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pupils crowded around him, listening port, which was the signal for a new to him with eagerness, and treasuring organization, was followed by the up with veneration his slightest words. draught of a decree proposing the reAmong his many services to the Gar- duction of the Intendant's salary from den must be reckoned the education 12,000 to 8000 francs ; the suppresof his nephew, who has made of botany sion of several places, particularly that a regular science, by developing and of commandant of the police of the perfecting the natural method.
Garden ; an increased stipend to some M. Desfontaines was appointed Pro of the professors; the creation of a fessor of Botany about the year 1786, chair of natural history, &c. &c. immediately after his return from Bar- The disorders of the revolution be bary with the plants of which he has ginning at this period, M. de la Billarsince published the history. At the derie withdrew from France, and his period of his appointment, the Botanic place of Intendant was filled by the Garden was already very rich; and appointment of M. de St Pierre, in the instruction was no longer limited 1792. St Pierre undertook the directo the demonstration of medicinal tion of the King's Garden at a difficult plants ; for the progress of the science conjuncture. That distinguished wrisince Tournefort, by the intermediate ter was gifted with eminent talents as labours of Linnæus, Adanson, and a painter of nature, and a master of de Jussieu, authorized and required a the milder affections; he knew at once more philosophic plan. M. Desfon- to awaken both the heart and the taines was the first to perceive the imagination ; but he wanted exact noimportance of a general knowledge of tions in science, and his timid and methe nature of vegetables, the functions lancholy character deprived him of peculiar to each organ, and the pheno, that knowledge of the world, and that mena of the different periods of their energy of purpose, which are alike re, developement, in order duly to under. quisite for the exertion of authority. stand their generic and specific cha- Nevertheless, he was precisely the man racters ; he, therefore, divided his for the crisis. His quiet and retired course into two parts; the first he life shielded him from persecution, and devoted to the anatomy and physiology his prudence was a safeguard to the of vegetables; the second to the classis establishment. He presented several fication and description of the genera memoirs to the ministry, containing and species. From that period, bo- some very sound regulations, conceitanical instruction was no longer con- ved in a spirit of economy which cir. fined to the exterior forms of plants, cumstances rendered necessary. In but comprised their affinities, uses, and these memoirs may always be noticed modifications. To the method of teach the following words:-“After consulting adopted in the King's Garden since ing the elders,” by which term he de. 1788, are to be ascribed those works signated the persons who had been which have :nade vegetable physiology long attached to the establishment, the basis of botany, and led to the though without an official share in its applications of this science in agricul- administration ture and the arts.
At a period so pregnant with disasBuffon died on the 16th of April, ter to the fortunes of the King, it may 1788, and his place of Chief Intendant well be supposed that the King's wild of the King's Garden was given to the beasts would not meet with a kinder Marquis de la Billarderie. We come treatment than the rest of the family. now to the third and last period of In fact, the Menagerie at Versailles our history, that which extends from being abandoned, and the animals likethe death of Buffon down to the pre- ly to perish of hunger, M. Couturier, sent time, including the epoch of the intendant of the King's domains in new organization, to which we have that city, offered them, by order of already occasionally alluded. On the the minister, to M. St Pierre ; but, as 20th of August, 1790, M. Lebrun he had neither convenient places for made a report, in the name of the com- their reception, nor means of providing mittee of finances of the Constituent for their subsistence, he prevailed on Assembly, on the state of the King's M. Couturier to keep them, and imme. Garden, in which its expenses were diately addressed a memoir to the goestimated at 92,222 francs ; 12,777 vernment on the importance of estabeing necessary for repairs. This re- blishing a Menagerie in the Garden. This address had the desired effect, Cabinet, and Keeper of the Herbarium; and proper measures were ordered to Faujas St Fond, Assistant Keeper of the be taken for the preservation of the Cabinet, and Corresponding Secretary; animals, and their removal to the Mu. Geoffrey, Sub-demonstrator of the Caseum; which, however, was deferred binet; Vanspaendonck, Painter ; Thoutill eighteen months after.
in, First Gardener. · A decree of the Legislative Assembly The general administration of the having about this time suppressed the Cabinet belonged to the Assembly, and universities, the faculties of medicine, the care of the collections to the seve&c., there was reason to fear that the ral Professors ; the places of keeper King's Garden would have been in and assistant keepers of the Cabinet volved in the same proscription ; but, were therefore suppressed. But, as it as the people were led to believe that was necessary to have some person it was destined for the culture of me charged with the key of the galleries, dicinal plants, and that the laboratory the preservation of the objects, and the of chemistry was á manufactory of reception of visitors, these were devol. saltpetre, the establishment escaped ved on M. Lucas, who had passed his destruction. At last, on the 10th of life in the establishment, and enjoyed June, 1793, a decree for the organiza- the confidence of M. Buffon. M. André tion was obtained, chiefly by the ex. Thouin, being made Professor of Agriertions of M. Lakanal, President of culture, M. John Thouin was appoint. the Committee of Public Instruction. ed First Gardener. Four places of As. The following are some of the most sistant Naturalist were created, for essential articles :
the arrangement and preparation of « The establishment shall hence objects under the direction of the Pro. forth be called the Museum of Natu fessors; and these appointments were ral History.
in favour of MM. Desmoulins, Du" Its object shall be the teaching fresne, Valenciennes, and Deleuze, of Natural History in all its branches. the two first for Zoology, the others
"Twelve courses of lectures shall for Mineralogy and Botany; and three be given in the Museum. 1. A course painters were attached to the establisha of Mineralogy. 2. A course of Gene- ment-M. Marechal, and the brothers, ral Chemistry. 3. A course of Che Herry and Joseph Redouté. At the mistry applied to the Arts. 4. A course same time the Library was disposed of Botany. 5. A course of Rural Bon for the reception of the books and tany. 6. A course of Agriculture. drawings ; which last already filled 7 and 8. Two courses of Zoology. 9. sixty-four port-folios. A course of Human Anatomy. 10. A The animals were removed from the course of Comparative Anatomy. 11. A Menagerie at Versailles in 1794. The course of Geology. 12. A course of report of the Committee of Public InIconography."
struction approved the regulations of - The third section provides for the the Professors, and fixed the organic formation of a library, where all the zation of the Museum in its present books on natural history in the public form, with the exception of slight morepositories, and the duplicates of those difications exacted by the change of in the National Library, shall be as circumstances. A law in conformity, sembled; and also the drawings of of the 11th of December, 1797, creplants and animals taken from nature ated a third chair of Zoology, to which in the Museum
M. de Lacépède was appointed, gave By the above decree, twelve chairs the whole administration of the estawere established, without naming the blishment to the Professors, increaprofessors; the distribution of their sed their salary from 2800 to 5000 functions being left to the officers francs; fixed the expenses of the folthemselves. These were MM. Dau- lowing year at 194,000 francs; and benton, keeper of the Cabinet, and Pro- ordained the purchase of certain addi. fessor of Mineralogy in the College of tional lanıls for the Garden. France ; Fourcroy, Professor of Che- Notwithstanding this apparent promistry ; Brogniart, Demonstrator ; gress, however, the delightful region Desfontaines, Professor of Botany; of which we are now sketching the De Jussieu, Demonstrator ; Portal, history, began, in common with every Professor of Anatomy; Bertrud, De- other institution, to experience the monstrator ; Lainarck, Botanist of the effects of what the ingenious Professor
Feldborg would have called, “ the four naturalists. The persons appointwretched state of the world at that ed to accompany him were Maugé and juncture.” The reduced state of the Levillain, for zoology ; Ledru, for bofinances, the depreciation of the funds, tany; and Reidley, gardener of the the cessation of foreign commerce, and Museum, a man of active and indefathe employment of every species of re- tigable zeal. venue and industry for the prosecu- Captain Baudin weighed anchor from tion of the war, “bella horrida bella," Havre on the 30th September, 1796. were serious hindrances to the project He was wrecked off the Canary Isles, of improvement. Painful contrasts but was furnished with another vessel were visible in all directions. Houses by the Spanish government, and shaped and lands of great value were annexed his course towards Trinidad. That to the Garden, and magnificent collec- island, however, had in the meantime tions were acquired; yet funds were fallen into our hands. The party, being wanting to pay the workmen, and thus unable to land, repaired first to your common potato was cultivated St Thomas, and then to Porto Rico, in beds destined for the rarest and where they remained about a year, and most beautiful of exotic flowers. Ere then returned to Europe. They enlong, however, some of the official ad- tered the port of Frecamp in June, ministrators of the Museum were call. 1798. The collections, forwarded by ed to situations in the government of the Seine, arrived at the Museum on the nation, and used their influence in the 12th of July following favour of their favourite haunts_“lo- Never had so great a number of li. ving the spot which once they gloried ving plants, and especially of trees,
from the West Indies been received at At the end of the year 1994, the once ; there were one hundred large Amphitheatre of the Garden was fi- tubs, several of which contained stocks nished in its present state, and in it from six to ten feet high. They had was opened, on the 25th of January, been so skilfully taken care of during 1795, the Normal School ; an extraor- the passage, that they arrived in full dinary institution, but founded on an vegetation, and succeeded perfectly in unfeasible and visionary plan. It was the hot-houses. The two zoologists fancied that men already ripe in years, brought back a numerous collection of by a few lectures from eminent masquadrupeds, birds, and insects. That ters, might be rendered capable of ex- of birds, made by Maugé, was partitending instruction, and diffusing cularly interesting, from their perfect through the provinces the elements of preservation, and from the fact, that science, which very few of themselves the greater part were new to the Mu. had been prepared by previous educa. seum. tion to understand. Every reasonable In 1798, the Professors presented a man felt the impossibility of realizing Memoir to the government, exposing such a scheme, and the institution fell the wants of the Museum. The magof itself soon after. It had the good nificent collections which had been effect, however, of exciting the public received were still in their cases, liable attention and fixing it upon an esta. to be destroyed by insects, and comblishment, become, as it were, the paratively useless for want of rooin to type of all institutions that might be display them. There were no means formed for the study of nature. of nourishing the animals, because the
The most important event connect. contractors who were not paid refused ed with the history of the Garden to make further advances. The lions which occurred about this period, was became sulky for lack of food ; and the voyage of Captain Baudin. In 1796, even the tigers shewed symptoms of this gentleman informed the officers displeasure, and forewent their “wontof the Museum, that, during a long ed cheerfulness." The same distress residence in Trinidad, he had formed existed in 1799, which was the more a rich collection of natural history, . to be regretted from the value of the which he was unable to bring away, recent collections. Of these the more but which he would return in quest important were the following :-In of if they would procure him a vessel. June, 1795, arrived the cabinet of the The proposition was acceded to by the Stadtholder, rich in every branch of govern ment, with the injunction that natural history, and especially of zooCaptain Baudin should take with him logy. In February, M. Desfontaines gave the Museum his collection of in- valuable of them, in order to provide sects from the coast of Barbary. In food for the remainder. Hen Pen herNovember of the same year, a collec- self was never in a greater scrape. tion was received from the Low Coun- The face of things, however, speedily tries; and that of precious stones was changed. The events of November, removed from the Mint to the Mu- 1799, by displacing and concentrating seum. In February, 1797, the Minis- power,established a new order of things, ter procured the African birds, which whose chief by degrees rendered himhad served for the drawings of Levail. self absolute, and by his astonishing lant's celebrated work. In 1798, the achievements cast a dazzling lustre on collection formed by Brocheton in the nation, and suddenly created great Guyana, and the numerous objects of resources. The extraordinary man who animated and vegetable nature collect- was placed at the head of affairs felt ed under the tropics by Captain Bau- that his power could not be secured by din and his indefatigable associates, victory alone, and that, having made filled the hot-houses and the galleries himself formidable abroad, it was neof the Museum.
cessary to gain admiration at home by The government manifested the favouring the progress of knowledge, most unceasing and lively concern for by encouraging the arts and sciences, the establishment, and did everything and by erecting monuments which in its power to promote its interests; should contribute to the glory and prosbut “ penury repressed their noble perity of the “great nation.” rage," and rendered it impossible to But, the proceedings of Buonaparte furnish the necessary funds for the in the bird and beetle line being less arrangement of the collections, the re- generally known than his floating at pairs of the buildings, the payment of Tilsit, or his sinking at Waterloo, the salaries, and the nourishment of their narration will afford materials the animals. These last-named gentry for another article, which, however, were indeed placed under very trying must be postponed till next month. circumstances; and, shortly after this We shall then bring down the history period, it was even deemed necessary to of this magnificent establishment to authorize M. Delauney, Superintend the present times, and conclude by a ent of the Menagerie, to kill the least description of its existing state. i
I do not care a farthing about any relled with any one. You are going to man, woman, or child, in the world. put me in mind of my duel with CapYou think that I am joking, Jemmy; tain Maxwell. I acknowledge I fought but you are mistaken. What! you it, and fired three shots. What then? look at me again with those honest Could I avoid it? I was no more aneyes of yours staring with wonder, gry with him, when I sent the mese and making a demi-pathetic, demi-an sage, than I was at the moment of my gry appeal for an exception in your birth. Duelling is an absurd custom favour. Well, Jemmy, I do care about of the country, which I must comply you, my honest fellow, so uncork the with when occasion requires. The ocother bottle.
casion had turned up, and I fought of Did you ever see me out of humour course. Never was I happier than in your life for the tenth part of a se- when I felt the blood trickling over cond?-Never, so help me, God!-Did my shoulders—for the wise laws of you ever hear me speak ill of another? honour were satisfied, and I was rid I might, perhaps, have cracked a joke of the cursed trouble. I was sick of -indeed, I have cracked a good many the puppyism of punctilio, and the such in my time-at a man's expense booby legislation of the seconds, and behind his back ; but never have I was glad to escape from it by a scratch. said anything which I would not say I made it up with Maxwell, who was to his face, or what I would not take an honest, though a hot-headed and from him with treble hardness of re- obstinate man and you know I was coil, if it so pleased him to return it; executor to his will. Indeed, he dined but real bona fide evil-speaking was with me the very day-week after the never uttered by me. I never quar- duel. Yet, spite of this equanimity, I repeat it, that I do not care for any nonsensical inatters. But that fervour human being on earth, (the present is gone. I am still outside the same; company always excepted, more than but inside how different ! I laugh to I care for one of those filberts which scorn the nonsense I hear vented about you are cracking with such laudable me in the clubs which I frequent. assiduity.
The zeal about nothings, the bustle Yes it is true I have borne my- about stuff, the fears and the precauself towards my family unexception tions against fancied dangers, the inably, as the world has it. I married dignation against writings which no off my sisters, sent my brothers to the decent man thinks of reading, or colleges, and did what was fair for my against speeches which are but the mother. But I shall not be hypocrite essence of stupidity; in short, the enough to pretend to high motives for whole tempest in a tea-pot appears to so doing, My father's death left them me to be ineffably ludicrous. I join entirely to me, and what could I do now and then, nay very often, in with them? Turn them out ? That these discussions; why should not I? would be absurd, and just as absurd Am I not possessed of the undoubted to retain them at home without treat liberties of a Briton, invested with the ing them properly. They were my fa- full privilege of talking nonsense ? mily. My own comforts would have And, if any of my associates laugh inbeen materially invaded by any other side at me, why, I think them quite line of conduct. I therefore executed right. the filial and fraternal affections in a But I have dirtied my fingers with manner which will be a fine topic of ink, you say, and daubed other peopanegyric for my obituary. God help ple's faces with them. I admit it. the idiots who write such things! They My pen has been guilty of various to talk of motives, and feelings, and political jeux d'esprit, but let me the impulses that sway the human whisper it, Jemmy, on both sides. heart! They, whose highest ambition Don't start, it is not worth while. it is to furnish provender, at so much My Tory quizzes I am suspected of; a line, for magazine or newspaper. Yet suspected I say, for I am not such a from them shall I receive the tribute goose as to let them be any more than of a tear. The world shall be informed mere matters of suspicion ; but of in due time, and I care not how soon, quizzes against Tories I am no more that “ Died at his house, &c. &c. thought guilty than I am of petty a gentleman, exemplary in every rela larceny. Yet such is the case. I write tion of life, whether we consider him with no ill feeling; public men or as a son, a brother, a friend, or a citi people who thrust themselves before zen. His heart," and so on to the end the public in any way, I just look on as of the fiddle faddle. The winding up phantoms of the imagination, as things of my family affairs, you know, is, that to throw off common-places about. I have got rid of them all; that I pay the You know how I assassinated Jack good people a visit once a-month, and ****, in the song which you transcri. ask them to a humdrum dinner on bed for me ; how it spread in thoumy birth-day, which you are perhaps sands, to his great annoyance. Well, aware occurs but once a-year. I am on Wednesday last, he and I supped alone. I feel that I am alone.
tete-a-tete, and a jocular fellow he is. My politics—what then? I am, It was an accidental rencounter-he externally at least, a Tory, à toute was sulky at first, but I laughed and outrance, because iny father and my sung him into good humour. When grandfather (and I cannot trace my the second bottle had loosened his genealogy any higher were so before tongue, he looked at me most sympame. Besides, I think every gentleman thetically, and said, May I ask you should be a Tory, there is an easi- a question ?-A thousand, I replied, ness, a suavity of mind, engendered provided you do not expect me to anby Toryism, which it is vain for you swer them.-Ah, he cried, it was a to expect from fretful Whiggery, or shame for you to abuse me the way bawling Radicalism, and such should you did, and all for nothing; but, hang be a strong distinctive feature in every it, let bygones be bygones-You are gentleman's character. And I admit, too pleasant a fellow to quarrel with. that, in my youth, I did many queer I told him he appeared to be under things, and said many violent and a mistake-He shook his head-emp