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tent himself wkh a limited and dependant sway, must depend upon contingencies that perhaps no one can as yet perfectly foresee. ..wetnatM (isj.iisr. Is-j:^-•:■ .■'_
In the mean time, the court of Peierfbufgh gives all the effect it can to promote his military operations ; and though their success against the Turks during the'1 last campaign has not been such as to give them that decided advantage over the- Porte they have aimed at, yet the Ruffian arms have been upon'the whole successful, and the Turks have suffered some considerable losses. !i oti R -•••' ••' l:<-'' Sweden.
tiTothenorthward, Rufliabas had the goodfbrtune, last seaIon, to disembarrass herself from a very troublesome opponent, which would otherwise have proved exceedingly distressingto her..: The king of Sweden, having formed a strict alliance with the Porte, made a sudden and powerful diversion in their favours into Russian Finland, and on the Baltic j but having been obliged to act with greater promptitude than the state o:" his kingdom could properly admit of, his subjects at first were subjected to great inconveniences by it, which excited private discontents that gave him great annoyance; and being attacked at the fame time by Denmark, his affairs were for some time in as ticklish a situation as can easily be conceived. And had it not been for the critical intervention of Great Britain and Prussia, he had great reason to fear that he would have been driven from his throne. This difficulty surmounted, the Swedish monarch, with an active alacrity that is rarely to be found, procured supplies; recruited his forces by sea and by land: and having quieted by his address the internal disturbances that threatened to break out, he began the campaign with that active intrepidity which has distinguished all his civil and military operations. But having by an unlucky accident sustained a great loss at sea in an engagement with the Russian fleet on the ioth of July last, he, by a most extraordinary exertion, on a succeeding day, recovered the laurels that fortune had torn from his brow. But being by this time satisfied of the futility of his attempts at conquest, and both heand his opponent heartily tired of the war, a peace was suddenly concluded between Russia and Sweden, without the intervention of any other power, and without mention of allies on either side. Thus did these two potentates; *s usual, contentedly fit down with their refpectiveloffes, without having obtained any other benefit by the contest, except a fe w empty laurels, which both monarchs were willing to claim as a small indemnification for the great losses their subjects had sustained by the fruitless contest. Germany*
The late Emperor, who Was rash in all his enterprises; despotic in counsel, fickle in his temper, and mean in the conduct of his private affairs, was continually projecting new enterprises, and ever unsuccessful in executing them, had brought himself into embarrassments, from which death alone could happily have extricated him. At a time when his conduct had alienated the affections of his Belgic subjects, with the hope, no doubt, of extending his empire on that fide, he had been induced by the court of Russia ta engage in a war against the Turks; but having taken it into his head to command his army in person, he had the mortification to see his baneful influence extended to the army, and the success that might have been expected from such mighty preparations retarded.
The ignorance, obstinacy, and inhumanity of this man, cvnot be better exemplified than by the following anecdote, which I had from the best authority. When in the campaign of 1788, the Danube formed the boundary between the two armies, the Emperor took possession of a small island in it, very near the northern shore, on which he placed a picquet guard of thirty men. The Turks, with that ra(h bravery which characterised most of their enterprises, at that time attacked this small party from boats. They were observed approaching; and though nothing would have been more easy than for the Austrians to have repulsed them, by sending a superior force to support the picquet; and though all the generals lbliciled permission to do it, the Emperor stood unmoved, and saw the Turk? deliberately cut off the heads of his thirty men, without making an attempt to save them.
After he thought proper to withdraw from the scene of action, the general, in some measure, retrieved his affairs in that quarter, though at the time of the emperori's death, he had iygrt, ,t Literary Intelligenxeb. 7^
no reason to boast of his conquests. The present emperor, though he did not entirely abandon the military enterprises of his brother, has prosecuted them with less ardour, and more caution than formerly. He seems to be anxious to keep up his connections with Russia, not so much with the capricious view of extending his dominions beyond the Danube, as of forming a balance to check, the preponderating power of Prussia, which he seems to dread. Hitherto his conduct has been rather more cautious than might have been expected from the general tenor of his political system in Tuscany, and he has had the address, not only to favour the views of his ally in Poland, without giving umbrage to, Prussia; but also to gain over that power to acquiesce in the plan he had adopted for recovering his former influence in the Belgic provinceSj which must now again submit to be governed by the court of Vienna.
The court of Dresden, and the smaller states in Germa, riy, enjoy at present a profound tranquillity, the Bishop of Liege alone excepted. There, the people have asserted their claim to certain privileges to which the Prince Bilhop does not think they have ajust title. Popularcommotions were likely to ensue; and the Bishop thought it prudent to withdraw himself from a storm, that he imagined threatened his person, had he remained among them : by this means bloodshed has been avoided. The other powers of Germany are now preparing to interfere in this dispute ; and there is little room to doubt that the prince will be reinstated, and the people protected in their just claims by the powerful mediation of princes, whose award must be accepted as a law to both the parties in this dispute.
Frederic the Second, after a long life spent in a perpetual struggle to augment his power, and extend his dominions^ by a prudence of conduct which nothing but a vigorous mind cpuld inspire, not only extended the limits of his empire, but augmented the prosperity of his people by every mean that was consistent with a despotic power in government: a power which even this great man had not fortitude of mind to relinquish. At the time of his death, his dominions were at peace, his army in the best order, and his coffers full. He was then busied in endeavouring, by So THE BEE Or, Jan. 12.
peaceful mediation, to establish his kinsman the Prince of Orange in the full enjoyment of his rights as stadtholder in the united Provinces, from which he had been driven by the machinations of a party supported by the court of France, who aimed at getting thus a direction in the councils of Holland. The present king of Prussia, on his succeeding to the throne, adopted the same general line of conduct which,his illustrious predecessor had chalked out : but finding pacific negociation vain, he proceeded, by force of arms, to replace the stadtholder in his former authority, to humble the party that had driven him from the country, and to confer the power on that party which supported his interest: But though the present state of France prevents her from taking any active concern in this business, the friends of that party in Hollandarerather suppressed than extinguished; andtherc is reason to suspect, that were not the powers of Prussia and of England to overawe them, and the French unable to support them, the peace of these provinces would not be long preserved; for the Prince of Orange himself seems not to possess either that firmness of mind, or those talents, which laid the foundation of the power of his ancestors, or secured their influence over these states.
To be continued.
p*m On account of a press of business, and the interruption that necessarily attends a new publication, the printer has been so much hurried with this number, that the arrangement of the parts was not altogether agreeable.- There was not time to make the alterations that would have been eligible. In future, it is hoped, things of this nature will be avoided.
There has not yet been time to obtain any account of tht publications of this year.
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-•>-< LITERARY WEEKLY INTELLIGENCER,
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WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 19. I7QI.
to the Editor of the Bee. Sir,
. I- Most heartily wish success to the excellent plan you have form-d of a new periodical publication: and if
. time permitted, I should be happy to fend you some communications. Perhaps a few hasty thoughts on taxes (a very interesting fubieG at present,) which I •wrote some time ago, may be acceptable: if so, they are at your service. It is one of the advantages of a miscellany, such as yours, that it admits of papers in a less finished stile than would be proper in a set work. Hence a man of business may communicate his thoughts to the public; and if the matter contain ai.y thing use•ful, the manner will be excused. I am, &c.
Hints on Taxes.
The philosophy of man has generally been cultivated, either by theologians, who were ignorant of body, or by physicians, who were igt-orant of mind. The ancients, more especially Aristotle, saw the necessity of joining the knowledge of both, in order more completely to comprehend human nature. But the phenomena
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