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in length. longam ... sequenti : lit. a shorter one coming just below a long one.

191. ut... putes : so that you might think they grew on a slope. quondam ; sometimes, often.

192. avenis : with stalks of oats.

193. Tum ... imas: then he fastens them together with flax (thread) at the middle and wax at the bottom.

194. parvo curvamine: with a slight curve (inward). 195. una stabat: was standing by.

196. ignarus se tractare : not knowing that he was handling. pericla : things which would prove dangerous to him.

197. ore renidenti : with beaming face. modo: now.

199. mollibat (= molliebat): softened, kneaded. This form of the Imperfect belongs to Early Latin and occurs only rarely in poetry, and then for metrical reasons. lusu suo: with his play.

200. manus ultima: the finishing touch. coeptis : upon the work ; Dative with prep. in composition.

203. Medio ... curras : to go by a middle route; construe with monet. 204. ne: lest. demissior : too low.

206. spectare: to look at; that is, to guide your course by the stars as sailors do.

208. me ... viam : make your way where I lead; that is, simply follow me. Pariter: at the same time. praecepta volandi: instructions how to fly.

210. Inter ... seniles : in the midst of the work (fitting on the wings) and the advice, the old man's cheeks grew moist.

212. non iterum repetenda : never again to be repeated.

213, ante: ahead. comiti: for his companion. velut ales : like a bird ; the comparison ends with nido.

214. produxit : leads forth ; Iterative Perfect in comparisons.

215. damnosas ... artes : and teaches him the costly accomplishment. It cost Icarus his life.

217. aliquis dum captat: some fisherman catching. tremula harundine : with trembling rod; the fish jerked the pole.

218. stiva ... arator : or plowman leaning on his plowstock.

219, quique: and since they; Causal relative : 633 ; A. & G. 320, e; H. 517. carpere : to make their way through.

220. Iunonia : sacred to Juno. laeva parte: on the left. 221, fuerant ... relictae : had been left behind.

222. dextră erat: was on the right. Samos was on the left, Lebinthus and Calymne on the right.

223. audaci: notice that adjectives of the third declension have i in the Ablative ; participles usually have e.

225. Rapidi : destructive.
226. pennarum vincula : with which the feathers were fastened on.

228. remigio: here equivalent to wings.
229. caerulea : goes with aqua.
230, nomen: that is, the Icarian Sea, a part of the Aegean.
231, nec iam: no longer.
233. 'Icare' dicebat: adspexit: as he was saying 'Icarus,' he saw.
234. devovit: cursed. sepulcro : Ablative of Place Where.


MET. VIII.—626. huc: to this place; the scene is laid in Phrygia. specie mortali: in the guise of a mortal. cumque parente : and with his father, Jupiter.

627. Atlantiades : the grandson of Atlas, Mercury. caducifer: the wand-bearing. With this staff (caduceus) Mercury was wont to close the eyes of men in slumber or wake them.

628. locum requiemque: a resting-place; hendiadys : 698; B. 374, 4; H. 636, III., 2.

629. serae : bolts, bars, placed across the doors.

630. stipulis ... palustri : thatched with straw and canes from the swamp.

632. illa casa : in that hut. casa is understood with the first illa. 634, nec ... ferendo: and by bearing it with resignation. nec iniqua = et aequa. Notice the fondness of the Latin for the negative.

635. nec refert: it makes no difference (whether). -ne: or.
637. tetigere : reached, came to. penates : house.
638. submisso vertice : with bowed heads. postes : door.

639. posito sedili : placing a seat. membra relevare: to rest themselves. membra, corpus, and animus are often used in Latin where we prefer the reflexive.

640. quo: over which, refers to sedili. textum: rug. 643. anima anili : with an old woman's breath, by blowing. 644. Multifidas: split fine.

645. minuit: broke. parvo ... aëno: and placed them round a small bronze pot.

646. Quod : the antecedent is holus. riguo: well-watered. conlegerat: had gathered.

647. truncat holus foliis : cuts the leaves from the vegetables. holus : here = cabbage. furca ... suis : she takes down with a two-pronged fork the smoky side of bacon. 648. tigno: from the rafter. 649. de tergore: from the side. 650. domat ... undis : that is, boils it soft. 651. medias fallunt: they while away the intervening. 655. concutiuntque torum: and (finally) they shake up the bedding ; they prepare the couch upon which their guests are to recline at the meal. de: of, giving the material.

656. sponda ... salignis : of willow frame and posts; Abl. of Quality.

659. non indignanda : well suited to. The bedstead had no right to complain that the bedclothes were too fine.

660. Accubuere: took their places on the couch, reclined for the meal. succincta : with her skirts tucked up.

662. Testa: a pot of earthenware. Quae postquam : after it. clivum sustulit : had removed the incline.

663. mentae (Nom.): mint; she wiped the table with mint.

664. bicolor : the two-colored, first green, then black. sincerae : chaste, the virgin. baca : berry; that is, olives.

665. faece : brine.
666. intiba ... coacti : endives, radishes, cheese.
668. fictilibus : on earthenware dishes.

669. caelatus eodem argento crater : a wine-bowl made out of the same precious metal ; that is, earthenware. fabricata fago: made out of beechwood.

670. qua cava sunt inlita : smeared on the inside. 671. foci ... calentes : the hot fire-place sent forth.

672. nec longae vina senectae : and wines of no great age. For the negative, compare l. 634.

673. paulum seducta : moved a little to one side. mensis secundis : that is, the dessert. This consisted of nuts, dried figs, dates, plums, apples, grapes, honey in the comb.

674. nux: nuts; Singular used collectively.

678. nec ... voluntas : that is, and earnest hospitality. nec iners pauperque: more closely, and attentive and unsparing. Compare 1. 634.

679. cratera ... vina: they see the bowl fill itself of its own accord and the wine increase by itself.

681. novitate: at the strange spectacle. supinis : up-turned, with the palms turned upward.

682. timidus: timidly. Take with both subjects.
683, dapibus nullisque paratibus : for their plain dinner.

684. custodia : guardian. The Romans regarded geese as superior to watch-dogs. Once Rome was about to be taken by the Gauls in a nightattack, when geese gave the alarm and the city was saved.

685. dis hospitibus : to their divine guests. domini : the owners.

686. celer penna : swift of wing. tardos aetate: them, slow on account of their age; that is, the slow old pair.

690. inmunibus : predicate adjective agreeing with vobis. 691. Modo : only.

693. ite simul: go with us. baculis levati : supporting themselves with staffs.

694. vestigia ponere : to place their tracks; that is, to walk.

695. Tantum ... quantum : (when) they were as far from the top as. 696. mersa ... cetera : everything else covered with water. 697. tantum: only. tecta : poetical Plural.

699. dominis ... duobus : small even for two, even its two owners regarded it as a small hut. • 700. furcas ... columnae : columns took the place of the props.

701. stramina flavescunt: the thatch turns yellow. videntur : passive. tecta : roof.

702. tellus : the earth-floor. 707. Esse sacerdotes poscimus: we ask to be the priests. 708. concordes : in harmony. 709. auferat ... eadem: let the same hour carry us both off. 710. busta : the tomb. ab illa: a rare use instead of the Dative.

711. Vota ... sequitur: their prayers are answered.. tutela : the guardians, like custodia : abstract for concrete.

714. frondere : put forth leaves. They were turned into trees.
719. frutex: the branches.
720. de gemino corpore : from the two bodies.


MET. X.-1. Inde: thence; from the wedding of Iphis and Ianthe in Crete. croceo : saffron. Brides usually wore veils of yellow or red. Here the god of marriage himself is represented as dressed in yellow.

2. Ciconum: of the Cicones, a people of Thrace. 3. tendit: hastens. Orphēa (adj.): of Orpheus. 4. Adfuit ... quidem : he came, indeed. sollemnia : festive. 6. stridula usque fuit: kept hissing. lacrimoso : tear-bringing. 7. motibus : could not be made to burn by shaking. 8. Exitus ... gravior: the sequel was worse than the omen.

9. nova nupta : bride. naiadum ... comitata : accompanied by a throng of naiads. She, too, was a nymph.

10. occidit: fell dead. talum: heel.

11. Quam: her; object of deflevit. Rhodopeins vates : the Thracian bard ; that is, Orpheus. Rhodope was a mountain in Thrace.

12. ne non et: that he might also. The Purpose depends on descendere. 13. Taenaria porta : by the Taenarian gate ; a place in Laconia.

14. leves: light. Ghosts, having no substance, have no weight. functa sepulcro : the unburied were not readily admitted to Tartarus, but were supposed to wander for a long period on the bank of the Styx.

16. nervis : the chords, of the lyre. He played the accompaniment to his song on the lyre.

17. positi : agrees with mundi. numina is Vocative.
18. in quem ... creamur: into which all of us mortals fall.


21. nec ... monstri: nor to bind the Medusaean monster's (that is, Cerberus's) three throats, shaggy with serpents.

23. calcata : stepped upon.
24. crescentes annos : her youthful years.
25. Posse pati: to be able to endure it.
26. supera in ora: in the upper world.
27. an sit et hic: whether here too. auguror: I divine.

29. Per : in the name of, by; used in prayers, entreaties, and oaths.

31. properata : hastened, premature. retexite: unwind, revoke. 32. Omnia debentur: everything is owed.

33. serius aut citius : sooner or later. sedem ad unam: to the same abode.

36. Haec quoque: she too. iustos : her due. matura: in the ripeness of life.

37. iuris erit vestri : will belong to you. usum : the loan. munere : instead of a gift, not a gift.

38. Quodsi : but if. certum ... mihi : I am resolved not to return. 41. exsangues : bloodless, incorporeal. animae : spirits.

42. captavit: tried to catch. refugam : fleeing. The thirsty Tantalus, though surrounded by water, was unable to drink. stupuit: stood still. orbis : wheel. Ixion was turned on a wheel as a punishment for his crimes. Vultures were devouring the liver of Tityos but it constantly grew again, that his punishment might be prolonged. The fifty daughters of Danaus (the Danaides, the grand-daughters of Belus), tried to lift water in sieves. The stone which Sisyphus was doomed to roll up hill, would always roll back. The Eumenides were the Furies, the avengers of crime.

47. sustinet oranti negare : has the heart to refuse his request. qui regit ima : the Ruler of the Underworld, that is, Pluto.

49. inter: among; goes with umbras. passu tardo: with a slow step.

50. legem : the condition.

52. exierit: Perfect Subjunctive, representing the Future Perfect Indicative of the direct form. aut: else. futura : sc. esse.

53. Carpitur : is climbed ; translate: they climb. per muta silentia : through the regions of profound silence.

55. afuěrunt: notice the quantity. telluris summae : of the earth's surface.

56. ne deficeret metuens : fearing that she was not there.
57. amans : fondly.
58. bracchiaque intendens: and stretching out her arms.

63. vix acciperet: was scarcely able to catch ; Subjunctive of Characteristic.

73. portitor: the ferryman, Charon. diebus : Time How Long is

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