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Blue Mountains, and which have general farmer to bedew his land been known to swell the waters with the sweat of his brow, when he nearly a hundred feet above their sees that of his idle neighbour on the usual level; and as these floods are banks of the river irrigated by the uncertain, and often destructive of flood, and producing as good a crop, the growing crops, I once thought with no other labour than that of that Government (if it is to farm at hoeing and strewing? It is only upon all) had better have kept the whole the chance of the flood's devouring of this precarious garden in its own instead of feeding, that the general hands; since it is only public fore- farmer can calculate for occasional sight that would provide against the remuneration ; and when this calaloss of, a harvest, and only public mity happens, the river-farmer, whose wealth that could support it. After rapid gains induce him as rapidly to the flood of February, 1817, the Go- spend, is found entirely unprovided, vernment ration was reduced from and his whole district is reduced to eleven and a half to three pounds of subscription and beggary. This, in wheat per week; but since that pe- itself, is not one of the least political riod, so much wheat has been grown evils of such a system. It is an enin the fine districts of Appin and couragement to future improvidence, Airds, and in the island of Van Die- and fosters a disposition too literally men's Land, that the colony is now to take no thought for the morrow, almost independent of these flood- but to consider and imitate the giganfarmers; and they are yearly going tic lily (doryanthes excelsa); a disout of fashion for the benefit of the position which must be supposed to state. Nothing can be more uncer- be already too natural among the tain than the heavy rains of the cli- small settlers, who have emerged mate. Sometimes (but not of late from the condition of convicts. Anyears) the country is worse afflicted other good reason against granting with long droughts, in which the away this land, and suffering it to be woods take fire and consume the cleared, is, that the floods wash the grass, and the cattle have perished fallen timber into the channel of the for want of water. Often do the river, and obstruct the navigation. rains descend, and the floods come, The removal of the trees from its when the Hawkesbury corn is in the banks has also not only contributed ground; and the colony has some- to choak the river by their falling in, times suffered from the improvidence but has occasioned derelictions on of these farmers, in not building their one side, and alluvions on the other. wheat-stacks out of the reach of the But we shall never get our cart up devouring waters. The extraordinary Lapstone Hill at this rate; and it is fertility of these flooded lands, which so steep and long, that we were have borne a crop of wheat and a obliged to shift our baggage twice in crop of maize in each year, for the ascending it, notwithstanding Golast 25 years, has naturally induced veror Macquarie's Government and their tenants to rely too much upon General Order of the 10th of June, this lubber-land sort of farming, just 1815, says, that “ the facility of the as the inhabitants of Vesuvius cannot ascent to Spring Wood excited surbe induced to abandon that moun- prise, and is certainly not well cal. tain, after a lava-flood from its vol- culated to give the traveller a just cano, and see nothing in present ruin idea of the difficulties he has afterbut the prospect of future riches. wards to encounter.". I found Lap“So the Ohio, (says Mr. Birkbeck) stone Hill as difficult as any in the with its annual overflowings, is un- journey, except Mount York, and we able to wash away the inhabitants of did not reach Spring Wood (125 Shawnee Town."*

But it is surely miles from the river) where alone impolitic to grant away such pré- there is space enough in the forest to carious and hot-bed lands. In so in- encamp upon, till after nine o'clock at different a general soil as that of night. There is little or no grass New South Wales, a better system here, and the timber consists prinof agriculture should be taught; and cipally of those species of eucalyptus, what encouragement is given to the called by the colonists stringy, and

* Notes on a Journey in America, p. 113.

iron bark. Here is stationed an should have been named Mount acting corporal's party, of the 48th Pisgah; for it affords the first view regiment, in a small barrack.

of the promised land of Australia, Tuesday, Oct. 8.- Set forward at after the wilderness of the Blue half an hour after nine o'clock, a. m., Mountains. After three days' staryand halted on a mossy sand-hill, ing among them, your cattle now above Jamison's Valley, two miles get plenty of green grass. Encamp beyond the King's Table Land, at then at the first bite; for there is five o'clock, m., having travelled water enough, and the station under 16 miles this day. This station is Mount York is very picturesque into now called The Burnt Weatherboarded the bargain, que' ne gâte rien. This Hut, and was Governor Macquarie's valley, which leads to Cox's River, second depôt for making the road. is called the Vale of Clwydd, but The timber now became more dwarf, (like all colonial Windsors and Richand we were actually crossing the monds) does not at all resemble its Blue Mountains. We found the pass godmother in Old North Wales. very Alpine and difficult-rocky- Thursday, Oct.10.--Did not proceed sandy-stony_flowery. The views till half past nine o'clock, a. m.; but were very grand. The night was performed 21 miles this day, and enstormy, but little rainy. All in the camped on the banks of the Fish sublime.

River at 7 o'clock, p. m. This is the Wednesday, Oct. 9.—Moved at 8 first stream that flows westerly, Cox's a. m. and arrived at the bottom of River falling into the Nepean. The Cox's Pass, down Mount York at 5 journey to-day was all beautiful. p. m. (914 miles). The ridge of Cox's River (five miles from his pass mountains (or rather rocks), along down Mount York, which might be which this passage could alone be avoided by an easier and shorter road

effected, is very difficult and deso- to the north of it) is worth going to late. The trees (still eucalyptus) spend a few days at, of itself. It is are stunted and burnt, with the ex

a pretty stream, and rich in the boception of one light species, called tanical and picturesque. Here the the ash, of which good white cooper's first granite is seen, though (1 am work might be made, and perhaps told) there is granite at the Five ships' smaller spars. The King's Islands; and here I saw four new Table Land, is as anarchical and un- and beautiful grevilleæ, viz. the citabular as any his Majesty possesses. nerea, rosmarinifolia, acanthifolia, Jamison's valley we found by no and sulphurea. From the orerhangmeans a happy one. Blackheath is ing rocks of Cox's Pass, I had before a wretched misnomer. Not to men- gathered an entirely red variety of tion its awful contrast to the beauti- the epacris grandiflora, and an eleful place of that name in England, gant flower, called leucopogon lanheath it is none : black it may be ceolatus. when the shrubs are burnt, as they Here we met a few Indian natives often are. Pitt's Amphitheatre dis- of Bathurst. They resembled the appointed me. The hills are thrown natives of the coast in appearance,

together in a monotonous manner, and but did not speak the same language. their clothing is very unpicturesque; They seem, however, to have ada mere sea of harsh trees; but good vanced towards civilization one deenough for Mr. Pitt, who was no par- gree further than the poor forked ticular connoisseur either in moun- animals of the warmer climate, intain scenery or in amphitheatres. asmuch as they possess the art of Mount York (as Governor Macquarie 'very neatly sewing together, with named it) redeems the journey across the sinews of the kangaroo and emu, the Blue Mountains; for it leads you cloaks of skins, the hide of which they to the first green valley. The ear- also carve in the inside with a world liest burst of the Christian transal- of figures. They use these cloaks pine country from the beginning of for the sole purpose of keeping themthis mountain is


beautiful. The selves warm, and have as little sense sight of grass again is lovely. The of decency as the natives around

. view from the commencement of Sydney; for in the middle of the day, Cox's Pass down to it is finer still. when the weather is warm, they This Big Hill, as it is alone called, throw back their cloaks across their

shoulders. They appear to be a figure of many of them is very good; harmless race, with nothing ferocious and as for their leanness, how can in their manners or countenance. they wax fat in so poor a country? They are perfectly cheerful, laugh- From the neighbourhood of our seting at every thing they see, and re- tlements, we have scared the kanpeating every thing they hear. For garoo and the emu, and left these the rest, little can be added to Colo- poor lords of the creation no created nel Collins's account of the natives of food, but a few opossums, and a teNew South Wales. Their numbers nancy in common with us of fish. are diminishing. Not that they re- Together with their numbers, their treat before the settlements of Eu- customs and manners are in a state ropeans : this they cannot do: the of decay. The ceremony of extract, different tribes (few as their numbers ing the right upper front tooth from are) would resist the invasion of each the jaw of adults (so fully described other's territory. Thirty or forty and pictured by Colonel Collins) is miles will reach the circumference of nearly obsolete in the neighbourhood each family's peregrinations. The of our settlements; and the custom tribes about our first settlements are is by no means universal in the island. as ignorant of the country beyond the But the corrobory, or night-dance, mountains as the colonists were; and still obtains. This festivity is persuch is the sterility of the greater formed in very good time and not unpart of Mr. Oxley's first interior pleasing tune. The song is sung by route, that he met with only twenty- a few males and females, who take no two Indians in a journey of five part in the dance. One of the band months. Of the persons of the natives beats time by knocking one stick of New South Wales, I think Colonel against another. The music begins Collins has given too unfavourable a with a high note, and gradually sinks picture. Their faces have generally to the octave, whence it rises again (in my opinion) too much good-na- immediately to the top... I took down ture to be absolutely hideous, and the following Australian National (to my taste) they do not imitale Melody from Harry, who married humanity so abominably as the Carang-arang, the sister of the celeAfrican negro.

Their hair is not brated Bennillong; and I believe it woolly ; their heads are not dog-like; to be the first that was ever reduced nor are their legs baboonish. The to writing :

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i - ah, i - ah, &c. The dancers breathe in chorus like casionally they thrid the mazes of paviours, and the general step con- one another without any confusion. sists in opening the knees with a con- They stripe themselves down the vulsive shake to the music; but oc- waist, and paint their faces with

white clay and red ochre; and in everybody; and understand the nacompliment to European delicacy, ture of everybody's business, alwear boughs round their loins. The though they have none of their own glare of large fires gives a pic- --but this. They give a locality to turesque effect to the savage scene, the land; and their honest naked and the dance works up the pero simplicity affords a relief to the eye formers to a sublime enthusiasın. I from the hypocritical lour of the yel. have been thus minute, because in a low-clad convict. The warlike feafew years perhaps even the corrobory tures of the tribes which surround will be no more, so sophisticated do our settlements are now quite effaced: they become from their pernicious the savages are forbidden to enter association with the convicts, who the towns with their spears, and they $ow the seeds of drunkenness in the cheerfully comply with this requisi. prolific soil of savage indolence. A tion. They have a bowing acquaintrum or even sugar cask, filled with ance with everybody, and scatter water, furnishes these poor creatures their hou d'ye do's with an air of with an intoxicating liquor; and the friendliness and equality, and with a invasions of civilization are reproach- perfect English accent, undebased by ed with the introduction of a new the massas, and misses, and me-no's, vice, which operates as an inflamer of West-Indian slavery. They have of all their old ones. It is a melan- been tried to be brought up from incholy sight to witness the drunken fancy as servants; but they have alquarrels and fightings of the simple ways run away to the woods. Our natives of Australia in the streets government has also instituted a of Sydney,ma people to whom civi- small school for the education of lization can never bring the comforts native black children. Some of their of food, raiment, and shelter, and the parents (particularly of half-casts) blessings of religion, as an atone- have no objection to their being ment for the vice and disease, which clothed, and fed, and taught; but it necessarily carries along with it. they cannot endure the thoughts of That these unfortunate beings were their being made servants. The comparatively ignorant of the crime children learn as readily as Euroof evil speaking, before we came peans; but their parents steal them among them, is proved by the broken away when they grow up; and they English words of scurrility and exe- will not willingly return among us: cration, with which they pollute their a few pairs have been married and native tongue. The effect of this housed out of the school, but they would be ludicrous, were not the will not settle: their instinctive relish cause pitiable. Truly, Botany Bay for the vermin and range of the is a bad school for them; but they woods cannot be eradicated. “Sir," have not learnt of the convicts to lie said Dr. Johnson, holding up a slice or to steal. Perhaps it is better that from a quartern loaf, “ this is better their name should pass away from than the bread-fruit;" but the sathe earth. They will not serve; vages of Australia, although exand they are too indolent and poor in tremely fond of bread, will never lose spirit to become masters. They their more exquisite relish for a fine would always be drones in the hive fat grub. “ Poor Tom! that eats the of an industrious colony. Neverthe- swimming frog, the toad, the tadless, they are not without the stamp pole, the wall-newt and the water; of their Maker's image, cut in ebony swallows the old rat and the ditch (as old Fuller says) instead of ivory. dog; drinks the green mantle of the They bear themselves erect, and ade standing pool. But let us talk with dress you with confidence; always this philosopher." If he is the most with good humour and often with independent, who has the fewest grace. They are not common beg- wants, the houseless Australian is gars, although they accept of our certainly our superior: “ he owes carnal things, in return for the fish the worm no silk, the beast no hide, and oysters, which are almost all the sheep no wool, the cat no perwe have left them for their support. fume” he looks upon us as 80They are the Will Wimbles of the phisticated;" but he always treats colony; the carriers of news and our persons with respect, although fish; the gossips of the town; the he holds our servants very chcap; loungers on the quay. They know and looks down with a kind of stoical

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pity upon the various articles of com- the body which may be exposed, and fort, to which we have made our- bare those which modesty commands selves slaves. He has no notion of to be concealed. This is precisely that inferiority to us, the oppression the consequence of giving clothes to of which feeling reduces the New the Australians: they think themZealanders and South Sea Islanders selves fastidiously dressed when they almost to despair; and he despises have got a jacket or an old coat on; the comforts of civilization, although and twenty years' daily commerce he has nothing of his own but his with European ladies and gentlemen “ hollow tree and liberty," without fails to shame them. The women, even the “ crust of bread." What however, (adds Martin Dobrizhoffer) then must be his opinion of our ser- of both nations wear that degree of vants ?-men and women, who sa- clothing which modesty requires. crifice their liberty and independ- Now in Australia they are both ence for the second-rate comforts of naked, the man and his wife, and are civilization, which they earn by sub- not ashamed; and it is therefore I mitting to perform menial offices for say that these savages will never be those who enjoy the first-rate, and other than they are. An intelligent by ministering to their artificial and experienced member of the comwants; for all which first-rate com- mittee of the native institution of forts the naked native has a contempt. New South Wales (the Rev. R. CartWith us masters, all he contends for wright) feels this impediment to their nevertheless is equality: he acknow. civilization so strongly that he would ledges the British Government, and compel them pot to come into our even accepts from the Governor towns naked; but I doubt the grants of his own patrimonial land. practicability both of the means and Some of the Indians have also seri. the end. Modesty is an innate feel ously applied to be allowed convict- ing, that no human power can incul. labourers, as the settlers are, although cate: they have not patience to remain in the huts, which our government have

Yet deem not this man useless ; built for them, till the maize and But let him pass :~a blessing on his head!

1 cabbages, that have been planted to

And while in that society, to which their hands, are fit to gather. We

The tide of things has led him, he appears have now lived among them more

To breathe and live but for himself alone, than thirty years, and yet, like the The good which the benignant law of

Unblamed, uninjured, let him bear about North American Indians, they have Heaven adopted none of our arts of life, with Has hung around him; and while life is the exception of exchanging their

his, stone hatchets and shellfish-hooks Still let him prompt the liberal Colonist for our iron ones. They will never To tender offices and pensive thoughts. become builders or cultivators, or Then let him pass a blessing on his mechanics, or mariners, like the New

head! Zealanders or the South Sea Islanders; And long as he can wander, let him breathe nor indeed, till they cease to be at all

, The freshness of the woods. will they ever be other than they are. May never we pretend to civilize They are the only savages in the Let him be free of mountain solitudes ;

And make him only captive ! world, who cannot feel that they are

And let him, where and when he will, sit naked; and we are taught in the

down, Scriptures, that the eyes of man can, Beneath the trees, and with his faithful dog not be opened to what we call a Share his chance-gather'd meal; and, civilized or artificial life, knowing finally, good and evil, till he acquires a sense As in the eye of Nature he has lived, of (perhaps false) shame, or “fear," So in the eye of Nature let him die ! as it is called in the Bible. The Payaguas and Albayas are abominat- When all thy simple race is ex. ed by the other South American In- tinct, thy name, gentle and welldians, because they are unacquainted bred Harry! shall be recorded at with modesty. They have plenty of least in the pages of this journal. clothes; but they make a bad use of Our courtiers say, all's savage but them (says the historian of the Abi- at court; but of this, at least, I am pones); for they cover those parts of sure, that thou wert the most courtes


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