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ACCURATE DESCRIPTIONS as well of the
various MACHINES, INSTRUMENTS, Tools, FIGURES,
and SCHEMES necessary for illustrating them,

AS OF
The Classes, Kinds, Preparations, and Uses of NATURAL
PRODUCTIONS, whether ANIMALS, VEGETABLES,
MINERALS, Fossils, or FLUID$ ;

Together with
The KINGDOMS, PROVINCES, CITIES, TOWNS, and

other Remarkable Places throughout the WORLD,

Illustrated with above Three Hundred COPPER-PLATES,
curiously engraved by Mr. JEFFERYS, Geographer and Engraver to

his Royal Highness the Prince of WALES.
The Whole extracted from the Best Authors in all Languages,

By a SOCIETY of GenTLEMEN,

Hæc undique Gaza
Congeritur

VIRG.

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LONDON:
Printed for W. OWEN, at Homer's Head, in Fleet-street.

MDCC LIV.

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Ś mankind, at least in all the polite and civilized parts of the world,

are abundantly convinced of the inestimable value of knowledge, we shall not detain the reader with needless encomiums of it;, neither shall

we enter upon a tedious history of the rise and progress of the several arts and sciences. It appears to us much more interesting, as well as more conducive to our present purpose, to employ the few pages allotted for an Introduce tion, in shewing how justly this work merits the title of a Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences ; this we shall attempt to do, by briefly explaining the design and nature of the work, and afterwards giving a short analysis of the subjectmatters contained in it.

In general, then, it is designed, and, upon examination, we are confident will be found, to be more universal and comprehensive, than any work of the like nature, hitherto published in any language: for not only are the larger branches of science, and general classes of natural objects, here explained and illustrated ; but, likewise, their various subdivisions pursued throughout the most minute ramifications : thus, the properties of Points and Atoms, for instance, are by na means omitted, though contained in much narrower bounds than those of Lines, Angles, Surfaces, and Solids : here too the smallest Insects and Plants find a place, only a less one than those allotted for the description of the Elephant and Oak: in a word, it will contain, fo to speak, the quintescence of literature, extracted from loads of gross materials, and especially from that chaos of words which fills up whole pages, where one paragraph might have served. But this is not all; for besides lopping off excrescences, curtailing fuperfluities, and wholly rejecting afeless lumber, particular care has been taken to supply the deficiencies, as well as to correct what appeared to be amiss in the plan of former scientifical lexicographers : hence it is that some of our articles are more full than theirs, others more concise, and a multitude of entirely new ones added ; not to mention the different arrangement and disposition which obtain on many occasions. Among the new articles

may

be ranked most, if not all, the geographical ones, many commercial and scientifical, and not a few in natural history.

This work, therefore, will make a Complete, though concise, Body of Arts and Sciences, Natural History, and Geography, disposed in the commodicus form of a dictionary ; concerning which form we find ourselves obliged to remark, that some have very injudicicusly condemned the use of references. A thoufand instances inight be brought, to prove their being indispenfibly necessary to the perfection of such a work: thus, under the general article ANIMAL, after defining what is meant by the term, and distributing it into the classes QUADRUPŁDs, BirD5, F15 Has, &c. the nature of a dictionary, which treats of every thing under distinct articles, makes references to these heads, for the particular description and subdivisions of each, not only useful, but an essential part

of the work. On the other hand, to avoid needless repetitions, it has been judged suf

ficient,

A.2

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