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le above cited, or Suidas in his author of The Pen.

theus ;' but it is further urged by a sagacious critic, that this fragment bears internal evidence of a tor. gery, being doctrine of a later date than Thespis, and plainly of the fabrication of Plato's academy: in confirmation of this remark, circumstances of a more positive nature are adduced, and Diogenes Laertius is brought forward, who actually charges Heraclides of writing certain tragedies and fathering them upon Thespis, and this charge Laertius grounds upon the authority of Aristoxenus the mu. sician: the credit of Aristoxenus as a philosopher, historian, and faithful relator of facts, is as well established with the learned world, as the character of Heraclides is notorious for plagiarism, falsehood and affectation; he was a vain rich man, a great juggler in literature, aspiring to rival Plato in his writings, and one who was detected in bribing the Pythia to decree a crown of gold and divine honours to him after his decease ; a man as apt to palm his own productions upon others as he was to assume other men's productions to himself, which he was convict. ed of by Chamæleon in his spurious treatise upon Homer and Hesiod.

This practice of fathering tragedies upon great names obtained in more instances than one; for Dionysius wrote a tragedy called Parthenopæus and palmed it upon Sophocles, a bolder forgery than this of Heraclides; and it is remarkable, that Heraclides himself was caught by this forgery, and quotes the Parthenopæus as genuine.

Plato speaking of 'The Deity uses these words Πούρω ηδονής και λύσης έδρυται το θείον- The Deity is situated remote from all pleasure and pain :' A sentiment so coincident with the fragment quoted by Plutarch from the Pentheus ascribed to Thespis,

seems to warrant the remark before made, which supposes it to have been fabricated in the academy of Plato: This with the authority of Aristoxenus for the general forgery, and Plutarch's assertion that tragedy was satiric before Phrynichus and Æschy. Jus, will have its weight against the titles of Thes. pis's tragedies, as they are given in Suidas ; and ac. cordingly I find that the editor of Suidas, com. menting upon this very article, in effect admits the error of his author: this argument moreover accounts for the silence of Aristotle as to Thespis's tragedies.

I am aware that it has been a question with some critics, whether tragedy originated with Thespis, notwithstanding the record of the Marmor Chronicon, and Suidas states the pretensions of Epigenes the Sicyonian prior to Thespis; but in this he is single and unsupported by any evidence, except what Plato asserts generally in his Minos —. That tragedy was extremely ancient at Athens, and that it is to be dated neither from Thespis, nor from Phrynichus ; '--some authorities also place Thespis's first tragedy in a higher period then Olymp. Ixi, as it stands in the Marmor; for Laertius says • That Solon hindered Thespis from acting his tra. gedies, believing those feigned representations to be of no usc.'-And Plutarch tells us— That Solon saw one of Thespis's plays, but disliking the man. ner of it, forbade him to act any more.'- I need not observe that this must have passed before Pisistratus established his tyranny, which did not take place till the last year of Olymp. liv. but if thesc facts be admitted, they seem to be decisive as to the tragedy's being allusive to Bacchus and the Sa. tyrs in its first instance at least; because it can hardly be supposed that so profest an admirer of Homer as Solon was known to be, and himself a poet, would have objected to any drama formed upon his model.

As to Plato's general assertion with respect to the high antiquity of the Athenian tragedy, it seems thrownoutas a paradox, which he does not attempt to illustrate or support, and I cannot think it stands in the way of Thespis's pretensions to be considered as the father of tragedy, confirmed by so many authorities.

All these sceming difficulties will be reconciled, if we concur with the best opinions in the following particulars, viz. that tragedy, which was concerned about Bacchus and the Satyrs, was in no instance committed to writing : that Thespis's first tragedy, which Solon saw and disliked, was of this unwritten and satiric sort: that in process of time the same author actually wrote tragedy, and first acted it on a waggon in Olymp. lxi. within the æra of Pisistratus, and according to the record of the Mar. mor Chronicon, so often referred to.

I will not disguise that Dr. Bentley, whose criti. cism is so conclusive for the forgery of those tragedies quoted by Plutarch and enumerated by Suidas, Julius Pollux and Clemens of Alexandria, is of opi. nion - Thespis himself published nothing in writing ;' but as there are so many testimonies for his being the father of tragedy in general, and some which expressly say he was the first writer of tra. gedy, I hope I shall not trespass too far on my reader's patience, if I lay the chief of these autho. rities before him.

The Arundel Marble, which is of date as high as Olymp. cxxix. sets forth, that “Thespis was the first who gave being to tragedy.' The epigram of Dios. corides, printed in Mr. Stanley's edition of Æschy.

common account however is as follows, viz. Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, Periander of Corinth, Cleobulus the Rhodian, Chilon the Lacedæmonian, Bias of Priene, and Pittacus of Mitylene.

This distribution was well calculated to inspire emulation amongst rival states, and to that emulation' Greece was indebted for the conspicuous figure she made in the world of letters. The Ionic and Italian schools of philosophy were established under Thales and Pythagoras; the first was supported by Anaximander the successor of Thales, by Socrates, Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, Diogenes, Zeno and other illustrious men; Pythagoras's school devolved upon Empedocles, Heraclitas, Zenophanes, Democritus, Pyrrho and Epicorus. The original tenets of the first masters were by no means adhered to by their descendants; the wanderings of error are not to be restrained by system ; hypothesis was built upon hypothesis, and the labyrinth at length became too intricate to be unravelled : sparks of light were in the mean time struck out by the active collision of wit; noble truths occasionally broke forth, and sayings, worthy to be registered amongst the doctrines of Christian revelation, fell from heathen lips : in the lofty spirit of philosophy they insulted pain, resisted pleasure, and set at defiance death itself. Respect is due to so much dignity of character; the meek forgiving tenets, which Christianity inculcates, were touched upon but lightly and by few; some however by the force of intellect fol. lowed the light of reason into a future state of im. mortality; they appear to have contempla ted' the Divine Essence, as he is, simple and supreme, and not filtered into attributes corruptly personified by a synod of divinities. Of such men we must think and speak with admiration and affection.

Thalos, the founder of the Ionic school, was à great man and a good citizen; he studied geometry under Egyptian masters, and introduced some new discoveries in astronomy and the celestial sphere, regulating and correcting the Greek Calendar, which Solon, about the same time, made some attempts to reform at Athens. This he did by bringing it to a conformity with the Hebrew calendar, except that his year began with the summer solstice, and that of the Hebrews with the vernal. Now the He. brew calendar comprised twelve months, and each month severally comprised the same, or nearly the same number of days as ours. This appears by an examination of Moses's account of the deluge in the seventh chapter of Genesis.

Amongst other nations the calendar was exceedingly vague and unsettled : the Egyptians measured their year by four months; the Arcadians by three; the Carians and Acarnaniaos by six; and the people of Alba by ten ; at the same time all these nations were in the practice of making up the year to its natural completion by intercalendary months or days. In the time of Romulus the Romans follow: ed the calendar of the Albanians; and of the ten months, which their year consisted of, four comprized thirty-one days cach, viz. Martius, Maius, Quintilis, October; the six other consisted of thirty days, and were named Aprilis, Junius, Sextilis, September, November, December. By this calendar Romulus's year regularly consisted of only 304 days, and to complete the natural period he was obliged to resort to the expedient of intercalendary days.

Numa was too much of a philosopher not to seek a remedy for these deficiencies, and added two months to his year: the former of these he named

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