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Laudamus veteres, sed nostris utimur annis.

FAST. I. 225.


Omne solum forti patria est, ut piscibus aequor,

ut volucri vacuo quicquid in orbe patet. Nec fera tempestas toto tamen horret in anno, et tibi, crede mihi, tempora veris erunt.

FAST. I. 493.

67. Dum sedet, umbrosae salices volucresque canorae

fecerunt somnos et leve murmur aquae. Blanda quies furtim victis obrepsit ocellis, et cadit a mento languida facta manus.

FAST. III. 17.


Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis, et fugiunt freno non remorante dies.

FAST. VI. 781.



1. THE FOUR AGES. Met. I.-89. Aurea, etc.: first arose the golden age. sata est : was sown, from sero. vindice nullo : with no one to inflict punishment, lit. no one (being) an avenger : Ablative Absolute.

90. sponte sua: voluntarily. sine lege: without (the restraints of) law. fidem rectumque: honor and uprightness ; rectum is used as a substantive: 204, R. 2*; A. & G. 189; B. 237, 2; H. 441, 2. colebat: practised.

92. aere : in the early times, laws and other important documents were set up on bronze; later, marble was often used. Here the Twelve Tables are especially referred to, which contained the early Roman laws, and were of bronze. In poetry the preposition is often omitted with Abl. of Place: 385, R. 3; A. & G. 258, f, 3; B, 228, d; H. 425, n. 3. See l. 95. supplex turba : the suppliant crowd ; the accused and their friends.

93. ora: the countenance, poetic Plural of os, mouth. erant: men were; the subject is drawn from the previous turba. Notice in these lines the frequent use of the Imperfect tense, the tense of description in general, and see 231; A. & G. 277 ; B. 260; H. 469.

94. caesa pinus : the cut pine, i.e. the ship, which is here personified. The material is used for the product by a figure of speech called Metonymy. ut viseret: to visit ; clause of Design, depending on descenderat : 545 ; A. & G. 317; B. 282 ; H. 497. orbem : land.

95. suis montibus : from its (native) mountains ; poetic omission of preposition. In poetry the prepositions are frequently omitted in the various case-relations (Where, Whence, Whither) ; this is probably a survival of ancient usage, to which all poetry is inclined. Originally, these relations were expressed by the simple cases. liquidas; liquid, rather than clear. The word has both meanings.

96. nulla litora praeter sua: no shores except their own. norant: syncopated from noverant, knew; it is equivalent to an Imperfect. Nondum cingebant: did not yet surround.

* The first reference in every case is to Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, School Edition, 1898- large edition, 1894 (L. Ed.); the other grammars referred to are those of Allen & Greenough (A. & G.), Bennett (B.), and Harkness (H.).

97. praecipites : steep.

98. non tuba (erat): there was no trumpet. directi (sc. aeris): of straight bronze; Gen. of Quality : 365 ; A. & G. 215; B. 203; H. 396, V.; more natural would be the Abl. of Material.

99. Notice throughout these lines the omission of the conjunction, a figure called Asyndeton: 473, R.; A. & G. 208, 6; B. 341, 4, a; H. 636, I. I.

100. securae : peaceful, free from trouble ; in predicative attribution: 325; A. & G. 191; B. 239; H. 443. mollia peragebant otia : passed their time in agreeable idleness, lived lives of downy ease.

101. Ipsa : goes with tellus. inmunis : free, without compulsion ; lit. owing no tribute. rastro intacta : untouched by the rake.

102. nec saucia : and unwounded. per se dabat omnia : gave everything of its own accord.

103. nullo cogente creatis : which sprang up without any compulsion, grew wild. nullo cogente: lit. no one compelling ; Ablative Absolute; nullo is used as Abl. of nemo.

104. arbuteos fetus : the fruit (lit. offspring) of the arbutus tree. This evergreen abounded in Italy and bore fruit somewhat similar to strawberries. fraga : strawberries. legebant : gathered; this is the proper meaning of this verb, but it is more frequent in its derived sense, read.

105. corna : cornel berries. mora : blackberries. duris rubetis : prickly briar bushes.

106. patula Iovis arbore: from the wide-spreading tree of Jove, i.e. the oak, as the king among trees. On the omission of the preposition, see on 1. 95.

108. mulcebant: fanned ; lit. stroked. 109. Mox: soon ; that is, after the blooms. inarata ; unplowed.

110. nec renovatus ager : and the unbroken field. gravidis canebat aristis : was white with the heavy ears of grain. The Abl. is one of Means.

111. Notice the order, flumina iam, ... iam flumina; this chiastic arrangement is on account of the verse and to give variety. ibant: went flowing on.

112. stillabant: dripped. mella: honey, poetic Plural. Whenever anything is thought of as consisting of many parts, the Plural is likely to be used. Here there were many drops of honey. In 1. 100 above, each man had otium. This seems to be the origin of the poetic Plural, although the Plural force cannot always be so clearly seen. In fact, in many cases there is no distinction of meaning.

113. Postquam: after, with erat; distinguish from postea, afterwards. After Saturn had been sent to murky Tartarus and the world was under (the sway of) Jupiter. Saturn was supplanted by his son. The Impf is rare with postquam: 562 ; A. & G. 324, a; B. 287, 4; H. 518, n. 1.

114. subist: took the place of the golden : compare l. 130, where in locum is added. Final it of the Perfect, preceded by i, is often long in the thesis. proles, race.

116. contraxit: shortened. tempora : poetic Plural. The springtime is already thought of as including divisions equal to seasons. By the Plural the length of the ancient spring is emphasized. veris : from ver.

117. per: by means of aestus: heat ; that is, the hot season, summer. Translate these poetic Plurals as singulars. Notice the poetic variation in the conjunctions que, et. inaequales : variable, in temperature.

118, breve ver : so called in contrast to ver aeternum of 1. 107. spatiis : that is, seasons. exegit: divided, lit. completed, filled out.

119. aër: the air. fervoribus : poetic Plural. ustus : parched.

120. canduit: became white hot, glowed. ventis adstricta: congealed by the winds. glacies : ice, icicles.

121. subiere : entered, sc. homines ; the ending of the Perfect -őre is common in poetry for metrical reasons. domūs: Acc. Plural; domós, Nom. Singular.

122. frutices : thickets. cortice : bark, here the inner bark, bast. 123. sulcis : 'Abl. of Place regarded as Means: 389; H. 425, 1. 124. iuvenci : steers. In Italy oxen were regularly used for plowing.

126. ingeniis : in character, natural disposition. Abl. of Respect (or Specification) : 397; A. & G. 253; B. 226; H. 424. The Plural, by reason of the collective idea in proles.

127. de: for the Ablative of Material, see 396; A. & G. 244; H. 415, III. The ordinary preposition is ex,

128. venae peioris in aevum: in the age of the worse metal.

129. fugāre: Perfect. pudor verumque fidesque : modesty, truth, and honor.

130. In quorum locum : in their stead. fraudes : deception ; Plural, because there were many kinds and many cases.

131. vis: violence. amor sceleratus habendi: that is, avarice ; sceleratus: because the love of money leads to crime (scelus). The variety in the conjunctions is for the metre's sake.

132. nec adhuc: although ... not yet. 133. navita : a poetic form for nauta.

134. insultavere : bounded over, properly upon. carinae : properly keels, often equivalent to ships by Synecdoché: 695; A. & G. 386 (end); H. 637, iv.

135. Communem prius : which had before been common property ; in predicative attribution to humum. ceu : as, like, a poetic word of comparison for the prose ut. lumina, auras : Acc. by attraction to bumum.

136. cautus mensor: the careful surveyor.

137. Nec tantum: not only segetes : Acc., Inner Obj., of the passive verb poscebatur : G. (L. Ed.) 339, n. 4; A. & G. 239, R.; B. 178, 2; H. 374, 1. debita : the earth was under obligation to make a return for the seed and the labor. dives with humus.

138. poscebatur humus: translate the Accusatives as subject : were demanded of the soil. itum est : they went, impersonal passive. viscera : bowels.

139. recondiderat: re gives the notion deep. admoverat: had moved towards; for subject supply terra, personified.

140. inritamenta malorum: an incentive to crime ; Plural, to agree with opes.

142. prodierat: had come forth. ferrum : is personified, as also is bellum. utroque : by means of both, iron and gold.

143. crepitantia concutit arma: shakes the clashing arms.

144. Vivitur : men live ; Latin does not have the vague and unemphatic men of the English, and the impersonal passive is used instead : see itum above, 1. 138. non hospes, etc.; the guest is not safe from the host. hospes is merely a guest friend, and the exact force varies with the context.

145. gratia : friendship, good will.
146. inminet: is intent upon, longs for.

147. lurida : pale, causing paleness, death-bringing. aconita : aconite, wolf 's-bane, a violent poison. The stepmother was frequently an object of suspicion.

148. ante diem: before the time. inquirit in: inquires into; that is, consults astrologers, etc., in regard to his father's length of life, showing impatience because he continues to live.

149. caede madentes with terras : moist with gore.

150. Astraea : the goddess of Justice ; when she withdrew to Heaven she became the constellation Virgo.


MET. I.-262. Protinus : straightway; Jupiter had visited the earth in human guise and had found so much wickedness there that he determined to destroy it. Aeoliis in antris : in the Aeolian caves ; Aeolus was the god that had charge of the winds. When he wished to keep them quiet he shut them up in caves.

263. et quaecumque, etc.: and whatever blasts (i.e. all the winds that) drive away the collected clouds.

264. Madidis alis : with moist wings; the South wind coming across the Mediterranean was likely to bring rain to Italy, while the North wind indicated clear weather.

265. vultum : Acc. of Respect (of Specification, or the Greek Accusative): 338; A. & G. 240, c; B. 180; H. 378.

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