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THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE.
GEOGNOSY OF THE
shores of the Arctic seas make their HUDSON'S BAY TO THE POLAR SEA. culinary utensils of potstone, but
The observations of several dis- Dr. Richardson did not discover any tinguished geologists show, that the of it. The transition rocks are general situation of the primitive and observed in situ, only at Point transition strata of Britain, of the Lake, on the Copper Mine river, and Continent of Europe, and of Ame- perhaps at Wilberforce Falls, and rica, is nearly from NE. to SW. Ac- ' did not afford any limestone or lycording to Dr. Richardson, who ac- dian stone, nor was any chiastolite companied Capt. Franklin in his ex- or glance-coal observed. Of the sepedition to the shores of the Polar condary formations the following ocseas, the average direction of the curred on or near the line of journey : strata of these rocks through twelve Old red sandstone, or that which lies degrees of latitude, also gives NE. under coal, observed on the Copper to SW. They are always more or Mine river; the coal formation which less inclined to the horizon, the mean is known to occur in some districts angle being about 45°, the dip some- in Mackenzie's river, and also totimes to the E. sometimes to the W. wards the Rocky Mountains; the They exhibit the same varieties of new red, or variegated sandstone, of structure that they do in other ex- very considerable extent, and protensive districts of country. In ge- bably lying over the coal formation. neral the slaty structure is parallel to It contains gypsum and salt springs, the direction of the strata ; when the that seem to issue from it, some of waved structure makes its appearance which, as those on Leane river, afit is sometimes conformable with the ford, by spontaneous evaporation, seams of stratification, occasionally during the short summers, a very entirely independent of them, and large quantity of salt. The seconirregular in its direction. The ap- dary limestone appears to belong to purently confused arrangements of the deposit lying above the new red structure of clay slate and other sand stone, and under chalk, and slaty rocks, proved, on accurate ex- which forms extensive tracts in other amination, to be caused by the strata quarters of the world. The secondary being arranged into variously formed trap and porphyry rocks, which ocdistinct concretions. The general cur so abundantly on the coast of the forms, connexions, and distributions Arctic sea, and throughout the whole of the mountains, hills, and plains, range of the Copper Mountains, are and of the cliffs on the coast of the apparently connected with the new Arctic sea, are nearly the same as red sandstone, and abound with those of similar rocks similarly cir- native copper. Many of them precumstanced in other quarters of the sent a columnar appearance. Nuglobe. Granite gneiss, mica slate, and merous examples of alluvial deposits clay slate, occur in all their usual re- of different kinds occurred in the line lations. Of these gneiss appears to of journey; some occasioned by lakes, be most extensively distributed, and which had dried up gradually, or attended with scanty vegetation. burst suddenly, and left concavities Granite is next in frequency, being of covered with sand, gravel, and other a red colour, and varying from coarse alluvial matters; others produced to small granular; the loose blocks of from rivers. Some formations on the stone that crown the summits of the sea coast were caused by the conhills in the barren grounds are com- joined action of the ocean, and the posed of it. These primitive rocks wasting influence of the weather. are traversed by veins of felspar, The preceding details show, that in quartz, and granite; and the granite the regions traversed in this expediof Cape Barrow is intersected by tion, the rocks of the primitive, tranaugite greenstone of the same na. sition, secondary, and alluvial classes, ture as that of Great Britain. Ga. have the same general composition, lena was found at a point called, from structure, position, and distribution that circunstance, Galena Point; and as in other parts of America which the Esquimaux that frequent the have been examined; and as these
agree in all respects, with the rock for- ascribed to the aurora, though he mations in Europe and Asia, they may witnessed it upwards of two hundred with propriety be considered as uni- times. The pith ball electrometer, versal formations, parts of a grand placed in an elevated situation, never and harmonious whole, the produce indicated an atmosphere charged tion of infinite wisdom.
with electricity. Lieut. Hood, on
the 11th of March, at 10 p. m. obThe observations made on the au« served a body of aurora rise NNW. rora borealis, during the expedition and after a mass of it had passed to of Capt. Franklin, are peculiarly in- E. by S. the remainder broke away teresting, as showing its effect on the in different pieces which crossed 40° magnetic needle, and proving, be- of the sky with great rapidity. A yond a doubt, its being accompanied hissing noise like that of a musket with noise. According to Franklin bullet passing through the air was the arches of the aurora most com- repeatedly heard, and which seemed monly traverse the sky, nearly at to proceed from the aurora, but right angles to the magnetic meri- which, according to Mr. Wentzel, is dian, but the deviations from this occasioned by severe cold succeeding direction were not rare. When the mild weather, and acting on the surarch was nearly at right angles to face of the snow, previously melted the meridian, the motion of the by the sun's rays. "The temperature needle was towards the west, which of the air was then 35', and on the was increased when one extremity two preceeding days it had been of the arch approached from the west above zero. The next morning it towards the magnetic north. A was so low as - 42°, and the same westerly motion also took place noise was frequently heard. The when the end of the arch was in the common cork ball electrometer did true north. A contrary effect was not show any signs of electricity, produced when the same extremity which induced Lieut. Hood to make originated to the southward of the use of another instrument, a brass magnetic west, the needle in these needle, so situated as to show hy its cases moving to the east. The movements whether this agent was needle was most disturbed on the evolved. On several evenings the evening of the 13th of February, needle was attracted and repelled, 1821, when the aurora was distinct, when the aurora was observed; ly seen passing between a stratum proving that electricity had been exa of clouds and the earth, or at least tricated; but whether it was reilluminating the face of the clouds: ceived from, or summoned into acsimilar deviations have been ob- tion by, the aurora, could not be deserved in the day-time, both in a termined. Dr. Richardson is of opiclear and cloudy state of the sky, nion, that the aurora is occasionally but more frequently during the lat- seated in a region of the air below a ter. Clouds have been also seen in species of cloud, which is known to the day-time to assume the forms of possess no great altitude; that mothe aurora, which, Capt. Franklin is dification of cirro-stratus which, deinclined to think, bore some con- scending low in the atmosphere, pronexion with the movements of the duces a hazy continuity of cloud over needle remarked at such times. The head, or a fog bank on the horizon; disturbance in the needle was not he is even inclined to infer, that the always proportionate to the agi- aurora is constantly accompanied by, tation of the aurora, but it was or immediately precedes the formaalways greater when the quick motion tion of some of the various forms of and vivid light were observed in a cirro-stratus. An electrometer placed hazy atmosphere. In a few in- in an elevated situation exhibited no stances the movement was seen to signs of a charge from the atmocommence at the instant a beam sphere; but the electricity of his body darted upwards from the horizon; was at times so great, that the pith and when the disturbance was con- balls separated to their full extent, siderable, the needle did not regain the moment his hand was approached its usual position till about three or to the instrument; and the skin was four p. m. of the following day. so dry in the middle of winter, that Capt. Franklin did not hear the noise rubbing the hands together, in
ICE CAVES AT THE SOURCE OF THE
creased their electricity, and emitted ridge, and differing from the Ganges, an odour similar to that given off which has the upper part of its from the cushion of a machine when course within the Himalaya. The in motion, Dr. Richardson never existence of hot springs amidst the heard any sound that could be un- icy covering of the Himalaya points equivocally considered as originating out a beautiful provision of nature, in the aurora; but the uniform tes- for the supply of water to the rivers timony of the natives, both Crees, in the winter season, when the sun Copper Indians, and Esquimaux, must have little or no power of meltand of all the older residents in the ing the snow in these deep defiles. country, induce him to believe, that CONDENSATION OF GASES. its motions are sometimes audible; We have already alluded to the but he adds, that these instances must experiments of Mr. Faraday, by be very rare, as he observed it up- which he was enabled to bring sewards of two hundred different nights. veral of the gases to a liquid state.
The result has now been laid before
the public in a very interesting paper Capt. Hodgson, in the interesting ac- in the Philosophical Transactions. count of his journey to the source of Sulphurous acid is a very limpid cothe Jumna, mentions a very remarka- lourless fluid, and remains so at a ble fact; the appearance of hot springs temperature of 0° Fahrenheit. When on the mountains of the Himalaya, con- a sealed tube containing it was openstantly covered with snow. At Jum- ed, part of it evaporated rapidly, notri, where the Jumna originates, cooling by its evaporation the other the snow which covers the stream is part, which however also dissipated about sixty yards wide, and about in vapour, emitting the odour of sulforty feet thick. It is very solid, phurous acid, and leaving the tube and hard frozen, but in various quite dry. A piece of ice dropped parts there are holes, occasioned by into the fluid acid made it boil, from steam arising from hot springs si- the heat extricated by their union.. tuated at the border of the river. Sulphuretted Hydrogen is also a coCapt. Hodgson descended to one of lourless, very limpid fluid. When exthese, and was astonished to observe, posed to the air, it immediately by means of the glare of some white rushed into vapour, the pressure of lights which he kindled, a spacious which seemed nearly equal to that of excavation, resembling vaulted roofs 17 atmospheres, at the temperature of marble, occasioned by the steam of 50'. At oo the acid continues in from the hot springs melting the the fluid state. snow, which fell in showers like heavy Carbonic Acid is a limpid colourless rain to the stream, that seems to owe body, extremely fluid, and distils its origin in a great measure to these readily and rapidly at the difference supplies. The spring was so hot of temperature between 32° and 0°. that the hand could not be held in it It remains liquid at the greatest cold above two seconds, the water rising to which it has been subjected. In with reat ebullition through cre- endeavouring to open at one end the vices of granite rock, and deposit- tubes containing it, they have always ing a ferruginous sediment. The burst into fragments with powerful end of the dell where these springs explosion. Tubes, which have held were observed is closed by part of it for two or three weeks spontathe base of the Jumnotri. The face nequsly exploded with great violence, of the mountain, which is visible to on some increase of tenperature from the height of about 4000 feet, is en- a change in the weather. Its vapour tirely cased in snow and ice. The exerts a pressure of 36 atmospheres, foot of the base is distant about 500 at 32°. yards from the hot springs; and, Euchlorine is a very fluid transwhere the ascent becomes abrupt, parent substance, of a deep yellow there is a small rill occasioned by the colour, which, when exposed to the melting of the snow by the sun's rays; air, instantly passed off in vapour, above this no water whatever is seen, causing the tube containing it to so that this must be considered as the burst with considerable violence. most remote source of the Jumna, on „Nitrous Oxide is a very limpid cothe SW. side of the grand Himalaya lourless fluid, and so volatile, that the warmth of the hand makes it According to him, what some naeasily pass into vapoitr, which is a- turalists have found in the body of gain rapidly condensed by the appli-' worms, and which they have concation of a mixture of ice and salt.' sidered as the young, is merely an It boils by the difference of tem- intestinal animal, which he has seen, perature between 50 and 0°. It re- not only in the worms themselves, mains fluid at-10°; when a tube con
but also in the eggs. taining it is opened at one end, it im
ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY. mediately rushes out in the form of A System of Algebraic Geometry, vapour, the pressure of which is equal · by the Rev. D. Lardner, of Trinity to above 50 atmospheres, at 45°. College, Dublin, has been lately
Cyanogen is a limpid colourless published. The first volume only,. fluid, remaining so at 3o. When the containing the Geometry of Plane tube in which it was prepared was Curves, has as yet made its appearopened, the expansion within did not ance. With an exposition and amappear to be very great, and the plification of the methods used by liquid passed with comparative slow- Descartes in this branch of matheness into vapour, but producing great matics, it contains a complete system cold. The fluid acid does not at of Conic Sections, developed by these first mix with water, but floats on it. methods. The Differential and InAt the termination of some days, how, tegral Calculus is largely applied to ever, the water had become black,' curves in general, and the principles owing to a chemical action having of Contact, Osculation, Rectificataken place, similar probably to that' tion, Quadrature, and Curvature, which occurs in aqueous solution of discussed on a broad scale. The procyanogen.
perties of the Logarithmic, Conchoid, Ammonia.-Chloride or muriate of Cissoid, and other curves, both algesilver possesses the property of absorb- braic and transcendental, are also ing a large quantity
of ammoniacal treated of; and the nature and progas, which it gives off when heated to perties of the Roots of Equations about 100°. When a portion of this illustrated by the geometry of curves. compound was put into a bent tube, A large collection of geometrical and afterwards hermetically sealed, and physical problems, in themselves of was heated, it gave off the alkali, practical use, and illustrative of this which condensed in the opposite method of Algebraic Geometry, tolimb, kept cold by ice. Liquid am- gether with a copious Praxis, and monia, as thus prepared, is trans- Historical Appendix, complete this parent and colourless ; but, as the valuable publication. It may be chloride cools, it immediately passes looked upon as an antagonist work off in vapour, and combines with it, to that of Professor Leslie, of Edinproducing a curious combination of burgh, lately published on the same effects. The chloride, by the ab- subject, the Professor being a staunch sorption of the vapour, has its tem- advocate for the old geometrical meperature elevated nearly to 100°; thods of investigating the properties while at the distance of a few inches, of curves. The question must now considerable cold is produced by the soon be decided in one way or other. evaporation of the ammonia.
It is considered strange that the first . Muriatic Acid is a colourless fluid, work on the new method of Algepassing off in vapour on exposure to braic Geometry published in Engair, the pressure of which is equal to land, should have proceeded from a nearly 40 atmospheres, at the tem- ' member of the Dublin University, perature of 500.
which has never before attempted to
lead the way in Science or improveLeo, of Berlin, has lately con- ment. firmed what Swammerdam has als VALUABLE DISCOVERY.-—Instrument ready remarked with regard to earth- for finding the Latitude, at once, worms, that they multiply by eggs, without the Help of Logarithms or which are found in spring, and which Calculation, from Two Observations allow not only the enclosed young, taken at any Time of Day. but also the circulation of its blood The inventor of this instrument, to be seen. These observations have Joseph Bordwine, Esq. Professor of likewise been confirmed by Rudolphi. Fortification at the East India Com.
pany's Military College at Addis between the observations. In work, combe, has taken out a patent for his ing it, the declination for the day is discovery, and the Court of Directors set off, the time adjusted, -and the have issued orders that this instru- verniers, marking the observed alti. ment he henceforth used throughout tudes, brought together, when the in, the whole of their naval department. strument will immediately show, Mr. Bordwine's nautical instrument 1. The latitude of the place of is intended to put within the reach observation, to 15" of a degree. of every commander of a vessel, the 2. The distance in time from noon solution of that important problem of either observation, to ?" of time, in navigation, viz. the determination which compared with a chronometer of the latitude by two observations will give the difference of longitude. of the sun, or other celestial body, 3. The true azimuth, which comtaken at any period of the day, a pared with a compass bearing, will problem which has engaged the ato give the variation of the magnetic tention of scientific men for a long pole. time past, with the view of rendering The operation may take about the forms of calculation more simple three or four minutes, there being no than they are at present. The in- other calculation required than the strument does away with calculation usual corrections for dip, refraction, altogether, giving the results, in it- &c. in the altitudes; and the like for self. It is formed of four circular the declination from the Nautical arcs (the greatest about nine inches Almanack, to adapt it to the place of in diameter) having a common cen- observation : these being reductions tre, and traversing about each other. which must take place under any soOn two of these are scales for the lution of the problem, whether by declination of the object observed, the calculated forms, or by instruand on the other two, scales for the ment. altitudes, which are taken by the Two or three hours' instruction usual instruments, quadrant, &c. will make any master of a vessel There is also a fourth semi-circle, competent to use it. fixed in position, for the time elapsed
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. The news from Spain this month and followed this catastrophe are is, as we predicted in our last it characteristic and important. Bewould be, decisive—that is, decisive fore, however, we detail the circumso far as the military mission of the stances which succeeded the capture French is concerned; decisive, how- of the Trocadero, and the conseever, in a political point of view, we quent surrender of the city, we must are far from thinking it. Indeed, if advert with a mournful interest to we are not much mistaken, events the fate of one of the best and most have arisen from the success of Fer- consistent of the Constitutional gedinand, which are likely to scatternerals—the unfortunate Riego; if, still more widely the seeds of discord indeed, any fate can be considered and disunion. To proceed, however, unfortunate, incurred in the cause of in our order. Towards the close of freedom and our country. It seems September, Santona, Pampeluna, Fi- this gallant general followed the gueras, and a number of important troops of the traitor Ballasteros, to fortresses, fell into the hands of the Grenada, in the hope of gaining back invaders, and their loss left little such as adhered to him to the revohope to the Constitutionalists, except lutionary cause ; after an exchange in the spirit and patriotism of the of fire, a parley was agreed upon, defenders of Cadiz:-that last hope which ended in the capture of Balhas now vanished-Cadiz has sur- lasteros by Riego ; just, however, at rendered, and Ferdinand is as free as that moment, a body of French such a spirit as Ferdinand's can be troops, under General Bonnemain, he has again the power (at least for made their appearance, released the a time)
of doing irresponsible mis- traitor, and put Riego to flight, after chief. The events which preceded the complete rout of his forces. AtNov. 1823.