness, indeed fit to lift up a loud laughter, and time, two armies fly in, represented with four swords and nothing else : where the whole tract of a comedy should be bu klers, and then, what hard heart will not receive it for a full of delight; as the tragedy should be still maintained in a pitched field?

well-raised admiration. Now of time they are much more liberal; for ordinary it But our comedians think there is no delight without is, that two young princes fall in love; after many traverses laughter, which is very wrong; for though laughter may xhe is got with child; delivered of a fair boy; he is lost, come with delight, yet cometh it not of delight, as though Tumth a man, falleth in love, and is ready to get another delight should be the cause of laughter; but well may one child; and all this in two hours' space; which, how absurd thing breed both together. Nay, in themselves, they have,

as it were, a kind of contrariety. For delight we scarcely do,

but in things that have a conveniency to ourselves, or to the 1 " The cruel man who with a hard rule holds the sceptre, fears those who fear him, the dread comes home to its author.” Two lines from

general nature. Laughter almost ever cometh of things most Act V. of the “Oedipus" of Seneca.

disproportioned to ourselves and nature: delight hath a joy



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in it either permanent or present ; laughter hath only a the Whitefriars Theatre was not used after 1616. scornful tickling. For example; we are ravished with delight On the Surrey side of the Thames the old building to see a fair woman, and yet are far from being moved to in Paris Garden, which had been used for bearlaughter: we laugh at deformed creatures, wherein certainly baiting, was turned into a theatre, and other theatres we cannot delight : we delight in good chances : we laugh at

that sprang up on that side of the water were the mischances : we delight to hear the happiness of our friends and country, at which he were worthy to be laughed at that would laugh: we shall, contrarily, sometimes laugh to find a matter quite mistaken, and go down the hill against the bias,' in the mouth of some such men as, for the respect of them, one shall be heartily sorry he cannot choose but laugh, and so is rather pained than delighted with laughter. Yet deny I not, but that they may go well together; for, as in Alexander's picture well set out, we delight without laughter, and in twenty mad antics we laugh without delight : so in Hercules, painted with his great beard and furious countenance, in a woman's attire, spinning at Omphale's commandment, it breeds both delight and laughter; for the representing of so strange a power in love, procures delight, and the scornfulness of the action stirreth laughter.

But I speak to this purpose, that all the end of the comical part be not upon such scornful matters as stir laughter only, but mix with it that delightful teaching which is the end of poesy. And the great fault, even in that point of laughter, and forbidden plainly by Aristotle, is, that they stir laughter in sinful things, which are rather execrable than ridiculous; or in miserable, which are rather to be pitied than scorned. For what is it to make folks gape at a wretched beggar, and a beggarly clown; or against the law of hospitality, to jest at strangers, because they speak not English so well as we do? what do we learn, since it is certain

Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se,
Quam quod ridiculos homines facit ?2



But rather a busy loving courtier, and a heartless threatening
Thraso; a self-wise seeming schoolmaster ; a wry-transformed

BUILT IN 1594; REBCILT IN 1613. traveller : these, if we saw walk in stage names, which we play naturally, therein were delightful laughter, and teaching

Rose, the Hope, and the Swan, on Bankside, opened delightfulness: as in the other, the tragedies of Buchanan 3

about 1581. The Hope was used as a bear-garden do justly bring forth a divine admiration. But I have lavished out too many words of this play

on two days of the week.

On the 13th of June, 1583, several persons were matter; I do it, because, as they are excelling parts of poesy, so is there none so much used in England, and none can be

killed and many maimed during a play acted on more pitifully abused; which, like an unmannerly daughter,

Sunday, by the fall of a rotten gallery in the old showing a bad education, causeth her mother Poesy's honesty

building used at Paris Garden as a theatre. This to be called in question.

was accepted as God's judgment upon the question

of Sabbath-day performances. They were then proSo stood opinion between the poets and the hibited by the Privy Council ; and when Shakespeare Puritans in 1580. Stephen Gosson, sincere in attack, came to London, three years later, that old cause of although his view of the case was not a wide one, offence was at an end. withdrew from the stage to poverty, and was for five Among the court plays, ancient history and mythoyears a tutor in the country. He took some part in logy still furnished a large part of the material for continuance of the controversy raised against the exercise of fancy; and about the year 1583 George players, who defended themselves in their own way Peele, then twenty-five years old, wrote “ The in February, 1582, with "A Play of Plays," which Arraignment of Paris,” which was presented before was then acted at the Shoreditch " Theatre.” The Queen Elizabeth by the children of her chapel, and players had much favour, and more play-houses were first printed, without the anthor's name, in 1584. built.

In 1580, a theatre was established on the ground of the suppressed monastery at Whitefriars. But George Peele was of Devonshire, and cites his

native county, "No better hay in all Devonshire," I Bias, Old French “biais," slope.

in the piece here taken as an illustration of his . From the third Satire of Juvenal, thus paraphrased by Samuel

genius. He was about six years older than Shake Johnson in his "London". “Of all the griefs that harass the distress'd,

speare ; studied at Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke Sure the most bitter is a scornful jest."

| College, Oxford ; graduated as B.A. in 1577, and * The Tragedies of George Buchanan were in Latin.

as M.A. in 1579; and was a noted poet in his

univerity, where he probably wrote a poem on “ The Tale of Troy,” which he published in 1589 as “ an old poem of mine own.” He translated, when at Oxford, one of the Iphigenias of Euripides, but that version is lost. He came to London about five years before Shakespeare, in 1581, was a married man in 1583, and possessed some land in right of his wife. In 1583 he was concerned at Oxford in the proluction of two plays at Christchurch, when Albertus Alasco, a Polish Prince Palatine, was being hospitably received by the university at her Majesty's desire. He must have been then known as a dramatist in London. In 1584 there was printei, without author's name, his “ Arraignment of Paris, a Pastoral, presented before the Queen's Majesty by the Children of her Chapel." In Peele's

And Phabe, chief of sylvan chace, commands you all to

dance. Gods. Then round in a circle our sportance must be; Hold hands in a hornpipe, all gallant in glee. (Dance. Muses. Within.] Reverence, reverence, most humble re

verence! Gods. Most humble reverence! Rhanis leading the way, enter Juxo, PALLAS, and VENUS.

Pas alone sings.


The God of Shepherds, and his mates,
With country cheer salute your states,
Fair, wise, and worthy as you be,
And thank the gracious ladies three

For honour done to Ida. [The birds sing.

The goddesses speak, and are welcomed with pastoral grace. Then the scene changes to a picture of the rustic love of Paris and Enone :

ARRAIGNMENT OF PARIS, after a prologue by Até, the first act opens with a dainty jastoral scene, in which Pan, Faunus, and Sylvanus prepare to welcome the goddesses, whose Dear approach is felt. Pomona enters, to join the receptioll, and she asks

Thinkest, Faunus, that these goddesses will take our gifts in


To which Faunus replies,

Yea, doubtless, for shall tell thee, dame, 'twere better give

a thing, A sin of love, unto a mighty person or a king, Thin to a rude and bartarous swain, but lad and basely

korn, For gently takes the gentle man that oft the clown will scorn.

The whole play is designed as a tribute of homage to the querel, lwfore whom it was to be presented.

Fiora joins in the preparation to receive the goril, and presently Pomona says

Pom. Hark, Flora, Faunus! here is melody, A charin of tiri, and more than ordinary.

[An artificial charm of birds heard within. Pan. The willy birls make mirth; then should we do them

Enter Paris and Esoxe.
Par. Enone, while we bin dispos'd to walk,
Tell me what shall be subject of our talk?
Thou hast a sort of pretty tales in store,
Dare say no nymph in Ida woods hath more:
Again, beside thy sweet alluring face,
In telling them thou hast a special grace.
Then, prithee, sweet, afford some pretty thing.
Some toy that from thy pleasant wit doth spring.

En. Paris, my heart's contentment and my choice,
['se thou thy pipe, and I will use my voice ;
So shall thy just request be not de nied,
And time well spent, and both be satisfied.

Par. Well, gentle nymph, although thou do mé wrong,
That can ne tune my pipe unto a song,
Me list this once, Enoné, for thy sake,
This idle task on me to undertake.

They sit under a tree together.
En. And whereon, then, shall be my roundelay?
For thou hast heard my store long since, dare sar;
How Saturn did divide his kingdom tho
To Jove, to Neptune, and to Dis b-low ;
How mighty men made foul success war
Against the gods and state of Jupiter ;
How Phorcy's imp, that was so trick and fair,
That tangled Neptune in her golden hair,
Became a Gorgon for her lewd misdeed,--
A pretty fable, Paris, for to read,
A piece of cunning, trust m', for the nones,
That wealth and beauty alter min to stones;
How Salmacis, resembling idleness,
Turns men to women all through wantonness :
How Pluto raught Queen Ceres' daughter thence,
And what lid follow of that love-offence;
Of Daphne turn'd into the laurel-trie,
That shows a mirror of virginity ;
How fair Narcissus tooting on his shade,
Reproves disdain, and tells how form doth vade;
How cunning Philomela's neville tails
What forve in love, what wit in surtv,w dweils;
What pxins unhappy souls abide in hell,
They say because on earth they liv'd not wea, -
Ixion's wherl, proud Tantal's pininz woe,
Prometheus' torment, and a many mo,

P.S.D. if we ni!! bow an echo to their song.

The 106. A quire within and without.
Gode 112. O Ida, 0) Ida, happy hill !
Tib uur done to Ida, may it continue still!

M. Within.) Ye country gods that in this Ida won, Brinz, WI TOT gifts of wlerme,

Freur done to Ida.
Gda. Bu bod, in sign of joy we sing,
All <

.19 Oi jorful welcome bring,

FA baour done to Ida. ws. Withen.) The Muses give you melody to gratulate

this chance,

i barna of 1.4 " Charm" is of the same root as the Latin

Som baris are tbemselves said to be “charmed” by moal Di. Motor bees the same phrase in " Paradise List," *wrth euro eest tirdsiBook IV., line 641.) 14, 171 First-English “unian."

The storm being past of thunder and lightning, and Ate having

trundled the ball into place, crying Fatum Trojæ," 1 Juxo

takes it up.

How Danaus' daughters ply their endless task,
What toil the toil of Sisyphus doth ask:
All these are old and known I know, yet, if thou wilt have

any, Choose some of these, for, trust me, else Enone hath not

many. Par. Nay, what thou wilt: but sith my cunning not

compares with thine, Begin some toy that I can play upon this pipe of mine. En. There is a pretty sonnet, then, we call it Cupid's

Curse, They that do change old love for new, pray gods they change

for worse !" The note is fine and quick withal, the ditty will agree, Paris, with that same vow of thine upon our poplar-tree.

Par. No better thing; begin it, then : Enone, thou shalt


Our music figure of the love that grows 'twixt thee and me.

They sing ; and while Exone sings, he pipes.


En. Fair and fair, and twice so fair,

As fair as any may be;
The fairest shepherd on our green,

A love for any ladý.
Par. Fair and fair, and twice so fair,

As fair as any may be ;
Thy love is fair for thee alone,

And for no other lady.
En. My love is fair, my love is gay,

As fresh as bin the flowers in May,
And of my love my roundelay,

My merry merry merry roundelay,

Concludes with Cupid's curse,-
They that do change old love for new,

Pray gods they change for worse !
Both. They that do change, &c.
En. Fair and fair, &c.
Par. Fair and fair, &c.

Thy love is fair, &c.
En. My love can pipe, my love can sing,
My love can many a pretty thing,
And of his lovely praises ring
My merry merry roundelays,

Amen to Cupid's curse, -
They that do change, &c.

Par. They that do change, &c.
Both. Fair and fair, &c.

Juno. Pallas, the storm is past and gone, and Phoebus

clears the skies, And, lo, behold a ball of gold, a fair and worthy prize! Ven. This

posy wills the apple to the fairest given be; Then is it mine, for Venus hight the fairest of the three. Pal. The fairest here, as fair is meant, am I, ye do ine

wrong ; And if the fairest have it must, to me it doth belong.

Juno. Then Juno may it not enjoy, so every one says no, But I will prove myself the fairest ere I lose it so.

[They read the posy.
The brief is this, Detur pulcherrimæ,
Let this unto the fairest given be,
The fairest of the three,--and I am she.

Pal. Detur pulcherrime,
Let this unto the fairest given be,
The fairest of the three,-and I am she.

Ven. Detur pulcherrimæ,
Let this unto the fairest given be,
The fairest of the three,-and I am she.

Juno. My face is fair; but yet the Majesty
That all the gods in heaven have seen in me
Have made them choose of the planets seven,
To be the wife of Jove and queen of heaven.
If, then, this prize be but bequeath'd to beauty,
The only she that wins this prize am I.

Ven. That Venus is the fairest, this doth prove,
That Venus is the lovely Queen of Love:
The name of Venus is indeed but Beauty,
And men me fairest call per excellency.
If, then, this prize be but bequeath'd to beauty,
The only she that wins this prize am I.

Pal. To stand on terms of beauty as you take it,
Believe me, ladies, is but to mistake it.
The beauty that this subtle prize must win,
No outward beauty hight, but dwells within ;
And sift it as you please, and you shall find,
This beauty is the beauty of the mind:
This fairness, virtue hight in general,
That many branches hath in special ;
This beauty Wisdom hight, whereof am I,
By heaven appointed, goddess worthily.
And look how much the mind, the better part,
Doth overpass the body in desert,
So much the mistress of those gifts divine
Excels thy beauty, and that state of thine.
Then, if this prize be thus bequeath'd to beauty,
The only she that wins this prize am I.

l'en. Nay, Pallas, by your leave you wander clean:
We must not construe hereof as you mean,
But take the sense as it is plainly meant;
And let the fairest ha't, I am content.

Pal. Our reasons will be infinite, I trow,
Unless unto some other point we grow :
But first here's none, methinks, dispos’d to yield,
And none but will with words maintain the field.

Juno. Then, if you will, t' avoid a tedious grudge,
Refer it to the sentence of a judge;

The song being ended, they rise. En. Sweet shepherd, for Enone's sake be cunning in this

song, And keep thy love, and love thy choice, or else thou dost her

wrong. Par. My vow is made and witnessed, the poplar will not

start, Nor shall the nymph (Enone's love from forth my bleeding

heart. I will go bring thee on thy way, my flock are here behind, And I will have a lover's fee; they say, unkiss'd unkind.



So ends the first act.

In the next the three goddesses appear again. The weather changes as they speak, and

| The Fate of Troy: because the favour of Venus won hy Paris, e Prince of Troy, led to his carrying off Helen, the most beautifu! woman in the world, from her Greek husband Menelaus. This caused the Greeks to besiege Troy, and leave it in ruin.

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