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43. ut: though.
44. dimidia ... ero : at least half of me will survive.
45. quam celeri flamma : with how swift a flame.
46. ab aetherio axe: from the dome of heaven.
47. tabulae laterum : the planks of the sides.

48. grave ballistae onus : the heavy load of the ballista; this was a machine for throwing heavy masses, especially stones. 49. qui ... fluctės :

is wave which is coming. fiuctus : Accusative Plural. The Romans had a superstition that every tenth wave was the highest.

52. munus : a boon ; shipwreck had peculiar terrors for the ancients, because the souls of the unburied were liable to a long period of unrest.

53. fatoque suo ferroque : from natural causes or from the sword.
54. moriens : goes with corpus.
55. mandare suis aliqua : to leave some messages for one's friends.
57. non ego solus hic vehor: I am not the only one on board.

58. inmeritos : the innocent ; it was thought dangerous to embark with a guilty man on board lest he should cause a shipwreck. Compare my Sources, etc., Her. VII. 57.

59. Pro : Interjection. curae: Dative For Which. 60. utraque turba : both groups, the gods of heaven and the gods of the


61. quamque vitam, hanc: and this life which.

62. in loca iussa : to the appointed place, or whither I have been ordered. sinite feram: permit me to carry. ut is omitted.

63. pendere: to pay.

64. ipso iudici : according to the decision of Caesar himself. est morte minor: deserves not the death penalty.

66. in hoc: for this.

67. est illi ... copia : he has complete power over my life. cruoris : blood, life-blood, death.

68. cum volet, feret: will take when he pleases.
71. ut: though.
73, ferentibus : favorable.
75. divitias ... parandi : desirous of gaining boundless wealth.
76. mutandis mercibus: for exchanging wares ; Dative For Which.

77. petii studiosus : visited as a student. studiosus is still the colloquial German for student.

79. delatus ad : landing at. 80. delicias : amusements, pleasures. 81. quod opto: as to my object in praying for. faciles : favorable.

83. Obligor ut tangam: I must reach, I am bound for. fera : wild. laevi Ponti : on the left of the Black Sea.

85. ut videam: Subjunctive of Design. Tomitas : the inhabitants of Tomi put for the city. Nescio quo in orbe positos : situated I know not in what part of the world.

86. exilem : short; predicate adjective with viam.
87. Seu ... seu magis : if...or if.
88. prona sit numina vestra : let your divine favor be inclined.

90. regione: Ovid often complains of the severity of the climate, the bleakness of the region, the proximity of the enemy, and the uncongeniality of the inhabitants, and repeatedly begs to be assigned to some more hospitable place.

91. corpora : poetic Plural.
92. Ausonios: poetic for Italian.
93. fugat: banishes.
97. acta mortalia : mortal deeds the deeds of mortals.
98. a culpa ... mea : ye know that there is no crime in my fault.

99. si: all these conditions have their conclusion in l. 105, ita parcite divi: then spare me, ye gods. immo ... error: yea, more! if ye know that this is true, if my mistake led me astray.

101. quod ... illi : if I favored that house, a thing which even the humblest can do.

102. si satis ... mihi : if the general commands (laws) of Augustus satisfied me.

103. hoc ... saecula : if I called the age happy under his rule.
104. Caesaribus : the princes belonging to the house of Augustus.
106. alta ... caput: may a high wave bury my falling head.

109. sub condicione: conditionally, the conditions have just been given, and Ovid imagines that they have been accepted by the gods.

110. fallere quos non est: whom it is not possible to deceive. est : it is possible, like the Greek šoti.


be quae.

Trist. I. 3.-1. subit: there comes to my mind. 2. qua: the antecedent is noctis ; I suspect that the reading should

The MSS. may have been affected by the qua in the next line. mihi fuit: I spent. in urbe : in the city, i.e. Rome.

3. repeto : recall. 5. lux: the day.

6. extremae Ausoniae: of farthest Italy. extremae with finibus is tautological

7. nec spatium ... parandi : I had had neither time nor mind well suited for making preparations,

8. torpuerant pectora nostra : my faculties had grown dull. longa mora : from dwelling on my misfortune.

9. non mihi ... fuit: I paid no attention to choosing slaves or companions, or clothing or supplies, suitable for an exile.


13, ut: when. hanc animi nubem: this mental cloud.
15. extremum : for the last time; Accusative of the Inner Object.

16. modo de multis : out of many just now; compare Met. III. 687. unus et alter: two or three.

17. amans : fond.

18. per indignas genas: over her innocent cheeks. indignas indicates that she did not deserve this sorrow.

19. nata procul aberat diversa : my daughter was far away. in the neighborhood of.

21. quocumque adspiceres : wherever you might look ; Iterative Subjunctive in the Ideal Second Person.

22. formaque ... erat: and there was in the house the appearance of a mournful funeral.

23. femina virque, pueri quoque : men, women, and children ; compare Ibis, 118: Gaudeat adversis femina virque tuis. Also Ex Ponto iv. 9, 96.

24. angulus omnis : every corner. 25. grandibus exemplis in parvis : large illustrations in small matters. 28. alta : high up in the sky; a kind of predicate. 29. suspiciens : looking up at. ab hac: then.

Capitolia : the Capitoline Hill with the temple of Jupiter and other gods; poetic Plural.

30. nostro lari: to my house. frustra : the nearness of the temple had not protected him.

31. sedibus : Ablative of Place Where. 32. iam nunquam: never again. 33. Quirini : the deified Romulus, the founder of Rome. 34. este ... mihi: farewell forever. mihi : Dative of Agent. 36. hanc odiis exonerate fugam : free my banishment from hatred. 37. caelesti viro : the divine man, i.e. Augustus. 39. quod : Relative. poenae auctor: the inflicter of the punishment.

40. placato deo: Ablative Absolute expressing Condition. miser : contented.

41. pluribus : at greater length. 42. medios : halfway.

43. Lares: the household gods, represented by statues kept in the interior of the house. adstrata : lying prostrate. passis capillis : with dishevelled hair.

44. extinctos : in cases of mourning the hearth fire was extinguished.

45, adversos : face to face. Penates : the ancestral gods, spirits of departed ancestors, also represented by statues.

46. non valitura : destined not to prevail. viro : husband.

47. nox praecipitata : departing night; the night, like the sun, is supposed to sink into the ocean.

48. versaque ... erat: the Arcadian Bear had turned on its axis ; that is, had changed its position in the sky.


49. Quid facerem : what was I to do; Deliberative Question of the Past. Blando : enticing.

50. ultima ...fugae : but that was the last night before my banishment was to begin.

52. vel quo ... vel unde : either where...or whence ; compare l. 61.
53. certam: fixed.
56. indulgens animo: indulging my feeling.

57. 'vale': this word, as a quotation, is construed as an indeclinable substantive, here in the Ablative Absolute.

58. quasi discedens : as if taking my departure. summa: last. 60. pignora cara: those that were dearest.

62. utraque iusta mora est: each consideration is a sufficient reason for delay.

65, sodales : comrades.

66. Thesea fide: in friendship like that of Theseus, who accompanied his friend Pirithous even to the lower regions.

68. amplius: again. in lucro est: is that much gained.

69. nec mora : immediately. sermonis : of my conversation. inperfecta : unfinished.

70. proxima quaeque : everything that was nearest. 72. gravis : ill-omened, bringing sorrow.

73. relinquam: translate as an Imperfect. With these incomplete conditional sentences, the sequence of tenses is considered rather than the form of the condition.

75. in contraria versos: turned in opposite directions.

76. ultores proditionis : as avengers of his treachery; in apposition to equos. In an important battle Mettus Fufetius treacherously deprived the Romans of the aid of the Albans, their allies, and was punished by Tullus Hostilius in the following manner. He was tied to two four-horse chariots, which were then driven in opposite directions. See Liv. I. 28.

79. umeris abeuntis inhaerens : clinging to my soulders as I was leaving.

83. Et mihi ... tellus : 1, too, must make the journey ; I, too, will dwell in the farthest land ; a vivid use instead of the Future, as if everything were not only decided upon but also accomplished.

84. accedam ... rati : I shall be but a small additional burden to the fleeing ship.

86. pietas : affection. Caesar erit: will be a Caesar, will take the place of Caesar.

88. victas utilitate: yielding to expediency.
89. ferri (= efferri): used of carrying out corpses for burial.

90. squalidis : with neglected person. comis: here used of the beard.

91. illa : that is, my wife. tenebris obortis : darkness having covered her eyes, i.e. in a faint ; compare Met. II. 181.

92. semianimis : four syllables by Synizesis. 93. resurrexit: recovered.

95. se, Penates : object of conplorasse, which in turn depends upon narratur, 1. 91.

desertos Penates: the deserted house. 97. quam si ... rogos : than if she had seen the bodies of both her daughter and her husband lying upon the ready pyre.

98. structos : built up. corpus : bodies ; object of habere.
99. moriendo: by dying. ponere: to lay aside.
100, respectu mei : from regard for me.


Trist. IV. 10.–1. Ille ego ... posteritas : that you may know what sort of a man I was1, that poet of tender love whom you are reading-hear, posterity! fuerim: Indirect Question. noris : = noveris ; Subjunctive of Design.

4. novies decem : ninety, fourscore and ten. 5. editus : born. nec non; and.

6. cum: it was the year when, namely, B.C. 43 (A.U.c. 711). The two consuls C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius lost their lives in a battle against Antony at Mutina.

7. Siquid id est: if this is anything, is of any importance. usque a proavis : going back several generations. vetus: translate with ordinis. ordinis: of the rank, namcly, equestrian. heres : sc. sum,

8. non ... munere : not solely by the gift of fortune. Under Augustus, wealth (400,000 sesterces) in itself entitled one to the equestrian rank.

9. stirps: offspring. genito fratre : after a brother.
10. tribus ante quater mensibus : twelve months before.
11. Lucifer adfuit idem : i.e. it was the same day of the year.

12. liba : sacrificial cakes ; these were offered to the Genius (the personal attendant spirit) on birthdays.

13. haec est ... prima quae: of the five-day festival in honor of Minerva —the quinquatrus maiores—the second day, March 20th, marked the beginning of the gladiatorial shows.

15. Protinus excolimur teneri : even in early childhood we are taught. cura parentis : by my father's care.

16. ad ... viros : to men in the city distinguished for their learning. 17. viridi : tender. tendebat ad : was inclined to. 18. natus : born, fitted by nature.

19. caelestia sacra : the heavenly rites. He refers to poetry, the gift of the gods.

22. Maeonides : that is, Homer.

23. motus: influenced. Helicon : a mountain in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses. toto : translate, entirely.

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