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that we can express in English. to other parts of the system. In this Thus the challenger, on his notions, way a terminology becomes in a has you in a dilemma at any rate: manner organic; and being itself a for if you do not translate it, then it product of an advanced state of the confirms his belief that the whole is science, is an important re-agent for jargon : if you do (as, doubtless, with facilitating further advances. the help of much periphrasis, you These are the benefits of a sound may translate it into English, that terminology: to which let me add, will be intelligible to a man who that no improved terminology can already understands the philosophy), ever be invented, nay, hardly any then where was the use of the new plausible one, which does not preterminology? But the way to deal suppose an improved theory. Now with this fellow is as follows: My surely benefits such as these ought to good Sir, I shall do what you ask : outweigh any offence to the ears or but, before I do it, I beg that you the taste, if there were any, But will oblige me by, 1. Translating this the elegance of coherency is the sole mathematics into the language of elegance which a terminology needs chemistry: 2. By translating this to possess, or indeed can possess : chemistry into the language of ma- the understanding is, in this case, thematics: 3. Both into the language the arbiter; and, where that apof cookery: and, finally, solve me proves, it must be a misplaced fasthe Cambridge problem" Given tidiousness of feeling which does not the captain's name, and the year of submit itself to the presiding faculty. our lord, to determine the longitude As an instance of a repulsive tere of the ship.” This is the way to minology, I would cite that of Arisdeal with such fellows.

totle, which has something harsh The terminology of Kant then is and technical in it that prevents it not a rebaptism of ideas already ex- from ever blending with the current isting in the universal consciousness: of ordinary language: even to this, it is, in part, an enlargement of the however, so far as it answers its purunderstanding by new territory (of poses, the mind soon learns to reconwhich I have spoken); and, in part, cile itself. But here, as in other a better regulation of its old terri- more important points, the terminotory. This regulation is either ne- logy of Kant is advantageously disgative and consists in limiting more tinguished from the Aristotelian, by accurately the boundary line of con- adapting itself with great ductility ceptions that had hitherto been im- to any variety of structure and are perfectly defined; or it is positive rangement, incident to a philosophic and consists in the substitution of diction. names which express the relations I have spoken so much at length and dependencies of the object on the subject of Kant's termino (termini organici) for the conven- logy, because this is likely to be the tional names which have arisen from first stumbling-block to the student accident, and do not express those of his philosophy ;--and because it relations (termini bruti). It is on has been in fact the main subject of this principle that the nomenclature attack amongst those who have noof chemistry is constructed: sub- ticed it in this country ; if that can stances, that were before known by be called attack which proceeds in arbitrary and non-significant names, acknowledged ignorance of the oriare now known by systematic names ginal works. -i. e. such as express their relations A much more serious attack upon

• In a conversation which I once had with the late Bishop of Llandaff, on the subject of Kant, he objected chiefly to the terminology, and assigned, as one instance of what seemed to him needless innovations, the word apperception.“ If this word means selfconsciousness," said he, “ I do not see why Mr. Kant might not have contented himself with what contented his father.” But the truth is, that this word exactly illustrates the explanation made above: it expresses one fact in a system sub ratione, and with a retrospect to another. This would have been the apology for the word : however, in this par. ticular instance, I chose rather to apologize for Kant, by alleging that Wolf and Leibnitz had used the word; so that it was an established word before the birth of the transcendental philosophy; and, it might therefore be doubted, whether Mr. Kant, senior, iad contented himself in this case with less than Mr. Kant, junior,

Kant has been the friendly notice of 1. A good terminology will be
Madame de Staël. The sources from one of the first results from a good
which she drew her opinions were theory: and hence though a coherent
understood to be the two Schlegels; terminology is not a sufficient evi-
and, probably, M. Dégérando. Like dence in favour of a system, the
some countrymen of Kant's (e. g. absence of such a terminology is a
Kiesewetter) she has contrived to sufficient evidence against it.
translate his philosophy into a sense 2. It is asked which is the true
which leaves it tolerably easy to ap- philosophy? But this is not the just
prehend—but unfortunately at the way of putting the question the
expense of all definite purpose, ap- purpose of philosophy is not so much
plicability, or philosophic meaning to accumulate positive truths in the
On the other hand, Mr. Coleridge, first place—as to rectify the position
whose great philosophic powers and of the human mind, and to correct its
undoubted acquaintance with the mode of seeing. The progress of the
works of Kant would have fitted human species in this path is not die
him beyond any man to have ex- rect but oblique: one philosophy.
plained them to the English student, does not differ from another solely
has unfortunately too little talent for by the amount of truth and error
teaching or communicating any sort which it brings forward; there is
of knowledge—and apparently too none, which has ever had much
little simplicity of mind, or zealous interest for the human mind, but will
desire to do so. Hence it has hap- be found to contain some truth of ima
pened that so far from assisting portance, or some approximation to
Kant's progress in this country, Mr. it: one philosophy has differed from
Coleridge must have retarded it by another rather by the station it has
expounding the oraclein words of more taken, and the aspect under which
Delphic obscurity than the German it has contemplated its objects.
original could have presented to the . 3. It has been objected to Kant by
immaturest student. It is, moreover, some critics in this country, that his
characteristic of Mr. Coleridge's doctrines are in some instances re-
mind that it never gives back any productions only of doctrines brought
thing as it receives it: all things forward by other philosophers. The
are modified and altered in passing instances alleged have been very un-
through his thoughts : and from this fortunate: but doubtless, whatsoever
cause, I believe, combined with his truth is contained (according to the
aversion to continuous labour, arises last remark) in the erroneous systems,
his indisposition to mathematics; for and sometimes in the very errors
that he must be content to take as themselves of the human mind, will
he finds it. Now this indocility be gathered up in its progress by the
of mind greatly unfits a man to be true system. Where the erroneous
the faithful expounder of a philoso- path has wandered in all directions,has
phic system: and it has, in fact, led returned upon itself perpetually, and
Mr. Coleridge to make various mis- crossed the field of inquiry with its
representations of Kant: one only, mazes in every direction,-doubtless
as it might indispose you to pay any the path of truth will often intersect
attention. to Kant, I shall notice. it-and perhaps for a short distance
In one of his works he has ascribed coincide with it: but that in this
to Kant the foppery of an exoteric, coincidence it receives no impulse or
and an esoteric doctrine: and that determination from that with which
upon grounds wholly untenable. The it coincides—will appear from the
direct and simple-minded Kant, I self-determining force which will
am persuaded, would have been soon carry it out of the same direc-
more shocked at this suspicion than tion as inevitably as it entered it.
any other with which he could have 4. The test of a great philosophi-
been loaded.

cal system is often falsely conceived: I throw the following remarks to- men fancy a certain number of great gether, as tending to correct some of outstanding problems of the highest the deepest errors with which men interest to human nature, upon which come to the examination of philoso- every system is required to try its phic systems, whether as students or strength; and that will be the true as critics.

one, they think, which solves them

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mind upon

all; and that the best approxima- which any philosophy can demand ; tion to the true one which solves most. and this not from any vanity, but from But this is a most erroneous way of pure misconception. Hence they najudging. True philosophy will often turally think that all which the philohave occasion to show that these sopher has to do is to point to the elesupposed problems are no problems ments of the knowledge as they exist at all, but mere impositions of the ready prepared, and forthwith the to

itself arising out of tal knowledge of the one is transferits unrectified position errors red to any other mind. Watch the efgrounded upon errors. A much bet- forts of any man to master a new ter test of a sound philosophy than the doctrine in philosophy, and you will number of the pre-existing problems find that involuntarily he addresses which it solves will be the quality of himself to the mere dialectic labour those which it proposes. By raising of transposing, dissolving, and rethe station of the spectator it will combining, the notions which he albring a region of new inquiry within ready has. But it is not thus that his view; and the very faculty of any very important truth can be decomprehending these questions will veloped in the mind. New matter is often depend on the station from wanted as well as new form. And which they are viewed. For, as the the most important remark which I earlier and ruder problems, that sti- can suggest as a caution to those mulate human curiosity, often turn who approach a great system of phiout baseless and unreal, so again the losophy as if it were a series of ridhigher order of problems will be in- dles and their answers, is this:-10 comprehensible to the undisciplined complex or very important truth was understanding. This is a fact which ever yet transferred in full developeshould never be lost sight of by thosement from one mind to another: who presume upon their natural and truth of that character is not a piece uncultivated powers of mind to judge of furniture to be shifted; it is a seed of Kant-Plato-or any other great which must be sown, and pass philosopher.

through the several stages of growth. 5. But the most general error No doctrine of importance can be which I have ever met with as a transferred in a matured shape into ground for unreasonable expectations any man's understanding from within reference not to Kant only but to out: it must arise by. an act of geall original philosophers—is the per- nesis within the understanding itself. suasion which men have that their With this remark I conclude ; and understandings contain already in am- Most truly yours, full developement all the notions

X. Y. Z.

THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE.

APPEARANCE AND PROGRESS OF THE

AURORA BOREALIS.

space presenting the appearance of

pencils, or bundles of rays pointing This subject, now rendered pecu- upwards. Those on the magnetic liarly interesting from its evident meridian are parallel to that line, connexion with electro-magnetism, pointing exactly to the zenith ; and has lately engaged the attention of those considerably to the east and Mr. Farquharson, of Aberdeenshire. west are directed to the zenith, or to In latitude 57° 12' N. the Aurora a point which appears within the Borealis generally appears just after limits of 10° to the south of it. The it is dark, like a bright circum- rays are various in their intensity of scribed twilight on the visible ho- light, and the appearance of each rizon, the centre of which is exactly ray incessantly changes; it runs on the northern point of the mag- from east to west, and from west to netic meridian. By degrees it en- east, then remains stationary, underlarges, rising higher, and extending going various alterations in vividmore from east to west, the play of mess, and afterwards disappears, and gleaming light becoming gradually has its place supplied by another. better defined; the whole luminous This magnificent light gradually extends towards the south, and at the south, and then disappears. It length separates from the north ho- is occasionally formed high above rizon at the point of the magnetic the horizon, at first by feeble demeridian, and forms a flat luminous tached rays becoming quickly more arch in the north part of the hea- compact and luminous; but, in whatvens. When it reaches an elevation ever

stage it begins, the succeeding of about 45°, it presents the appear- relative progress is the same as al-ance of a broad zone, occupying, ready described. It not unfrequently from north to south, from about 250 happens that the whole meteor is to 35o in breadth, and having its ex- entirely either to east or west of the tremities resting on the visible ho- magnetic meridian, the extremity of rizon. After passing the elevation the luminous space nearest it beof 45°, the rays become more and coming first elevated above the homore shortened as it approaches the rizon, the rays being directed longiZenith, the belt becomes more com- tudinally towards the zenith, or a pact, its vividness greater, and the little to the south of it. The meextremities raised above the hori- teor moves gradually towards the zon; when it has arrived at the ze- south, contracting in breadth, and nith, it becomes very narrow, not afterwards enlarging in the reverse exceeding from 30 to 5° in breadth; order of that in which it becomes the intensity of the light is greatly narrower. Though these varieties increased, and exhibits near the ze- occur, no anomalies have at any time nith a nebulous or mottled appear- been observed, inconsistent with the ance, varying constantly in intensity, described order of the phenomena. but which, as it approaches the ex- Thus, in whatever part of the heatremities, gradually changes, and vens the rays appeared, they have assumes the appearance of parallel been always directed to the zenith, rays; at this period, both ends are or a little to the south of it. The generally elevated from 250 to 300 zones of light have never been staabove the horizon, though the ele- tionary, or moving to the north ; and vation varies considerably. The lu- at the zenith, parallel rays have minous space still continues to move never been seen, but only the narrow southwards, preserving its parallel- belt of nebulous light. The only ism with its earlier positions; and, conditions that can explain and reafter it has reached about 100 to the concile all these appearances, are south of the zenith, it begins to be that the pencils of rays of the Aurora come broader by a change exactly Borealis are vertical, or nearly so, the reverse of that by which it be- and form a deep fringe which stretches came narrower, the enlargement and a great way from east to west, at gradual change of appearance going right angles to the magnetic merion as long as it has been visible in dian, but which is of no great thickits progress to the south ; but, in the ness from north to south, and that observations which Mr. Farquharson the fringe moves southward, prehas made, it never went beyond serving its direction at right angles 30° to the south of the zenith, having to the magnetic meridian. The veafter this become gradually indis- locity with which the meteor moves tinct and vanished entirely on passing is extremely various. It was once that limit. In some instances, the seen to pass in half an hour, from 450 meteor was seen near the south ho- N. of the zenith, where it was first rizon, but it was not observed whe- observed, to 300 S. of it, where it bether it had travelled from the north. came extinct. In other instances, it Such is the order of the appearances moved so slowly, that its motions presented by the Aurora Borealis could be discovered only by observunder favourable circumstances; but ing it for a considerable time. In it seldom occurs that all the pheno- the former the light was very vivid, mena described have been observed whereas in the latter it was very on the same evening. Sometimes faint, so that the luminousness apthe twilight appearance in the north pears connected with the rapidity of is all that is visible; in which case, its progress. It occurs when the atthe meteor is seldom of long con- mosphere is quite clear, as well as ținuance; but, during the time that when partially obscured by clouds, it lasts, it gradually enlarges towards and it precedes westerly and south

easterly gales. Only one instance cold, dry and moist weather, he failoccurred from which Mr. Far- ed in procuring light. In these the quharson could draw any conclusion gun was unloaded; but when loaded, with respect to its height. During light was instantly perceived; he the continuance of a south-westerly therefore supposed that it might be gale, the atmosphere, which through occasioned by the friction of the wadthe day had been cloudy, became ding on the sides of the barrel, which clear at night, and a pale Aurora induced him to try a variety of subBorealis appeared in the north. Its stances possessing different electric north edge had become elevated a- powers; as dry silk, wool, feathers, bout 200 above the horizon at the shell lac, sugar, and slips of glass. magnetic meridian, when a cloud With the first four he occasionally sucmaking its way towards the west, ceeded, but he never failed with the came under it, by which it was af- last two, the glass always giving the fected in a remarkable manner. The most vivid light, which was of a lower extremity of the pencil of rays greenish colour, extending a foot and appeared in contact with the upper a half from the muzzle. In repeatpart of the cloud, and their light be ing some of these experiments, the came very vivid, compared to that old silk which had been lying on the of the others; at the same time, the floor, and which had become moist upper edge of the cloud was phos, and dirty, was again used, and by it phorescent, exhibiting a denser and a much more brilliant light was emitwhiter light than could have been ted than by any of the others; the occasioned by any reflection of the same was also the case with pieces greenish rays above it, while in the of split lath, and even with damp space through which the cloud had saw-dust picked up from the floor. passed, the Aurora Borealis became The gun after this was discharged extinct. These singular appeare without any wadding in the barrel, ances accompanied the cloud during when it always gave light at the first its passage from about NNW. to shot after the magazine was charged. NNE. when the meteor having ap- From this it was suspected that as parently passed to the south of the its muzzle rested against a wall durcloud's path, was no longer affected ing the charging, some sand or lime by it, and the eastern portion of it might have fallen in, the attrition of continued visible for a considerable which during the discharge may time; whereas the part that had have caused the luminousness. Acbeen influenced by the cloud did not cordingly, on taking precautions an again appear. From this it seems gainst this, no light could be obtained, that the region of the Aurora Bo- which induced Mr. H. to introduce a realis is above, and immediately con- little sand, by which a beautiful tiguous to that in which the clouds stream of light was produced at each are forming at the time of its appear- discharge. From these experiments,

it is evident that the effects were oc

casioned by attrition, and that the It is well known that when at- sand adhering to the old wadding, mospherical air is suddenly rarefied, saw-dust, split lath, &c. was the as when it issues from the muzzle of cause of the light; hence on trying an air gun into which it was pre- these when quite clean none was ob viously condensed, a flash of light is served. To ascertain whether the perceived, which has been generally light from these was produced by the attributed to electricity, excited by abrasion of particles of iron from the the sudden expansion. Some inter- inside of the barrel, like sparks from esting experiments on this subject a cutler's wheel,-sand, fragments of have been made by Mr. Hart, from spar and sugar, were held at the which he arrives at a different con- muzzle of the gun when discharged, clusion with regard to the origin of by which they appeared slightly luthe light.

minous. When a grating composed In his first trials in which he dis- of clean and dry thermometer tubes charged the gun under a variety of was held in the same situation, there circumstances, using dry, damp, and was no light,-proving that the lumi. warm air, and discharging it in warm, nousness is not occasioned by any

ance.

LIGHT FROM AN AIR GUN.

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