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Wild and distracted, to the shade,
All throbbing, he retires,
He flutters and expires.
So man, when born in hapless elime3
Where freedom ne'er was known, Learns cheerfully to bend betimes
To power, without a groan.
Content within his humble shed,
Full joyfully he sings; Though poor his fare, and meanly clad
With mirth his hamlet rings.
Untie at once those silken bands
Which willingly he wore, Give freedom to his shackled hands,
Which ne'er were free before.
Unus'd to tread those rugged wilds
Where freedom loves to range, Soon tired, like a wayward child,
He wishes still to change,
Madly he grasps at wealth and pow'r,
At pow'r he cannot wield;
No good to him can yield.
His wonted joys now fled, his life
In dire contention flows; In rapine, blood-flied, tumult, strife;
Till death does end his woes.
A Frenchman's Remarks on Nobility *. Nobility is the proper reward and incitement to virtue. Nothing then is more just or more useful than the institution of it. A prince ought to reward virtue ; and, if I may be allowed the expression, he ought to recompence it ac* cording to the taste even of virtue ; that is to fay, by honourable distinctions. After the reward which it procures for itself by the inward satisfaction which accompanies it: after the glory and reputation, the desire of which is the principal source of virtue, purely human, nothing is more flattering to it than these marks of honour established1 in all nations, to justify and confirm in some manner the public esteem.
To reward virtue, is a justice which the prince owes to virtuous men; he owes it also to the public, to the rest of his subjects: Since by rewarding virtue, he endeavours to make it both more perfect and more common. It is a duty a prince owes to his subjects, to endeavour to excite virtuous exertions; he owes it them, I fay, both on account of the advantage it procures to those themselves who (hall be virtuous, as of those who fliall profit by the virtue of others. I have only farther to remark, how much the virtue of his subjects is advantageous to the prince himself.
On the 6>ueen of France, Isle, by Mr. Burke. It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I saw the Queen of France, then Dauphiness, at Versailles ; and surely never lighted on this orb, which stie hardly seemed to touch, a more delightful vision. I saw her just above the horizon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere slie just began to move in, glittering like the morning-star, full of life and splendor, and joy. Oh! what a revolution! and what an heart must I have, to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall! Little did I dream, that when (he added titles of veneration to those of enthusiastic, distant, respectful love, that slie should ever be obliged to carry the iharp antidote against disgrace concealed in that bosom: * PAbbe Trublct,—written in the year 17.55.
Vol. L "E
Little did I dream that I should have lived to see such disasters fallen upon her in a nation of gallant men, in a nation of men of honour, and of cavaliers. I thought ten thousand swords mult have leaped from their scabbards, to avenge even a look that threatened her with insult. But the age of chivalry is gone: That of sophisters, economilts, and calculators, has succeeded j and the glory of Europe is extinguished for ever. Never, never more shall we behold that generous loyalty to rank and sex, that proud submission, that dignified obedience, that subordination of the heart, which kept alive, even in servitude itself, the spirit of an exalted freedom. The unbought grace of life, the cheap defence of nations, the nurse of manlv sentiment and heroic enterprise, is gone! It is gone! that sensibility os principle, that chastity of honour, which felt a stain like a wound, which inspired courage whilst it mitigated ferocity, which ennobled whatever it touched, and under which vice itself loll half its evil, by losing all its groffness.
This mixed system of opinion and sentiment, had its origin in the ancient chivalry: and the principle, though varied in its appearance by the varying state of human affairs, subsisted and influenced through a long succession of generations, even to the time we live in. If it should ever bo totally extinguished, the loss, 1 fear, will be grep.t. It is this which has given its character to modern Europe. It is this which has distinguistied it under all its forms of government, and distinguistied it to its advantage, from the states pf Asia, and possibly from those states which rlourissied in the most brilliant periods of the antique world. It was this, which, without confounding ranks, had produced a noble equality, and handed it down through all the gradations of social life. It was this opinion which mitigated kings into companions, and raised private men to be fellows with kings. Without force or opposition, it subdued the fierceness of pride and power; it obliged sovereigns to submit to the soft collar of social esteem, compelled stern authority to submit to elegance, and gave a domination vanquisher of Jaws to bt subdued by manners.
But now all is to be changed; all the pleasing illusions which made power gentle, and obedience liberal, which harmonized the different shades of life, and which, by a fela,nd aflimulation, incorporated into politics, the sentimerits which beautify and soften private society, are to be dissolved by this new conquering empire of light and reason. All the decent drapery of life is to be rudely torn off: all the superadded ideas furnished from the wardrobe of a moral Imagination, which the heart owns, and the understanding ratifies, as necessary to cover the defects of our naked stiivering nature, and to raise it to dignity in our own estimation, are to be exploded as a ridiculous, absurd, and antiquated fashion.
On this scheme of things, a king is but a man; a queen is but a Woman; a woman is but an animal, and an animal not of the highest order. All homage paid to the sex in general as such, and without distinct views, is to be regarded as romance and folly. Regicide, and paricide, and sacrilege, are but fictions of superstition, corrupting jurisprudence by destroying its simplicity. The murder of a king, or a queen, or a bilhop, or a father, are only common homicide; and if the people are by any chance, or in any way gainers by it, a fort of homicide much the most pardonable, and into which we ought not to make too severe a scrutiny.
Intelligence respe£liug Literature, Arts, Agriculture, tsV.
Voltaire has writtten an eulogy on the age of Lewis the fourteenth: nor can it be denied, that in regard to polite literature and the belles lettres, France, during that period, made a most conspicuous figure in the republic of letters. It is, however, highly probable, that in future ages the history of the eighteenth century will afford a more ample field for the literary historian, because of the many important discoveries in all branches of science, and useful arts, that have been made during that period. The field is too ample to be entered on at present. Reserving for a suture period some detached accounts of the most important obJ jects that have occurred in it, we must confine our views to the communicating to our readers some of the more recent discoveries; for scarce a day in this busy period elapses, without bringing something to light that was not known before.
New Discoveries in Germany respecling Metals.
Germany has been long known to abound in metals; and the philosophers of that country have taken the lead as preceptors in the metallurgic arts. Long, however, was their operations confined to the art of purifying the metals that were already known. But of late, stimulated by the ifcoveries of Bergman, Scheele and others, they have turned their attention to the chemical analysis of many other mineral substances; some time ago, several substances that had been before classed as earths, were found to be metallic ores, which had not been hitherto recognized as such; and there seems now reason to believe that the whole of the substances that have been hitherto reckoned earths, will be at last found to be only metals in disguise. We are not yet acquainted with the full extent of these recent discoveries, nor with the qualities of the metallic substances produced j but some idea of them is given in the following letter:
Vienna, August 27.
"You have probably heard of the wonderful discoveries "made by a Neapolitan in Hungary. Born shewed me "the regulus of the barytes, of the pure magnesian earth, "and the calcareous earth; also molybdena, manganese and "platina, obtained without difficulty by the simple addi"tion of an inflammable substance. The reguli are dis"tinguiflied by their specific gravities, and other qualities, "from each other. The silicious earth is now the only "primitive earth, the argillaceous being ordy a modifica"tion of this. The other earths are merely metallic cal"ces over-oxygenated.
"To obtain the regulus, the earths were rendered as fine "as possible, formed into a paste with powdered charcoal "by means of oil, and put into a crucible with more char"coal, covered with silicious earth, to prevent the approach "of the external air; one or more of these crucibles were "then put into a larger, and surrounded with charcoal, "the heat given strong for five hours, and then the ope"ration found so complete, that the platina is malleable, "and the manganese no longer'attracts the loadstone.