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tended by only a few followers, he of Ferdinand were really their pure arrived at a village called Arguillas, pose, the surrender of Cadiz' has where the incautious use of his mili- proved that he can neither appretary title by one of his companions ciate nor apply the advantages of betrayed him; and he was arrested freedom. Immediately upon the arby the inhabitants, who were of the rival of the Duke d’Angoulême at party of the Faith.
The conse- head-quarters, he addressed an auquence was, his delivery by them to tograph letter to Ferdinand, apthe French troops, and his subse- prising him of his previous success, quent consignment by them to the and adding his advice as to the fumercy of the Regency. What that ture. The most remarkable passages mercy will be may be anticipated in this letter are the following: from the treatment he has already
The King (he says), my uncle and lord experienced. He was conveyed to had thought, and events have in no wise Madrid with three or four followers, changed his opinion, that your Majesty, as a criminal, and handed over to restored to liberty, and using clemency, the custody of the Conde de Torre would think it advisable to grant an amAlta, a furious Ultra ; this worthy, nesty, necessary after so many troubles, acting in the spirit of a genuine In- and to give to your people, by the convoquisitor, has flung Riego and his cation of the ancient Cortes of the kingcompanions into separate dungeons, dom, guarantees for the re-establishment where they are confined, with irons of order, justice, and good adıinistration. on their legs, and fastened with a
All that France could perform, as well as chain to the wall! An article, dated her Allies, and the whole of Europe, in
order to consolidate this act of your wisMadrid, October the 8th, states that dom, I do not hesitate myself to become a Riego had been at that moment con
guarantee, shall be done. I thought it my demned. This was, of course, to duty to remind your Majesty, and through be expected, but fortunately even in you, all those who may still prevent the his death the patriot will entail a evils which threaten them, of the feelings kind of posthumous reprisal upon his of the King, my uncle and lord. enemies. The yell of Ultra joy at.
To this letter the writer allowed his captivity reached Mina, in Cata- five days for a reply. The reply is lonia, and he is reported instantly to spirited and sensible ; and, of course, have apprised the Regency that the though it bears the name of Ferdilives of a French lieutenant-general, nand, was not written by him. It of a number of superior officers, and says, that the yoke from which the of two bishops then in his hands, Duke pretends to have delivered should be answerable for that of Spain never existed, nor was the Riego. What effect this may have King deprived of any other liberty in Madrid is uncertain ; but if the than that of which the operations of Regency set Mina the example of the French army had stripped him. murdering their prisoners, they can
In answer to the proposition for conscarcely complain of him for follow, voking the ancient Cortes, it says: ing it. Another brave Constitutional officer, General San Miguel, has, we
To raise up again, after three centuries regret to say, fallen into the hands of of oblivion, an institution as varied, change. the French, severely wounded; our
able, and as monstrous as the ancient readers will recognize in this officer the Cortes of the kingdoin were, in which the
nation was never assembled, and never late spirited Minister for Foreign Af- possessed a true representation, would, on fairs. The debt which we owe to the the other hand, be the same, or worse, than memory of brave and virtuous men to renew the States General in France ; it has thus, we hope excusably, de- would, besides, be insufficient to secure tained us for a moment from the tranquillity and public order, without afdetails of the leading event, which fording advantage to any one of the classes has for the present closed the scene, of the State, and would produce the diffiand naturally now monopolizes pub- culties and inconveniencies which in former lic attention. It would seem, how- times were complained of, and which have ever, as if in their highest successes always been recognized when this subject the French were fated to discover has been treated of. the profligacy of the cause in which Theletter concludes by stating that the they have embarked; and, we will King wishes for an honourable peace, venture to say, that if the liberation and also for an end of those disasters which are as prejudicial to France as departure of Ferdinand from Cadiz, to Spain. After this correspondence, he issued a proclamation, the pro the extraordinary Cortes of the king- mises contained in which we must dom were convoked and opened with give in the very words of the docuan hypocritical address from Ferdi ment itself—this is the more necesnand, who, however, pleaded the sary in consequence of a subsequent shortness of the notice as an apology proclamation by the same personage for not delivering it in person. The so completely at variance with the Cortes adjourned after the appoint- first, that we would fain avoid having ment of a Junta of defence, to whom the contradiction imputed to our were entrusted considerable powers, abridgment. No doubt, however, and the most vigorous preparations the ingenuity of ultra construction recommended. Notwithstanding this will easily reconcile those discrepandecision, several dispatches passed cies which appear inexplicable to
between the Duke d’Angoulême and common understandings. The first - the Cortes, which at length termi- document, dated Cadiz, September
nated in the liberation of Ferdinand. 30, 1823, after some previous expoThe Junta, it seems, found the city sition of his patriotic views, proceeds in an indefensible state -- men and as follows money were both wanting, and nota withstanding the excellent disposi
“ I declare, from my own free and tion of the militia, some of the regu- spontaneous will, and promise under the lar regiments were not to be depended faith and security of my royal word, that on. At nine o'clock on the 28th of ration in the existing political institutions
if it should be necessary to make any alteSeptember, the Count de Corres, of the monarchy, I will establish a governgentleman to the King, brought a ment which shall cause the complete feliletter to the French head-quarters, city of the nation, guaranteeing the security announcing the liberation of Ferdi- of the persons, property, and civil liberty nand; the letter was an autograph, of the Spanish people. 2d, In like manner and declared “ that he was at liber. I promise, of my own free and spontaneous ty, that the Cortes was dissolved, will, and have resolved to carry into effect, and that he wished to know his Royal a çeneral act of oblivion, complete and ubHighness's dispositions, having an solute, for all that is past, without any excepintention to land at Port St. Mary.” tion, in order that by so doing, tranquil. He added, that he had promised not lity, confidence, and
union, so necessary to to pursue any one on account of po-mongst the Spanish people, and which my
the common good, may be established a litical opinions, but nothing more; paternal heart so earnestly yearns after and that he would not engage in the 3d, In like manner I promise, that whataffairs of government till after his ar- ever change may be made, the public debts rival at Madrid. The event justified and obligations contracted by the nation the assertion — " In a day or two and by my government, under the present after,” (the Moniteur says) “ the Eystem, shall be acknowledged. 4th, I Duke d’Angoulême announced that also promise and assure, that all the gene the King of Spain and the Royal rals, chiefs, officers, serjeants, and corpo Family arrived at Port St. Mary at rals, of the army and navy, who have hieleven in the morning.” The Etoile, therto attached themselves to the existing an ultra paper, "goes into a joyous the peninsula, shall preserve their grades,
system of government, in whatever part of description of the mummery which followed, and which we hope our in like manner all other military function
employments, salaries, and honours; and readers will excuse us from detailing aries shall preserve theirs, and also those -sabres and crosses, soldiers and civilians and ecclesiastics who have followed monks, psalms and salvoes, were all the government and the Cortes who depend mingled together, and gave, we fear, on the existing system ; and those who, by not an unapt representation of the reason of the reductions which may be butchery which will follow in the made, cannot preseļve their employments, name of religion, legitimacy, and the shall enjoy at least one half of the salaries holy inquisition. The conduct of which they now have. 5th, I declare and Ferdinand before and after his deli- lunteers of Madrid, of Seville, and of other
assure equally, that as well the militia voverance, is more important both as places, who may now be in this island,
and marking the character of the man, also whatever other Spaniards may have and as declaratory of the policy which taken refuge in it, who are not by reason of is to follow. Immediately before the their employments obliged to remain, may
from this moment freely return to their October, after an interval of scarcely
these proclamations fair play; and we Spaniards of that class, and strangers who cannot do this better, than by letting may wish to quit the kingdom, may do so him, in both instances, speak for with equal liberty, and will obtain the ne- himself, only requesting of our read cessary passports for the country where it to compare the passages we may suit them to go.
quote, and, from their contents, form Such is the preliminary proclama- their own opinion of King Ferdinand. tion of Ferdinand, promulgated in his On the first of October he says :. name, and signed with his royal The whole of Europe, well aware of my hand, which the majority of the captivity, and of that of all the Royal Fa. Cortes were induced to credit. Whe- mily; of the deplorable situation of my ther they were wise in doing so or loyal and faithful subjects; and of the not is a problem which it requires pernicious doctrines which Spanish agents no great conjuration to determine; were everywhere disseminating, resolved but had they affected to doubt its constituted a common reproach, and which
to put an end to a state of things which sincerity-had they ventured to hint
menaced with destruction all thrones, and that Ferdinand would afterwards at.
all ancient institutions, in order to substitute tempt to retract it on the pretence of impiety and profligacy. France, entrusted compulsion—and had a sanguinary with so sacred an enterprise, has triumphed defence ended, as under the circum- in a few months over the efforts of all the stances it must have done, in a rebels of the world, collected for the misery sanguinary capture, we can easily of Spain, upon her classic soil of fidelity conceive what would have been and loyalty. the just language of the legiti- After complimenting the Duke mates. They would, no doubt, have d’Angoulême, and the whole French accused the Cortes of wilfully and army, he goes on thus to decree in basely doubting the honour of a the very teeth of the former proclamonarch-of democratically suppos. mation, which he issued, “under the ing, that he would sacrifice his royal faith and security of his Royal word:” word, or submit from any servile fear to issue a falsehood under his called Constitutional (of whatever kind and
Art. 1. All the acts of the government, sacred hand. They would have said, description they may be), a system which and justly, that the representatives oppressed my people from the 7th of March, of a great nation ought to know, 1820, until the 1st of October, 1823, are that a great Sovereign was incapa- declared null and void, declaring, as I ble of submitting to any unworthy now declare, that during the whole of that terms from a vile, personal timidity, period I have been deprived of my liberty, and that whatever course he diá obliged to sanction laws, and authorise adopt he would afterwards assuredly orders, decrees, and regulations, which the be ashamed to declare in the face of said government framed and executed Europe, that he had solemnly adopts against my will.- Art. 2. I approve of ed it merely because he was too great ordered by the provisional junta of govern,
every thing which has been decreed and a coward to resist it. Independent
ment, and by the regency, the one created of his public proclamation, they at Oyavrun, April the 9th, the other, May would with reason have referred to 26th, in the present year; waiting meanhis private letter to the Duke d’An- while until, sufficiently informed as goulême, in which he tells him, that to the wants of my people, I may be "he had promised not to pursue any able to bestow those laws, and adopt those one on account of political opinions. measures, which shall be best calculated to The Cortes did trust him, and we secure their real prosperity and welfare, the shall now see what has been the im- constant object of all my wishes. mediate result. The proclamation Nor is this all. On the 4th, at from which we have quoted the pre- Xeres, he issued another decree, orceding passage, was dated on the dering that, during his journey to the 30th of September; on the ist of capital
No individual, who, during the existence Never, with my own consent, will I of the system styled Constitutional, has enter the same room with Morillo.” been a deputy to the Cortes in the two last-We are glad to say, his Lordship legislative sittings, shall present himself, has arrived safe in England. No or be within five leagues of the route to doubt, in our next, we shall have to Madrid. This prohibition is also appli- record the arrival of Ferdinand in his cable to the Ministers, Councillors of State, capital, and the establishment of the the Members of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, the Commandants General, Poli. inquisition in all its glory. For the tical Chiefs, the persons employed in the present, it seems, Cadiz remains in several departments of the Secretaries of the military possession of the French. State, and the Chiefs and Officers of the What their further projects may be late National Volunteer Militia, to whom it is impossible to foresee. By the his Majesty interdicts for ever entrance to speech of Louis they are bound to the Capital and the Royal residence, or assist Spain in the recovery of her approach thereto, within a circumference revolted provinces; and to those proof fifteen leagues !!
vinces we have just appointed comThese two decrees are the first mercial consuls, thereby clearly acfruits of Ferdinand's solemnly gua- knowledging their independence. One ranteed “act of oblivion!" We of the two powers it is clear must rewould merely ask any impartial per- tract. We should not wonder, after son to peruse them, and then say, all, if the fall of Cadiz was the forewhat faith can possibly be placed in runner of events much more important. such a mau! Who can doubt, that Accounts of a very alarming naif the scene were to change to-mor- ture have been received from our row, and the Constitutionalists again West India Islands. It appears that, to regain possession of his person, he ever since intelligence had arrived would recant every syllable of his lat- there of the motion on the subject ter proclamations, and declare them of the Slave Trade, made during the to have issued while he was in capti- last Session of Parliament, in the vity with the French. They are not House of Commons, the negroes a whit more solemn than his previous have either believed, or been perone at Cadiz, or guarded by more suaded to believe, that they were to bindling guarantees. The impolicy be immediately relieved from every of these acts, if Ferdinand really ex- social relation whatsoever, and, in pects to remain at peace, is obvious; short, to assume a sort of Sovereignty there seldom has been a successful in the colonies. At Demerara, a restoration without, not merely a very serious insurrection, excited, as rerbal, but a bona fide amnesty. The it was said, by two Missionary reader will not fail to remark, in the preachers, actually broke out in l'ort St. Mary proclamation, the al- such strength, that our tenure of the Insion to the French conquest of “all island was for a
time doubtful. the rebels of the world.” This, no However, it was at last subdued by doubt, is intended to include, not the prompt policy of the Governor, merely the foreign legion in the Con- and the activity of the troops. A stitutional service, but our own court-martial had been assembled, brave countrymen who aided the and many of the ringleaders were cause by their contributions and their condemned and executed. The spiservices. Among the latter we are rit of insubordination was still, hownow happy to add the name of Lord ever, so strong, that it is said GoNugent to that of Sir Robert Wilson, vernment have come to a deterboth of whom did all that gallant mination to dispatch thither a large spirits could do, during the siege of body of military. It would seem as Cadiz. The letter of Lord Nugent if the negroes had taken an example to Morillo, who sought an interview from Ireland, and decided upon with him, for the avowed purpose of marring, by their own folly, any openascertaining the sentiments of the ing chance of their amelioration. British people towards him, deserves Mr. Blaquiere has published a still to be recorded. It is a specimen of fuller report than that to which we indignant eloquence. “ The name alluded in our last, on the affairs of of Morillo (says his Lordship) is Greece. It is too voluminous for us known only in England as that of an even to abridge; but its substance enemy to the cause of freedom in affords every ground for hope that America, and a traitor to it in Spain. the efforts of those who wish well to this sacred cause will ultimately tri- observations, they had every reason to be umph. The author promises in the lieve that this strait separated all the land subsequent report a still more ex
to the north ward from the continent of tended work upon the subject of his America. After geiting about fifteen miles mission; and from what he has al- within the entrance of it, however, they ready published, it certainly appears suasion that they were in the right channel
were stopped by the ice, but from the per. to us that any future production of for getting to the westward, they remained his, relative to Greece, must con- there for nearly a month, in daily expectasiderably extend our sources of in- tion that the ice would break up. In this formation on this interesting contest. last hope they were again quite disap
Captain Parry, and the ships ap- pointed, and on the 19th of September the pointed for the purpose of discover- sea having begun to freeze, they left these ing the North West Passage, have straits, and laid the ships up in winter returned. It does not appear that quarters near a small island called by the they have been able to effect any Esquimaux Igloolik. Here they remained discovery, further than that no fu- from the 24th of September, 1822, to the ture discoveries in that quarter may
8th of last August, when, finding the object be expected. No doubt, however, homewards.
of their pursuit unattainable, they returned the expedition will furnish a supplement to the interesting work which A new Pope has been elected, the we have already abridged in our Cardinal Della Genga, who has preceding volumes. It is gratifying taken the title of Leo the Twelfth. to state, that only five men have been He is said to be strictly in the Italost, either by illness or accident, lian interest. We have not even since the sailing of the expedition. heard of Cardinal Fesch during the
The following particulars have ap- election! Would it have been so had peared in the Newspapers :
Napoleon reigned ? The outward voyage in 1821 was fair Our domestic news for this month and prosperous.
Passing up Hudson's literally amounts to nothing. The Straits, the navigators kept near the land most important point is, that the on their South, and explored the coast to- Bank of England has resolved to wards Repulse Bay. The farthest West lend money to the great landholders which they attained was 86° of longitude,
on mortgage. The interest we have and the highest latitude only 69° 48' N.; understood to be at 4 per cent.; and a and they finally brought up for winter quarters at a small isle which they named newly created Duke is said to have
borrowed Winter Island, in 82° 53' W. longitude,
upon this plan no less than and latitude 66°ll' N. The chief part of 300,000 1, the summer of 1821 was occupied in exa
Several adjudications have lately mining Repulse Bay, and some inlets to
taken place under the new Vagrant the eastward of it, through some one or Act, which would seem to put London other of which they hoped to find a passage under the system of the Insurrection into the Polar Sea. In this they were dis- Act in Ireland, and confine the inhaappointed, for all the openings proved to be bitants to their houses after sunset. only decp inlets, which ran into the con,
It is quite clear, that in the very first tinent of America. While thus occupied, week of the ensuing session these most early in October the sea began to freeze ; and on the 8th of that month the ships
1-English provisions must be abwere laid up for the winter, in the situation
rogated. The waste copies of the noted above. Here at Winter Island, the statute might be of use to King FerExpedition was frozen up from the 8th of dinand under his new system. October 1821 to the 2d of July 1822. The
We have nothing further to add, vessels were within two or three hundred than that Ireland has not for this paces of each other; and occupations and month furnished any additional claim amusements, similar to those practised in to emancipation, in the shape of the preceding voyage, were resorted to. either burnings, murders, or miracles,
In the season of 1822, the vessels having steered along the coast to the North, pene
Oct. 24. trated only to the longitude of 82° 50', and latitude 69° 40'; and after exploring several inlets, &c. in their brief cruise, they were finally mocred for their second winter, about a mile apart, in long, 81° 44' W.
When our last report was written, lat. 69° 21' N.' They had latterly entered a
we had no complete knowledge of struit leading to the westward. From the the harvest in the more northern accounts of the Esquimaux and their own parts of Scotland, and the backward