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HORIZONTAL PLATE ELECTRICAL

MACHINE.

the year.

SOLAR LIGHT AND HEAT.

wakes, which were abundant. There best varnish for covering the glass, no appearance

of natives.- is made by melting together comFrom the above account Gale's Land mon turpentine and bees' wax. In seems to be the imaginary line of this operation particular care is necoast laid down in Scoresby's Chart, cessary to prevent the acid, even extending from Cape Barclay on the when diluted, from touching the skin, north, to Ollum ongni Frith on the as it is apt to produce sores that south, and the island laid down there last for several weeks. north of this frith, seems to be what Capt. Duncan has named Robison Island. This voyage promises to be Dr. Hare of Pennsylvania adopts a highly interesting to Arctic geogra- new mode of mounting the plate of phy, and may throw light on the an electric machine, by which it fate of the lost colonies of Greenland; affords negative as well as positive for it is highly probable that in Gale's electricity, and without losing any of Land they may be sought for with the advantages which this form of some chance of success. From Capt apparatus possesses over that with a Duncan's description, neither the cylinder. The plate is made to rę climate nor the land seems to be in volve horizontally, and is supported hospitable, and it is easily accessible on an upright iron bar, resting on a if visited at a favourable period of brass step, and connected withi a

wheel and band to give it motion.

Its upper end is fastened by a block Mr. Powell has for some time past of wood and cement into a glass cybeen engaged in examining the heat- linder 4 inches in diameter, and ing power of the prismatic rays, but 16 inches long, which being open chietly with respect to the effects only at the lower end forms a perfect said to be produced beyond the red insulation. A brass cap surmounted end of the spectrum. He has found by a screw and shoulder is fused to that such effects are really produced, the cylinder, and the plate is secured but has accounted for their being ob- by means of a screw, a nut, and served in some cases and not in discs of cork. Two pair of cushions others, from certain differences in are placed opposite to each other, as the coatings of the thermometers in the common machine, and the employed. He has concluded from conductors are mounted in a similar a number of experiments with ther- manner, except that they are made mometers having different coatings, of wood instead of iron. The two that the heating effect is similar to rubbers are connected by an arched common radiant heat, in its relations brass rod, and the conductors by to surfaces, and differs essentially in another arch of the same kind, so this respect from the heating power that they act as positive and negawithin the spectrum. He has made tive, and therefore possess the advanother experiments from which the tages of a machine with a cylinder. nature and origin of this effect may with great probability be inferred.

We have already repeatedly alProfessor Silliman strongly recom- luded to the researches of Capt. mends the fluid instead of the vapo- Hodgson and others in their journeys rific fluoric acid for corroding glass, over the Himalayas. The extension as being superior in energy, neatness, of geographical knowledge, it must and ease of management. The fol- be allowed, is a desirable object; lowing is the method of obtaining it. and to ascertain the heights and Two ounces of pure fluor spar are positions of the snowy peaks of the placed with four of sulphuric acid Himálaya is not only an interesting in a retort, to which a silver re- and curious, but also a very useful ceiver, kept cold by ice, is adapted, inquiry; for when their latitudes and and which contains an ounce of wa- longitudes are known, the geograter. On the application of heat to phical position of any place, whence the mixture a vapour comes over, one or more of them are visible, may and is condensed. In this state it is be determined with ease and accutoo strong; it requires to be diluted racy. Every facility of observing with three or four of water. The some of these lofty and resplendent

HEIGHTS OF THE HIMALAYA

MOUNTAINS.

ETCHING ON GLASS.

guides is afforded in the great extent

CUTTING STEEL. of 154 degrees of longitude, now Some interesting experiments have either in our possession, or under lately been made by Mr. Barnes, of our control, from the banks of the Cornwall, in America, on the cutting river Settlej, at Ludiana, to beyond of steel. Having occasion to repair those of the Burampooter, in Bengal. a cross-cut saw, he made a circular In all this belt the outline of some of plate of soft sheet iron, fixed an axis the snowy peaks may be seen in clear to it, and put it in his lathe, which weather, to the distance of 150 miles gave it a very rapid rotatory motion. and upwards, with sufficient dis- He then applied to it a common file, tinctness for an observer to fix his with the view of making it perfectly own position, and thus enable him to round and smooth, but the file was correct the geography of the older cut in two, while the iron itself remaps. The following are a few of ceived no impression. He afterwards the general results of the operations applied a piece of smoky, quartz, of Capt. Hodgson and Lieut. Her- which produced the desired effect; bert, in so far as concerns the Snowy and on bringing the saw plate under it, Peaks:

it was in a few minutes neatly and Height above the Sea

completely cut through longitudi

in English Feet. Uchalaru

21,884

nally. When he stopped the buzz, Kedar Kanta L.

19,352

he found that it had not been worn Do. Do. H. left peak.... 20,356

by the operation, and he could not, middle peak 20,508

on the application of his finger, perDo....... C.....

21,787

ceive much sensible heat. During Sur Kanda G. .....

20,144 the cutting, there appeared a band of Do....... F....

21,925 intense fire around the plate, conDo....... A. No. 2....... 25,589 tinually emitting sparks with great Chur Raldeng.

21,251 violence. He afterwards marked the Chandra Badani D.

22,912

saw for the teeth, and cut them out

in a short time by the same means. The following method is practised in France, for giving any species of Mr. Spilsbury, of Walsall, Stafwood, of a close grain, the appear- fordshire, has succeeded in reducing ance of mahogany. The surface is the hitherto tedious process of tanfirst planed very smooth, and then ning to a very short period. Skins covered with diluted nitrous acid. are prepared in nine days, which reOne ounce and a half of dragon's quired, by the old method, about blood is dissolved in a pint of spirit two months; and hides of 3-8ths of of wine, along with one-third of an an inch in thickness, which could ounce of carbonate of soda, and the not be tanned in less than ten or solution filtered. With this the wood twelve months, are converted in is rubbed over with a soft brush, and about six weeks into leather, in every the

process repeated till it becomes respect equal in strength and toughof the proper appearance.

When ness to any yet produced. The the polish diminishes in brilliancy it principle of the process is pres. may be restored by the use of a little sure, the same substances being used cold-drawn linseed oil.

as in the old method.

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ARTIFICIAL MAHOGANY.

TANNING.

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. The news from Spain is, as in our monkish multitudes, shouting in his last we announced it was likely to honour, “ Long live the absolute prove, decisive.

Ferdinand, aftep King," “ The Inquisition for ever," his debarkation at Port St. Mary's, and Death to the Nation.” Cha. proceeded on his route to Madrid, racteristic exclamations ! Worthy of after retracting every single act for such a Monarch and of such ad, the maintenance of which he had herents! Before we follow up the pledged his royal honour, from 1820 narrative of those events which sucdown to the present day. He passed, ceeded the surrender of Cadiz, it is as might be expected from his heroic only right that we should apprise our exploits, under laurel arches, amid readers of such particulars as have triumphant processions, and through transpired previous to that impor;

tant and final determination. It of a subsequent Royal Decree, dated *seems, towards the conclusion of the Cordova, October 26. It is less sasiege, the Cortes having conferred on vage--we were going to say more - Ferdinand the power of treating with mild—but mildness is not a word in the French, dissolved themselves, and the nomenclature of Ferdinand. This the Ministers tendered their resig- Cordova decree says" My heart, alnations. These steps were rendered ways disposed to cherish those who necessary by the discovery that no have had the happiness to be born less than seven battalions of the in my vast dominions, wishes to troops in the Isla had been corrupt- forget the acts which have insulted ed by Bourhon gold, and that a con- my person and my throne. It would spiracy existed, the extent of which not however be just, that these sencould not be ascertained. The pub- timents, in which my royal mind delic magazines and treasury were ex- lights, should obscure the splendour hausted—the fall of Santa Petri had of justice, which ought to be the first put the enemy in possession of the virtue of those whom the impeneonly channel of supplies, and the trable decrees of Providence have defection of Ballasteros precluded all placed at the head of nations ! In hope of exterior aid. Although the consequence, I will and ordain, that

town was amply provisioned for two for all employments, commissions, * months, and there was still left honours, and all kinds of promotions a sufficiency of clothing, the ex- and nominations, there shall be ofchequer had only twenty-five dollars fered to my notice only persons who, in its chest on the day of the capitu- from certain knowledge, are loyal, lation, and the Cortes did not think and attached to my person and my the public could be repaid by the throne.”. The modification of the few remaining chances which were former decrees, and the comparative left, for any extraordinary contribu- moderation of this, are said to have

tions which it was in their power to originated in the strongest remon-have exacted. · Such was the state of -strances on the part of the Duke things at the time of the King's depar- d'Angoulême-indeed, the accounts ture. Yet, even then, a great body of from Cadiz, subsequent to its surthe Constitutionalists were inspired render, clearly prove that any lin. with a desire to close the gates again, gering remnant of humanity which reinstate the Cortes and the Govern- shows itself, is attributable solely to "ment, and defend themselves to the the French. D’Aunoy, the servile last extremity. The militia of Cadiz Governor appointed by Ferdinand, alone amounted, cavalry and infantry, immediately commenced a system of to 4,000, and were animated by the terror, imprisonment, and proscripbest spirit—they were obliged to give tion. Latre, the Ex-Constitutional up their arms on the entrance of the Commandant, and the Duke del enemy. It is said, that notwith- Parque, were arrested on the 20th. standing the treachery undoubtedly General Bourmont immediately sent produced by the bribes of the Duke for the governor, and demanded by d'Angoulême, the defence would ne- whose orders these arrests had been vertheless have been long protracted, executed ? « In virtue of secret orand in all probability immediately ders," was the reply. “Let me see successful, had it not been for the total those orders," rejoined Bourmont. want of money among the Constitu- D’Aunoy refused. “ Then,” said tionalists. Subsequently to Ferdi- Bourmont, “if you repeat such arrests nand's departure from Cadiz, he is without showing me a specific ausued, consulting no doubt only his own thority, signed by King Ferdinand, heart, the decrees to which we al- and, if within two hours, you do not Juded in our last ; they were dated send me a written justification of those from Port St. Mary, Xeres, and Se already made, you shall take your deville. If we are to credit an article parture from Cadiz." 1," said M. in the French Journal des Debats, d'Aunoy, “will execute my secret orthose decrees afterwards, under somé ders without your leave or knowledge, more human influence, underwent and I will not quit Cadiz unless a modification. This, though not forced." In consequence of this stated on any positive authority, is speech, d’Aunoy was escorted by a rendered probable by the publication detachment of French grenadiers beyond the gates of Cadiz, and Bour- of which proved, that the advice mont was hailed by the inhabitants might quite as well never have trarather as a friend than an invader. velled beyond the Thuilleries—the Whatever Ferdinand's real views may Spanish King was understood subsebe, he is clearly obliged for the pre- quently to have said in reference 10 sent to mask them; but this is of this affair, that “ he was obliged to little inconvenience to one whose his Allies for their aid in rescuing whole life has been a system of hy, him, but that he could govern with pocrisy. Accordingly, we find him out their advice !"

Accordingly, on the 23d of October, only three acting upon this opinion, be had days after the expulsion of his sub- scarcely left Cadiz when such lists stitute miscreant from Cadiz, issuing of proscription were in confidential the following effusion of gratitude to circulation, that no less than 8,000 the French commander.“ History passports were demanded within a will immortalize the great undertak- few days. The principal members ings of an illustrious warrior, who of the Cortes had fled to Gibraltar, passed the Pyrenees to deliver a na- and some had even preferred the hostion from servitude, and horrors, and pitality of the Moors in Tangier, to from a civil war. My Royal heart the ferocious mercy of the Christian desires to manifest my gratitude, Monarch. Subsequent events prove and to assure future ages of the ser- that they have acted wisely, in not atvices rendered to me, I have re- tending to the hypocritical professions solved that in Madrid, a magnificent which were held out to them. Ferdimomument shall be raised to the re- nand is said to have used all his arts to vered memory of my brother and cou- entrap Valdes, the Governor of Cadiz, sin, the Duke d’Angoulême, and to his into his power; he promised him not valiant army! Victor Saez."-Happy only pardon þut favour, and, at last, would it be for Spain, if another even went the length of declaring, were' erected alongside of it to the that he would not embark for Port memory of the valiant Ferdinand him- St. Mary without him. Valdes, howself. To do the Duke d’Angoulême ever, had lived long enough to ap

justice, he seems to be of pretty preciate the sincerity of his master; much the same opinion--he has and he is likely to live much longer avoided Ferdinand ever since their in consequence of the discovery. interview at St. Mary's—left Madrid After the occupation of Cadiz by before his expected arrival – and told the French, of course the Constituthe municipality of that city, that tional Chiefs saw the hopelessness he should preserve a sword they pre- of any further military struggle, and sented him with care, as it was the made the best terms they could fer only mark of Spanish gratitude he the brave troops who remained faithbore away with him !!—In the very ful to them. A dispatch from Guillesecond interview which the Duke had minot to the Minister of War, dated with Ferdinand at Port St. Mary, he Madrid, November 1st, announced is reported to have felt great disgust. that “ the Constitutional Chiefs of It seems a letter from the French Estremadura, with the exception of to the Spanish King was delivered the Empecinado, had tendered their to the latter at that place, in which submission, and that the Brigadier Louis gave Ferdinand some salutary Laguna, the bearer of the orders advice, the result of dear-bought ex- of his Catholic Majesty, was on the perience. He represented to him, 29th of October to take possession amongst other things, the necessity of of Badajoz.” To this succeeded, on moderation, and reminded him that the 2d of November, a still more firmness would lose none of its important dispatch from Moncey, anpower by being blended with mercy. nouncing the surrender of Barcelona There were also some hints given, which had been so long and so ably in case this advice was not acted on, defended by the gallant Mina! We of the possibility of a reaction. To had, indeed, been in some degree this letter, Ferdinand, in his first in- prepared for this by a Proclamation terview with the Duke, made not from him of the 25th of October, in the slightest allusion; however, on which he calls upon the inhabitants the next occasion, it became the of Barcelona to bend to circumsubject of couversation ; the result stances they have not the power of averting. « Inhabitants of Barce- will be more than repaid for its asylona--(he says)-I am satisfied with lum by the compliment of their hav. your conduct, and I hope for the ing sought it. We turn with an same reason, that you will confide in indignant regret from these brave

me.

Present circumstances are of and consistent Patriots, to the consuch a nature, that they can be ap- templation of such men as Morillo preciated by the least penetrating and Ballasteros. The first of these mind,-my conduct shall be regu- associates, immediately on his hearlated by them, and made to conforming the news of Ferdinand's liberation, to the welfare of the country.” There addressed to him a fulsome congranever existed, perhaps, any Chief- . tulation, in which he has the baseness tain who had a more noble right to boast of his share in “ the glory than Mina to claim the confidence of of having contributed to this happy his followers, and there can be no result!" The following passage in doubt, that the surrender of Barce, this fellow's address appears to us lona took place only because further the very climax of bis abominations. resistance must have been fruitless. “ If,” says he, “under other circumThis event was announced in a brief stances, much less difficult than those dispatch from Moncey, dated the 4th which have lately surrounded us, of November, couched in the follow- the Spaniards bestowed on you the ing terms :-" The French troops name of Ferdinand the desired, and have taken possession to-day of the if, by this surname, they wished it forts and place of Barcelona. The to be understood, that they hoped troops of the line of the garrison, every thing from your Majesty, how about 5 or 6,000 men, divided into - much more must they now wish to four columns, have gone into the - see your Majesty fully established on cantonments which were assigned for the throne of your ancestors !” It them. The volunteer militia yester- is gratifying to reflect, that this day deposited their arms. Their man's double baseness has met its · number was about 7,000. The for- due reward, and that even Ferdinand • tifications are in the best state ; more now abjures him. What a wretch than 300 pieces of cannon were on the must he be whom Ferdinand's hatred ramparts; we have found a great dishonours! Yet so it is the enquantity of provisions, and the in- mity which exalts and immortalizes habitants received us with great Mina is all that was wanting to the confidence.” This short dispatch is degradation of Morillo. Such is the the noblest record which can remain difference between vice and virtue. of Mina, and not the less expressive, As to Ballasteros, the moment Ferbecause its praise is unintentional:- dinand felt himself once more secure, in the excellent state of the garrison he refused even to have an interview the abundance of provisions--the with him ; and some reports say he supply of artillery and ammunition, is arrested and imprisoned. It will and, in short, of every thing which scarcely be believed, that he has had required the care and foresight of a the mean audacity to address a letter general, we recognize the proofs of to the Duke d'Angoulême, recapi. his claim to the confidence with tulating his services, and claiming which he was trusted: throughout from him an asylum in France, from the whole campaign he was the life the hatred of Victor Saez, whom and soul of the Constitutionalists, he denominates, we believe truly and his honourable capitulation at enough,the Monk who now governs last was due to the fidelity of the Spain." Saez is the King's Prime brave men who were willing to sacri- Minister and Confessor! It is not fice themselves if he required it. It improbable that the request of Balis gratifying to reflect that he, Mi- lasteros will be granted. No man lans, Roten the Governor, and the knows better than the Duke d’Anmost prominent of the Constitutional goulême what the French Bourbons Commanders, have been guaranteed, owe to Ballasteros—perhaps their by the terms of the capitulation, a throne! It is a fact vouched to us safe convoy either to France or Eng- upon authority we cannot doubt, land. Wherever they go, may their that during his Constitutional Comexile be as happy as it must be mand, three entire French regiments honourable!—the laud of their refuge offered to go over to him and join the

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