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providing their Breakfasts betimes both for her Men and Maid-Servants. She does not think it either healthful or reasonable, for them to go to their daily Labour fafting ; but allows chem a sufficient Portion of Food, to support them under the Drudgeries and Fatigues of it; and always finds the Business, either of her House or Land, the better done by it. For what Service can she expect from them without a competent Suftenance ? She prudently considers the Support of their Constitutions: so that they never want for either Breakfast, Dinner or Supper, convenient for their Welfare and Nourishment. She feeds their Belljes well with Plenty: of good wholesome Diet', which inables their Bodies, and makes their Minds, willing to work. Then the laborious Exercises or Imployments of the Day, will surely be performd with greater Vigour and 'Alacrity. For this Reason, the Men ought the more to exert their Strength and Diligence; as' well as the Maidens, their Industry and Cleanliness. Not aSlut por a Sloven, nor a lazy Person, deserves to be entertain'd in her House; especially considering, she is fo. vigilantly careful as to break her own Reft in the Night, to ferve them, and make ready for them the Neceffaries of Life in due Time of the Day. '.'.


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O ECONOMY, , which is the Art of rue. V ling a House well, must needs be a mof excellent and useful Knowledge.'The old Philofophors maintain it to be the chiefeft: Part of hunane Polity. And the nero Ones look upon

Body every indirms the momift thena King of

ät as the image of the Government of a whole Kingdom, in Miniature. For that being only a publick Society of many private Families, assembled together into one collective Body; when they are all well govern'd according to the Rules of right Reason, found Judgment, and true Prudence in political Affairs : no doubt - but it goes well with the Common. Weal, according to the most wholesome Constitutions and wiseft Laws of the Land. The whole Body must needs be in good Health, when every individual Member of it does its Duty, and performs the most flourishing Operations of Life. An Oeconomist then, in parti

cular, who may be call'd either a King or B · Queen, a Lord or Lady, a Master or Mistress,

a Father or Mother, or, in one Word, the Head of a Family ; ought to be very careful of his Duty, exact in his Office, faithful in his Trust, prudent in his Administration, and observant of his Honour, by the good Management of his House. In the first place, he iš oblig'd to make suitable Provision in all Respects for his Houthold, either Wife, Children or serVants, according to that sacred Injunétion of the holy Apostle; 1. Tim. Chap. v. Ver. 8. as the Words import. If there be any that provideth not for his own, and namely for them of his Houshold, be denieth the Faith, and is worse than an Infidel. A severe Reprimand to some negligent Housholders! Every Man has a Right of ruling his own House, says Homer; but Virtue and Prudence must render him deserving of that Character, and intitle him to the

Honour of their Obedience. Anacharfis observes, 24 that we must judge of the Goodness of ai House, and the Happiness of a Family; not

by that Stateliness which is without, but by that Goodliness and Wisdom of humane Policy which is within, among the Domestick People. upon this, withcút Question, we may properly make use of that noble Motto, fic fiti letantur Lares; when all is well within Doors. A Family well-manag'd, and wisely order'd, is a great Felicity to the Governour. Hefiod places it among his first Works, as a principal Precept of Oeconomy, soixón q? Eu distrai, to set his House in good Order, and govern it well with Difcretion. The Head must begin firft to give Spirit to the Nerves, Sense to the Sinews, and Motion to the whole Body. A wise Housholder therefore must commence his Government at himself, and set the first Example of being just, rober, chast, peaceable and religious. He should use no ill Language, harsh Threat’ning, or cruel Correction, cowards his Children and Servants, that may either frighten them out of their Duty, or harden them in their Disobedience : but let his Words be gentle ; his Menaces, mild; and his Punishments, moderate; in order to incourage them to do well, and deserve better Usage at his Hands. . .

BUT my Business in these Remarks, is only to touch upon the Masterly-Part of this Office, with Respect to servile Obligations. Reason and Prudence are highly necessary in House-keeping, to qualify or restrain the Imperiousness of power and Authority; which so easily turns into Domestick Tyranny. A Master or Mistress then must conlider, that they are ruling a free-born People, and must not make Slaves of their Servants. To make a righc Use of their Service, they, ought to

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deal mercifully, gently or patiently with them upon all Occasions, and not treat them like Bond-Slaves or worthless Vassals; but rather thew them all the civil Usage and Humanity they can reasonably expect, for the lacouragement of their Labour and . Diligence. There is no such Thing as absolute Servitude or Slavery in the Case; and they have not lost their original Liberty or Birth-Right. Going to Service is not entering into Bondage. They are not Dogs or Horses, and ought to be more taken care of than either our Stables or our Kitchins. They ought not to be abus'd, beaten, or over-wrought, more than other Cattle. They require as much Rest from their La. bours, as other Beasts. We should use no un,' manly Threats, Passions, Outrages, Insults of Violences against their persons; in the due Performance of their respective Offices, to the best of their knowledge and Ability. Their

Capacities, Judgment or Skill may perhaps fail : i them, as well as their Strength; and then i they are highly excusable. In such a Cafe, they ļought to be both pardon’d and pity'd. They

are rational Creatures as well as we; and as sociable too, with good looking after in their

Business. They should be much made of or į caress'd, rather than kick’d, cuff'd and buffeted

about. But I mean good Servants all the while ; A which are very rare in this Age! They are i generally grown fo intolerably proud and vi. i cious ; so haughty, disobedient and rebellious;

so untractable, disobliging and ungovernable ;

that if some timely Care or Course be not tao į ken with them, we shall have no small Reason ļ to fear, like the Rumans of Old, ancher serį vile War. They are become the very Pele

§ 3

of our Families ; fly in the Face of all Goo vernment, and prove the arrantest Pilferers (not to say Pick-Locks) in the World. It is now almost come to that Pass of the Proverb; As many Enemies as Slaves; as many Thieves as Servants. However, faithful, true and trusty Servants require the greatest Meekness, Clemency and Tenderness of Affection at our Hands: nay, deserve even some kind of Favour and Courtesy, or at least a Sort of fevere Familiarity of us at a Distance; to countenance their Honesty, incourage their Diligence, and reward their Fidelity. Such diligent Labourers are highly worthy of their Hire ; and can hardly be call'd justly, either Hirelings or Mercenaries by their Merit. Their Wages ought to be well paid, with the most deserv'd Generosity, so far from abating them one Peny of their full Due upon any Account, that we should rather do them fome Kindness over and above, or give them a good Charaeter for their future Recompence and Recommendation to better Fortune. Phocylides ear. nestly presses this moral Precept, Meason fox@ho are dido reward the Labourer; and again, dão der senil Badutins - give not the Servant an ill Word, do him no Diskindness. But then to defraud him, after all his good Services, of his just Pay, for his diligent Pains; would be the worst of Felonies, the wickedest of Robberies. · HOUSE-KEEPING, manag’d as it ought

to be, is a nice Undertaking, as well as a laborious Task. The Mother or the Mistress of a Family, must sit up late, and rise early ; not go to Bed with the sleepy Lamb, and yet get up again with the air y. Lark. Innumerable Anxi. eties of Thought in the Night, and Perplexi

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