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was again taken up, and a new strument was made eternally bind. settlement' made in confirmation ing upon the parties, and upon of the former.

their mutual poiterity. This took place in the year Upon the death of the Nabob 1773, when Mr. Hastings, then vizier in the year 1775, and the president of the council of Cal. accession of his son and succeflor cutta, thought it necessary to make Afloff Ul Dowlah, new arrange. a progress to the court of the Na. ments took place between the bob vizier, as well, perhaps, to company and that prince, which obtain some personal explanations affected the whole government of from him with respect to past and his dominions. Among these, the current matters, as to form those sovereigņty of Benares, and its de. new connections and arrangements, pendencies, was entirely given over with respect to revenue, troops, and transferred to the company; and the acquisition of territory, the Rajah Cheit Sing then stand. which were soon after displayed in ing exactly in the same degree of their effects. Upon this occasion, relation and vaffalage to that body, a new treaty or inftrument, to the in which he had before ftood with fame purport as the former, was the Nabob of Oude. Nothing concluded and ratified, between could exceed the satisfaction which the Nabob vizier, and the Rajah this transfer of sovereignty, and Cheit Sing; but with this farther entire emancipation from a caconfirmation, and advantage to pricious tyranny, afforded to the the Rajah, that the president, by young Rajah and his family. They himself figning and becoming a were now placed in the hands of party to the present, thereby ren- their old friends, allies and prodered the company actual guaran- tectors, and the most flattering tees, at all future times, to the prospects of lasting quiet, security due performance of the conditions, and happiness were in view. Indeed the necessity of something These hopes were confirmed, Stronger than treaties to bind the if they could be supposed to re. faith, and to restrain the rapacity quire any confirmation, by a let. of the Nabob vizier, became upon ter from Mr. Hastings, who had that very occasion fully apparent; been appointed to the new and for notwithstanding the vast ad high office of governor general, vantages, which, at the expence This letter teemed with senti. of his neighbours, as well as of ments of regard, 'honour and jufhis natural lord, the Mogul, were tice, and authorized the British then thrown into his hands, he was resident at the court of Benares exceedingly dissatisfied with Mr. to affure the Rajah that no farther Hastings, for not permitting him tribute than that already ftipulat. to extort ten lacks of rupees from ed, hould be exacted from him, the young Rajah, as well as to and that it should not under any ftrip him of two very strong forts, future change of government be which constituted the best defences enlarged. A recommendation, of his country. Upon this occa, about the fame time, from the fion, as on the former, the in. governor general and council ta

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the Rajah, that he should raise and payment, and discharged it with fupport a body of 2,000 horse, a worse. or rather, perhaps, that he should The increasing exigencies and increase the cavalry already on his expences of a war, which was establishment to that number, as becoming general throughout Init was in no degree pressed as an dia, were not likely to produce obligation, but feems to have any remission of these demands, been merely proposed as a mea- when once the ice was broker, sure of common utility, and a and the precedent established. provision against any future and They were annually tepeated ; unforeseen danger, could afford while the unwillingness of comno cause of apprehension, nor in- pliance, and the backwardness of dicate any change in the Rajah's payment, became every year more condition.

apparent, and afforded farther It is not denied, that the Ra. room for dissatisfaction. During jah of Benares continued to ad. the many ages in which the Hinhere to the engagements on his doo princes and landholders have fide, by the punctual discharge of been doomed to suffer the oppres. the stipulated revenue, nor that fion and exorbitance of foreign his conduct was in every respect power, a strict concealment of their highly fatisfactory, until new and wealth, and a constant plea of unexpected demands occafioned extreme poverty, have been the such alteration in it, as proved at weak means which they generally length the means of giving um- adopted to elude the extortion and brage to the government of Cal. rapacity of their rulers. The cutta. Upon intelligence of the Rajah of Benares resorted to this war with France, it was deter- established practice; and even so mined by the governor general and early as the payment of the second council, in the month of July year's subsidy, although he was 1778, that the Rajah Cheit Sing known or supposed to be very should be required to contribute rich, he affected to borrow money an extraordinary subsidy of five in small fums, and even to fell his lacks of rupees, towards the ex- plate and jewels, as demonstra. pences which this new exigency tions of his inability; and was would impofe on their govern- ftill so now in his payments, ment during the current year. It that it was found necessary to may be supposed, that the inno- quicken him, by sending two bat. vation thus proposed, and the talions of sepoys to be quartered danger of the precedent, affected in his dominions, and their pay the rajah much more than the to be charged to his account, un. amount or value of the sum de- til he had made good the whole, manded. However that was, the The third year's subsidy was governor general informs us in ftill worse paid, and the fame rehis narrative, that after many ex- medy, of sending troops to live cuses, and protestations of inabi- upon him, was again adopted. lity, the Rajah at length confent. The Rajah then carried the plea of ed, with a very ill grace, to the inability and poverty so far, that

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when about one lack of rupees ty, and to lessen his faith in the had with great difficulty been ob- English, so likewise, that they tained from him, he wrote a let. did not serve equally to weaken ter himself to the governor gene- his attachment, and to loosen his ral, soliciting forbearance with fidelity to the company. It was respect to the remainder until the natural, that he should look for following year, when he promised new friends and connections; and to pay it along with the stipulated that he should endeavour to prorevenue,

vide some resource against the While a subsidy of about fixty days of trouble and danger. Nothousand pounds a year was ex- thing could be more favourable torted with so much difficulty, it to the encouragement and confirwas not well to be supposed, that mation of such a difpofition, than a demand made upon the Rajah to the general state of India. The furnish 2,000 cavalry for the serdifaffection to the English was vice of the war, would have been unfortunately general throughout attended with much effect; at all that vast continent; they were least, without its being enforced in every settlement, and on every by fome extraordinary degree of fide, engaged in the most dangerexertion. By Mr. Hastings's state ous wars; and while the successes of the transaction, which differs of Hyder Ally seemed to render considerably from that given by their very exiflence in the Carnathe Rajah, he bafled the demand tic more than precarious, they no by delay and evasion; he said that less diminished the reputation and the body of horse which he had dread of their arms, already on foot was fully employ- The countries immediately bored in, and absolutely necessary to dering on, or surrounding the Rathe collection of his revenues, jah's territories, were in a state of without which he could not fulfil the most marked disaffection to his ftipulations with the company, the company, and such of them and that he was utterly unequal as were under its government, to the expence of raising a new scarcely reftrained their violence, corps. It is farther faid, that the until a proper opportunity should demand was lessened to a thou: offer for making off its yoke. The sand; that he at length promised company's adminiftration of the to supply 250; but that neither affairs of Oude, in concert with man of horse was ever sent. It his weak successor, ever fince the is to be observed, that the Rajah’s death of Sujah Ul Dowlah, had horse had done good and acknow. spread defolation, tum.ult and disledged service in a former war, order through those extenfive doSo different are the fruits pro- minions. All these things, tocured by violence, from those gether with the general alliance which are the spontaneous pro- and confederacy which was known duce of good will and affection. to be in contemplation for chac

It will scarcely be imagined, ing them entirely out of India, that as these unexpected demands served to render their affairs ap. served successively to weaken the parently desperate. Rajah's opinion of his own fecuri. In these circumstances it is not much to be doubted, that some in all its parts went so far beyond of the charges laid against the the revenues of the state, that the, Rajah Cheit Sing, might be well looking out for new sources of founded. That he perhaps en- supply was become a matter of tered into negociations with the great urgency. In such circumnative princes in the adjoining itances, the supposed wealth and countries, for mutual support, real weakness of the Rajah, point. and for acting on some plan of ed him out as the immediate and general concert, in the defence of proper object for supplying the their respective rights; and that public necessities. he might have corresponded with Such was the situation of the the discontented Begums of Oude, Rajah, and the state of affairs in or caballed with the disaffected the country of Benares, before and Rajahs, in the neighbouring Eng- about the time that the governor lish governments.


general set out on his progress The

governor general states, from Calcutta, upon the 7th of that various accounts had been July 1781. He had, in that prorepeatedly transmitted to Cal. grels, other objects befides Becutta, as well by the English re- nares in view. Order


if sidents at Benares, as by several poffible, to be restored in the doof the company's officers, from minions of the Nabob vizier, and different parts of that country, of money, at all events, to be there the frequent and strong marks of procured. A separate peace with disaffection that were shewn by the Madajee Scindia was then likerajah himself; but which were wife in agitation, through the indisplayed in a ftill higher degree tervention of Colonel Muir; and by his officers, and by the people the governor general hoped that in general. These charges, in- his approach to the scene of nedeed, so far as they are shewn, gociation, might afford means for are laid in very loose and general bringing it the more speedily to a terms; without any specification conclufion. This was indeed an of facts, dates, names, or circum- object of the first importance. ftances. It is not less remarkable, With respect to Benares, the that they are not included in the governor general states in his narwritten complaints of his conduct, rative of these transactions, that which the governor general sent the disappointment of aid from the to the Rajah himself upon the Rajah, though in a season of such spot.

extreme public distress and dan. But however just the charges of ger, was still less a matter of contumacy and disaffection laid consideration with him, than that against the Rajah might have been, those repeated acts of contumacy and however neceffary, perhaps, and disobedience of which he had in some degree their correction, been guilty, appeared evidences it is fully evident, that the enor- .of a deliberate and fyftematic conmous expences of the war had so duct, aiming at the total subver drained the treasury of Bengal, fion of the company's authority, and the means of still feeding it and the erection of his own inde

pendency pendency on its ruins; a design, dominions of Oude, and all the he says, which had been long and western side of India; that it was generally imputed to him. He equally the passage and the refi. Farther observes, that it was re- dence of their merchants and trad. ported he had inherited a vatt ers'; and that it was at all times mass of wealth from his father open to the free observation and Bulwant Sing, which he had se- inspection of their officers whether cured in the two strong fortresses civil or military. of Lutteefpoor and Bidjeygur ; Another offence was indeed and that he made yearly additions charged on the Rajah, which perto it; that he kept up a large haps had its weight. That he military establishment, both of had, by his agents and emiffaries cavalry, of disciplined and irre- at Calcutta, taken an active and gular infantry, and of artillery ; decided part against the governor that besides the two already nam. general, in those contests which ed, he had many other fortresses, had for some years back prevailed of strong construction and in good between him and other members repair, constantly well stered and of the council. To that contigarrisoned ; that he maintained a nued opposition which he met correspondence with the Marattas, with in Calcutta, to the disapand other powers, who either were, probation of his conduct indur. or might eventually become ene- triously published by the parties mies to the company; and, that formed against him in England, he was collecting, or had pre. and to the constant expectation pared, every provision for open from thence entertained in India revolt, waiting only for a proper of his speedy degradation, the season to declare it, which was governor general attributes all the supposed to depend, either on the misconduct, misdeeds, and crimes arrival of a French armament, or of the Rajah of Benares. on a Maratta invasion.

In the progress of his narrative, It will appear not a little ex- the governor general by degrees traordinary, that several of these opens and avows the motives and matters, particularly whatever re- objects of his expedition, with relates to the Rajah's military efta. spect to that prince. He says, blishment and preparations, the that he confidered Cheit Sing as state of his garrisons, and the in- culpable, in a very high degree, ternal condition or appearance of towards the state, and his punish. things, should be founded on no ment, (of which, he says, he had better authority than mere report, given him frequent warnings if when it is considered, that the he did not amend his conduct) as strong fortress of Chunar, in the an example which justice and po. centre of his dominions, and within licy required. That, he was rean easy march of his capital, had folved to draw from his guilt the for many years been garrisoned by means of relief to the company's the English; that his country was distresses, and to exact a penalty, the highway and thoroughfare to which he was convinced he was the company's troops, in their very well able to bear, from a frequent passage to and from the fund, which he was also convinc


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