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REPORT OF MUSIC. Ir as fine an Italian Opera as any first establishment cost the sube the world can boast–if the almost scribers, in seven years only, the nightly performance of splendid mu- enormous amount of fifty thousand sical dramas and concerts including pounds, besides all the receipts--and all the highest excellencies of the art from that date (1727, near a century) --if such establishments in the me- till within the last very few seasons, tropolis, and an increasing diffusion when Mr. Ebers has occupied the of permanent or occasional displays theatre, it has involved the ruin of art throughout the provinces upon of every succeeding proprietor. How a scale of grandeur hitherto unknown this has been contrived we need not -if the almost universal practice of now inquire. Mismanagement, and music in some shape or other in pri- suits in law and equity, are sufficient vate families, so much, indeed, that general explanations. It is with the it has been said every house is a consequences to the public that the pianoforte - if a crowd of musical public has to do; and these consepublications, foreign and English, is- quences are neither more nor less suing hourly from the shops if all than to entail a charge upon them for these things be the test of a musical this amusement far above that of any nation, England has certainly strong other Opera in Europe, and far above claims to the title. Be not startled, any fair cost that ought to be incurgentle reader, at the apprehension of red for expenses and profits to the à dry discussion of this disputed managers. At the time of the disand disputable point! We meditate pute between Mr. Waters and the no such trial of your patience-we nobility in 1818, it was shown that simply mean to bring some facts (in the amount of all the salaries of all the dearth of those incidents which the principal singers, dancers, and are the ordinary materials of our re- ' musicians, when the opera and balport) to prove that music may (as let were at their pitch of perfection, it ought) be even more diffusively en. did not exceed 18 or 19,000l. while joyed-by the simple process of plac- the receipts were estimated, with a ing our operas and concerts more clear approach to accuracy, at about within the reach of the many who 70,0001. Now it is probable that the would delight to hear, but who can- present lessees pay a rent which of not afford to hear at the cost now course is an equitable compensation charged upon the public. We can- for amount of capital laid out in not, perhaps, take a better time for building, decorations, and general such suggestions than that which in- properties. If the lessees are sadtervenes before the commencement of died with charges for a farthing be
In our May article we yond this fair estimation, then is the slightly touched upon this particular; public taxed to discharge the costs of but now, when the King's Theatre improvidence and mismanagement has passed into the hands of new and by the effects of the monopoly which the noble proprietors, whose wealth (if licence grants to the theatre. A most the universal belief assigns the con- enormous extortion is practised upon tract to the right owners) forbids the the public in some shape or other; supposition that gain can be a princ' for it does not seem possible to swell cipal motive for their undertaking the other expenses of the theatre to such an engagement when the City any thing like a balance with the reAmateur and the Vocal Concerts are ceipts, unless the public be made to abandoned-when the British will pay the costs of the litigations which not probably be renewed—now it have so long involved the property. should seem most proper and most In the present opulent state of the useful to discuss the disorder appa- higher classes, no inquiry will prorent in these symptoms, and the pro- bably be instituted into these particubable remedies...
lars, because there is certainly an To begin with the King's Theatre. exclusive feeling-a desire of keeping Never was there so much money their state unmixed with any alloy, sunk upon any concern'as has been which is but too prevalent amongst lost in the Italian Opera-house. Its the rich and great ; and this is most
easily done by holding the amuse- ed concerts which are open to the ment above the reach of the many public; the benefit concerts and the (the real public) by its expensive- oratorios are the only real receptaness. But why should not the Opera, cles that are open to those classes of as well as other sources of pleasure, be the people who wish to enjoy music thrown open to competition? This as their opportunities permit, more is a question which the public has a or less frequently according to cire right to ask-for if it were once open- cumstances, but always economically, ed to competition, there can be little or not at all. doubt that an Italian opera, fully What then are the causes which equal to the desires of the mass of originate the costliness that prethe people living in and visiting the cludes such general enjoyment? metropolis, might be enjoyed at pro- The inordinate desire to hear only bably half the cost. The people of the singers highest in repute, and to England have a title to obtain their carry musical perfection to its most amusements, like their subsistence, extravagant excess both in quality as cheap as they can be obtained. and quantity. These principles of This is, in this instance, however, action entail so great a demand for a precluded by the monopoly-which few, and a very few, vocalists, that is exceedingly burdensome and se- they can fix their own price; and here vere, for it is absolutely exclusive. is laid the foundation of expenses too
The King's, or Ancient Concert, vast to be compensated except by a proceeds very much upon the same high price of admission; for all the principle—a selection, in other words rest take their tone from the princian audience excluding all but certain pals. The cost of what is esteemed classes or rather individuals who are a fine concert is now scarcely less in one train of connexion. This is than from 300l. to 400l. Nothing less rather, indeed, in the nature of a than half a guinea for each person private assembly than a public con- for admittance can therefore repay cert. The subscribers can only be the expenses, even in the largest admitted by consent of the noble di- buildings in London. rectors; and the subscription is enor
There is now it should seem room mous. Such an arrangement, how- for an experiment. A Concert of geever, is perfectly fair, because it is neral reception, if we may so term it, optional to accept or reject their terms; will certainly be wanting this year; there is no prerogative attached to and it is a great question to decide, these performances to compel the whether support could be found for public to have them or none. Any an undertaking embracing a fair man may have the same rooms and quantity of talent without excess the same band the very next night, by which we mean an orchestra and give the very same selections. capable of complete effects, but reIf this operates against the public at duced in numbers, and, perhaps, all, it is in the large sums paid to the somewhat in the rank of its princisingers, wherein lies indeed very pal singers. At an oratorio, two or much the root of the great evil three seasons ago, no less than nineexpensiveness.
teen principal vocalists appeared! It The Philharmonic Society, is a is also customary to vary as much as body of musicians of the highest is possible the performers at concerts. eminence; and their concert is sup- The greater part of this is excess, and ported chiefly by themselves and their fatal excess. Our idea is, that a families. It is the intrinsic excel- sufficient vocal band for a concert of lence of this concert, aided, perhaps, a proper length (the duration of musilittle by community of interests cal entertainments is now one of their amongst the members, that has raised greatest evils) might be engaged at it to so great a height. Access, how- far less expense; and if the chief ever, so far as the public is concerned, singers were changed occasionally is not obtainable, for the best reason only, sufficient diversity would be in the world—the room can receive afforded. To this plan might be addonly a certain number of auditors, ed that attraction which the British and these are made up of the persons Concerts adopted as their principle and connexions already stated. the encouragement of native comHere ends the short list of establish- posers, by the performance of new
works worthy the patronage of the Polonaise Ronde for the harp is quite a public. And to make the concert captivating morceau, rich in graceful memore generally accessible, and more lody, and delicate yet brilliant execution. generally desirable, the admissions Yet it is within the powers of modest acshould be arranged upon the plan quirement, adopted last season at Bath. That
Mary, I believed thee true; with introis to say, let the price of the tickets be ductions and variations for the harp, by diminished in proportion to the num- the air is well preserved by the cantabile of
T. P. Chipp. The pathetic expression of bers taken. We inserted the Bath the three first variations, while the different plan in our number of January last. rythm, and the introduction of the harmoTickets were there issued in sets, and nies in the third, gives sufficient variety. the subscription for three admissions The fourth and last, Allo Polacea, is spiritfor all the nights was about 45. each, ed and agreeable. The lesson is easy. for two about 5s. and for a single O Pescator dell onda, a favourite Vene. ticket about 8s. Let this be com- tian Barcarolle, with variations for the pared with the half-guinea admis- pianoforte, by J. H. Little. There is not sions to London concerts! At Bath much invention in this composition, but it there was quite as much excellence, is light and brilliant, and will moreover quite as much variety, as any Lon- give facility in passages of general occurdon performance exhibits. Why then
L'Oiscau de Venus is an easy and useful should conductors at a distance from lesson for beginners, by Mr. Kiallmark. the metropolis (which implies more Mr. Nicholson's Progressive Studies expense in the
travelling of the band) for the Flute have reached seven books. In be able to afford an equally good his introduction the author announces that concert at about half the price of he has endeavoured to simplify the difficuladmission the London audiences are ties occurring in the course of the pupil's accustomed to pay? The Bath books practice, arising from the want of minute are now before us, and we will ven- and particular elucidations. By collecting ture to assert that no bill of fare can
most of the difficult passages peculiar to, be more excellent in every respect.
one composer into one view, he affords the We recommend, then, these facts self with those difficulties which might
pupil an opportunity of familiarising himto the earnest consideration of the otherwise appear insurmountable. The seamateurs of the opera, the directors lections are given as originally written, to of concerts, and of the public; for which the author has added that system of we are satisfied that the art, the pro- fingering, mode of articulation, and those fession, and the lover of music, would marks of expression, which his own pracbe alike profited by a less luxuriously tice has led him to adopt, and which will excessive, though scarcely less excel materially assist the pupil. The third, lent provision, and by obtaining the fourth, and fifth books contain the trios of gratification at a cheaper rate; for Vern Lenord, De Call, and the concertos of
Devienne and Berbiguier; the duets of this latter proposition implies a more Muller, Tulbu, and Burrowes. The sixth frequent repetition of the enjoyment, and seventh are exercises in the sharp and which would at once serve to eme fat keys by Mr. Nicholson himself. ploy and to polish the rising mem- Mr. Bottomley has published four books bers of the profession. At present, of divertiinentos for the pianoforte and fute. perhaps not more than two or three They are of the easiest possible description : players (on the wind instruments es but the union of the instruments even in so pecially) are able to earn a moderate early a stage will be found beneficial, as the income ; and what is worse, a single additional interest excited by emulation and singer is often paid half as much as companionship cannot but be advantageous. one half of the instrumental band.
Fantasia, and a Theme of Mozart, com
posed and arranged for two performers on Grand Fantasia, and variations for the the pianoforte, by John Barnett, Op. 1, harp, on the favourite Irish Melody, Sly is highly creditable as the production of a Patrick, by A. C. Bochsa. A lesson of young composer. Much of it is well imagreat fancy and powerful execution. The gined, although the execution of the ideas first variation, a scherzando movement, is often crude, and in parts indistinct. is imagined with singular delicacy of ex- Mr. Little's Bagatelles, a selection of pression, and is perhaps the most striking popular airs arranged as ducts for two part of the piece. The whole, however, is performers, Books I and 2. A work exo particularly characteristic of the style of the tremely well calculated for beginners, composer.
The subject of Mr. Bruguier's Sixth Mr, Steil's favourite Quick March and Dramatic Divertimento is the duet “ AI
idea di quel: Metallo," from il Barbiere di Amongst the best of the namerous ArSiviglia.
rangements are Rimbault's weaptation of M. Klase has given a selection from the overtures to La Villanella Rapita, and Weber's Opera, Der Freyschutz, as the La Donna del Lago, as duets for the pianofirst number of a set of dramatic diverti. forte ; Boildieu's overture to the Caliph mentos, with a flute accompaniment. The of Bagdad; and Le Brun's Rossignol for style of this composer, judging from the ar. the pianoforte, with flute and violoncello ecrangement before us, is elegant, and rich in companiments, by Little. melody and harmony.
THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. ACTION OF METALS ON ELASTIC bination, but without detonation. FLUIDS.
Thenard and Dulong have found that Professor Dobereiner, of Jena, has other metals possess the same proJately discovered one of the most cu- perty; palladium and rhodium, when rious phenomena which physical sci- heated to 464o, and gold and silver in ence is capable of unfolding. He thin leaves, at a temperature a little has announced in the Journal des below that of boiling mercury, caused Debats, that platina, in a spongy state, the gases to enter into union. The occasions the combination of oxygen effect of metals on other gases was and hydrogen at common tempera- afterwards tried, and very important tures, and that the extrication of heat results were obtained. When spongy that results, is sufficient to make the platina was immersed in a mixture metal red hot. This curious fact has of carbonic oxide and oxygen, it been verified by Thenard and Du- made them unite, and it occasioned long, who have performed a number the decomposition of nitrous oxide by of experiments, with the view of as hydrogen. When the metal was in certaining the cause of it. When a leaf, it required its temperature to be stream of hydrogen was made to raised to about 572o. Olefiant gas, strike against a mass of spongy pla- mixed with a proper quantity of tina, the metal was instantly made oxygen, was converted into water, red hot, which induced them to sup- and carbonic acid by spongy platina, pose that if it were immersed in a at about the same temperature. Iron, mixture of two of hydrogen, and one copper, gold, silver, and platina, of oxygen, it would cause it to ex- were found also to possess the proplode; they found that this was ac- perty of decomposing some of the tually the case when the gases were compound gases, as ammonia; thus pure; but when they contained azote, 154 grains of iron wire were suffithe combination went on slowly, and cient to decompose almost completely water was formed. When the spongy a current of ammoniacal gas, even platina was strongly calcined, it lost though rapidly passed over it, and the property of becoming red hot, continued to do so during 10 hours, but it produced a union of the gases. without the temperature exceeding Platina, reduced to fine powder, and that which the ammonia can bear in the state of wire, has no effect on alone without decomposition. Though the gases ; from which it appears that iron has this effect on ammonia, yet the porosity of the spongy metal is it does not occasion the union of an essential condition in the pro- oxygen and hydrogen, while platina, duction of the phenomenon, but the which easily effects their combinafollowing facts disprove this con- tion, has very little influence on amjecture. When the platinum was re- monia. Some gases have therefore a duced to very fine leaf, and suspended tendency to combine, others to sepain a mixture of the gases, it pro- rate, under the influence of the meduced detonation, which was most tals; this property varying on ac: easily effected when the leaf was count of the nature of each, Those crumpled. Though platina in pow. metals which produce one of the der and in wire did not, at a natural effects most perfectly, are incapable temperature, act on the gaseous mix- of producing the other, or they do so ture, yet, when heated to between in a less degree. Since the account 4000 and 572°, it effected the com- of these experiments has been made
NEWLY DISCOVERED ISLANDS IN THE
public, Mr. Faraday has given the were perforated at each end and following notice of it. It consists in empty, some were filled with a transpassing a stream of hydrogen against parent jelly, and the rest contained the finely divided platina, obtained from nine to twelve young leeches, by heating the precipitate thrown which in a few days pierced their down from the muriatic solution by envelope, and swam vigorously ammonia. In consequence of the about. M. Noble could not observe contact, the gas inflames. Even the formation of any of the cocoons; when it does not inflame, it ignites but the mode of producing them has the metal in various places. When been long known to the people in the hydrogen is passed over the pla- the department of Finisterre, who tinum in a tube, from which atmo- are thus enabled to supply Paris with spherical air is excluded, the metal is leeches. The workmen dig them up heated in the same manner. Since from the bottom of the little muddy the first paper of Thenard and Du- pools, and place them in small ponds long was published, they have per- prepared for that purpose. Six formed experiments of a similar na- months afterwards the young are reture on other metals and gases. moved into larger ponds, on the They have found that palladium in a banks of which cows and horses are spongy mass is capable of inflaming brought to feed, experience having hydrogen; iridium, in the same taught the country people, that the form, became very hot, and produced leech is never prolific till it has suckwater ; cobalt and nickel in mass, ed blood. when previously heated to about $72o, occasioned the union of oxygen and hydrogen. Spongy platina, at a The Greenland ship Dundee, of natural temperature, generated water London, on the 2d of September, in and ammonia with nitric oxide and latitude about 68° 40', long. 24° 30' hydrogen, and it also acted on a W. running in northwest towards mixture of hydrogen and nitrous the land, at 9 a. m. got within two oxide.
miles of a small island, bearing NW.
which Capt. Duncan named Sayer's An interesting memoir on this sub- Island; the mainland running NNE. ject has been published by M. Noble, and SSW., distant about fourteen in which he states that these useful' miles. Cape Barclay of Scoresby's animals may be preserved and bred Chart bore NNE. distant fifty miles, in troughs, with a little care, and a " and the most southern headland on few simple contrivances ; the great the main bore W. and by S. to which mortality which occurs among them the name of Duncansby Head was when crowded into small vessels, given. All the mainland seen bebeing owing to the stronger devouring tween this point and Cape Barclay the weaker for the sake of nourish was called Gale's Land. About ten ment. M. Noble constructed a trough miles SE. from Duncansby Head, a seven feet long, three wide, and as low flat island was seen, which was many deep, with sloping sides, lined named Robison Island. Gale's Land, with clay. It had a constant stream Capt. Duncan states, resembles in of water passing through it, and in general appearance the south side one of the corners rushes were plant- of Scoresby's Sound. It is very high ed. It was exposed to the sun, but and precipitous, the mountains runsheltered from the north wind. In ning in ridges, the north sides being November he placed 200 grey and covered with snow, but the south green leeches in it, where they passed quite green. Sayer's Island is rocky the winter, buried in the mud. To- and barren, about half a mile long, wards the end of the following spring and a quarter broad. There was several young ones were seen stick little fast and drift ice; a consideraing to the old ones, and swimming ble number of icebergs were, how, occasionally, as if to try their ever, grounded along the shore, and strength. In August he observed a good deal of drift timber was obconical holes in the mud, each of served. The current set in S. and which contained a little oval cocoon, W. at the rate of one and a half mile as big as that of a silk worm, and in the hour. No whales were seen, porous outwardly. Some of these and few seals or birds except Kitti:
BREEDING OF LEECHES.