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There are other accounts still differing from these, but they have no colour of probability, and only prove an uncertainty in the general story.

Plutarch relates That Venus appeared to Hipparchus before his assassination in a dream, and from a phial, which she held in her hand, sprinkled his face with drops of blood.' Herodotus also says* That he was warned by a vision on the eve of his murder, being addressed in sleep by a man of extraordinary stature and beauty in verses of an enigma. tical import, which he had thoughts of consulting the interpreters upon next morning, but afterwards passed it off with contempt as a vapour of the ima. gination, and fell a sacrifice to his incredulity.'

This at least is certain, that he governed the capricious inhabitants of Attica with such perfect tem. per and discretion, that their tranquillity was with out interruption; nor does it appear that the people, who were erecting statues and trophies to his mura derers, in commemoration of the glorious re-estab lishment of their freedom, could charge him with one single act of oppression ; and perhaps if Hippias, who survived him, had not galled them with the yoke of his tyranny during the few years he ruled in Athens after the death of Hipparchus, the public would not have joined in styling those assassins the deliverers of their country, who were known to be guided by no other motives than private ma. lice and resentment.

Harmodius was killed on the spot; Aristogiton fled and was seized in his flight. The part, which Hippias had now to act, was delicate in the ex. treme; he was either to punish with such rigour, as might secure his anthority by terror, or endear himself to the people by the virtue of forbearance: he had the experience of a long administration, con. ducted by his brother on the mildest and most mer

ciful principles; and if these assassins had been with. out accomplices, it is reasonable to suppose he would not have reversed a system of government, which had been found so successful ; but as it appeared that Harmodius and Aristogiton were joined by others in their plot, he thought the Athenians were no longer to be ruled by gentle means, and that no other alternative remained, but to resign his power, or enforce it with rigour.

NUMBER CXXIX.

HIPPIAS began his measures by putting Aristogiton to the torture; he seized the person of Leæna, a courtezan, who was in the secret of the conspiracy, but whilst he was attempting to force her to a confession, she took the resolute method of preventing it by biting off her tongue. Aristogiton, with revengeful cunning, impeached several courtiers and intimates of the tyrant. Athens now became a scene of blood; executions were multiplied, and many principal citizens suffered death, till the informer, having satiated his vengeance upon all who were obnoxious to him or friendly to Hippias, at length told the tyrant that he had been made the dupe of false accusations, and triumphed in the remorse that his confession occasioned: some accounts add that he desired to whisper to Hippias, and in the act suddenly seized his ear with his teeth, and tore it from his head.

Hippias henceforward became a tyrant in the worst sense of the word ; he racked the people with taxes, ordered all the current coin into the royal coffers upon pretence of its debasement, and for the period of three years continued to oppress the state by many grievous methods of exaction and misrule. His expulsion and escape at length set Athens free, and then it was that the Athenians began to cele. brate the action of Harmodius and Aristogiton with rapture and applause ; from this period they were regarded as the saviours of their country; a public edict was put forth, directing that no slave, or person of servilc condition, should in future bear the names of these illustrious citizens: assignments were made upon the Prytaneum for the maintenance of their descendants, and order was given to the magistrate styled Polemarchus to superintend the issue of the public bounty; their posterity were to rank in all public spectacles and processions as the first members of the state, and it was delivered in charge to the superintendants of the Panathenæa, that Harmodius and Aristogiton should be celebrated in the recitations chaunted on that solemnity. There was a popular ode or song composed for this occasion, which was constantly performed on that festival, and is supposed to have been written by Callistratus: it grew so great a favourite with the Athenians, that it became a general fashion to sing it at their private entertainments; some fragments of the comic poets are found to allude to it, and some passages in the plays of Aristophanes. It is a relic of so clie rious a sort, that, contrary to the practice I shall usually observe, I shall here insert it in the original with a translation.

Φίλτα9: Αρμόδιε, έσω τέθνηκας:
Νήσοις δ' εν μακάρων σίφασιν είναι,
“Ινακες σοδόκης 'Αχιλλέας
Τυδέιδην τέ φασι τον έσθλόν Διομηδεα

Εν μύρτου κλαδί το ξίφος φορησω,
"Ωσπες 'Αρμόδιος και Αρισογέντων, ,
Ότ’ Αθηνάιης εν θυσίαις
*Ανδρα τύραννον Ισαάρχον έκταινέτης:
"Αει σφών κλέος εσσεται κατ' αίαν
Φίλλας: Αρμόδιε και 'Αρισόγειτων, ,
“Οτε τον τύραννος κταινέτης,
Ισοκόμες τ' Αθήνας εποιησάτη».

He is not dead, our best belov'd

Harmodius is not lost,
But with Troy's conquerors remov'd

To some more happy coast.
Bind then the myrtle's mystic bough,

And wave your swords around,
For so they struck the tyrant low,

And so their swords were bound.

Perpetual objects of our love

The patriot pair shall be,
Who in Minerva's sacred grove

Struck and set Athens free.

The four last lines of this ode are quoted by Athenæus, and I also find amongst the adulatory verses made in commemoration of these illustrious tyrannicides, a distich written by Simonides of Ceos, congratulating with the Athenians on their delivery from the tyranny of Hipparchus : this poet is made famous to posterity for his memory, which was almost miraculous ; it is to be lamented that it should fail to remind him of such a patron and benefactor. Thelines are not worth translating; the author and the subject reflect no honour upon each other.

The first statues, which the Athenian artists ever cast in metal, were the brazen statues erected in honour of Harmodius and Aristogiton, in the first year of Olymp. Ixviii. thirteen years after the murder of Hipparchus, when Isagoras was archon, and in the memorable æra of Rome, when 'Tarquinius Superbus was dethroned and expelled : they were conspicuously placed in the form of Athens, and it was a curious event, after the revolution of fivc centuries, that the statue of the younger utus, when he had killed Cæsar, was placed between these very statues, erected in the year when his an. cestor expelled the Tarquins: they were the work. manship of Antenor ; and Xerxes, when he plundered Athens, removed them out of Greece, from other motives probably than of respect to their intrinsic merit: they were in succeeding time restored to the city, but whether by Alexander after his defeat of Darius, by Antiochus, or by the munificence of Seleucus, authorities are not agreed ; I am inclined to think they were given back by Seleucus. There were two others of the same materials afterwards cast by Critias, and again two others, the workmanship of the celebrated Praxiteles. Pliny says these last-mentioned statues were of consummate beauty and excellence, and there is reason to think they were the first performances of that great master in metal. The honour of a statue in brass was rarely decreed by the Athenians to any of their most illustrious citizens, and few other instances occur, except one to Solon, and one to Conon for his services against the Lacedæmonians. The expedicnt made use of to perpetuate the heroic con. stancy of Leæna was ingenious, for as fitting to erect a public statue to a courtezan, they devised the figure of a lioness in allusion to her name, which they cast in brass, and without a tongue, in memory of the resolute method she had

was not

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