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which was rendered abortive by a he and his government have been premature eruption. Unfortunately, made the dupes of Russia during however, for all these grand pensées, this whole transaction ; and this, if a poor German who occupied an true, coupled with the probable de angle of the holy building as a coffee- fence of Cadiz, would naturally inhouse-keeper, and brewer, has con- cline him if possible to its terminafessed that the fire broke out in his tion. On the other side, circumbrewery, that he was twenty-fout stances which we shall narrate in hours endeavouring to extinguish it, order, may render the Cortes also and that the reason he did not call in disposed to accede to any honourable any assistance was on account of terms of accommodation. That the the heavy fine imposed on all persons Duke and the Regency are not on in whose premises a fire appears. the most amicable footing, a few The poor man's conscientious distress facts avouched on good authority at the increasing arrests led him to will clearly demonstrate. At Burthis disclosure. His discovery, it gos, the partizans of the Regency seems, has been ineffectual, as not having imprisoned some Constituone of those arrested has been re- tionalists, the French commandant leased in consequence; however, it there demanded their release, which is only due to the Regency to state, was refused, and he immediately, on that as all those arrested belonged to his own authority, liberated them the Constitutional party, though they himself. This, it must be owned, were not guilty, still they might have was pretty decisive conduct, but it been, and therefore their detention does not appear to have called forth, rests upon exactly the kind of foun- the slightest censure from the com dation on which Ferdinand, their mander in chief, and the Madrid beloved master, would, most pro- official journal humiliatingly says bably, have placed it. It certainly "they tatter themselves it was a does appear, however, to have con- misunderstanding, and will not haptinued the predominant inclination of pen again.” It is also said that the the Duke d’Angoulême's august Regency did every thing in their mind, that the deliberate intention power to induce the Duke to permit was really to roast him, as he, with them to be the companions of his out delay, formed the intention of journey, but met with a refusal, departing from Madrid. He is re- upon which they declared their inpresented also as being totally dis- tention of moving with the French gusted at the conduct of the Re- head quarters, and were informed gency, whose despotic disposition that if they did, they should be sent was daily manifesting itself in such back to Madrid, under a military es outrageous acts, that even their ally cort. This rebuff is represented as is represented to have said to them, having offended the Russian Ambas. “ you have made more liberals in sador quite as much as the Regency. Spain in the course of three months That these representations rest, howthan the Constitution has been able ever, upon more than mere rumour, to do in three years." The saying appears from the proclamation of is not without its foundation-mar- the Duke, upon his departure from tyrdom of any kind is sure to create Madrid. He actually parcels out all zealots.

Various places were de- the provinces of Spain, under the susignated, by rumour, as the Prince's perintendence of six of his superior destination ; we believe it is now ge- officers, and thus significantly connerally understood to be the neigh- cludes the document; “ the above bourhood of Cadiz, and, strange as distribution shall be subject to such it may appear, to have for its object modifications as ulterior circumsome pacific negociation. Events stances may renderà necessary; but, have rendered this last surmise not until farther orders, the general offiimprobable. The Duke's situation cers and commanders of the French in the capital, with a small body of and Spanish troops, as also the comtroops, is represented as insecure, mandants of the provinces and places and the conduct of the Regency had included within each of the before long rendered it disagreeable-he is described superior commands, shall also reported to have discovered that correspond with the marshals and SEPT. 1823.


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general officers herein specified, and pected protraction of the war, have shall execute their orders. The prea much abated the ambition of the sent general order shall be commu- Duke d’Angoulêmé. A very short nicated to the Supreme Regency of time ago nothing would satisfy the Spain, in order that their Highnesses invaders, except a surrender of the may issue the necessary orders, die king's person, and a total dissolution recting the captains general, com- of the Cortes, with a guarantee for manders of the provinces, and of the the security of the lives and property troops of his Catholic Majesty, to of the Constitutionalists. It is not put themselves, agreeably to the improbable, also, that in addition to above regulations, in the proper re- the motives we have stated, the relation with the marshals and gene- ported strength of Cadiz may not be rals having superior command." If, without its weight. That city is during the captivity of Ferdinand, stated to be in an admirable state of the Regency claims to be King of defence, amply provisioned, well garSpain, it is manifest enough from risoned, and altogether animated by this proclamation, that the “ son of an enthusiastic spirit. The French France claims to be “ Viceroy blockade also is totally inefficient; over it.” In addition to this, even and craft of all sizes evade it every while we write, a fresh decree has day, carrying additional supplies to been published, dated on the 8th, the garrison. The latter have made which really, if genuine, goes the some sorties, and with effect, as we length of actually deposing the Re- find even the French papers comgency. Its provisions are short, but pelled to notice them, which their decisive. It states that, as the Duke silence, as to Corunna, assures us considers the safety of Spain confided they would not do, except upon to him, during its occupation by the compulsion.” At the same time, it French army, he decrees that no pri- is almost ludicrous to observe the soners shall in future be made, ex- way in which their statements are cept under the authority of his be- given. In an affair of the 16th of fore-named officers—that all those July, they acknowledge that a sortie already imprisoned, on account of was made from the town by no less a their political opinions, shall be li- body than eight or nine thousand berated, and that no molestation troops, and made too with the greatshall be offered to the militia returné est discipline and intrepidity, but ing to their homes-that the censor- though some desperate fighting is ship over all publications, authors, admitted, they say they lost only &c. is exclusively vested in the sixteen men, and had sixty-five French, and that his officers shall wounded, while they attribute a loss cause all who disobey this decree to of no less than 1500 killed and be apprehended. We have already wounded to the Spaniards—a dispasaid that the neighbourhood of Cadiz rity so obvious under the circumis supposed to be the destination of stances, as to throw discredit upon the Duke, and that negociation is re- their entire version. Private letters, presented as its object. The sup- however, from Paris, give a very difposed terms of the projected are ferent account of the affair, reprerangement are even in circulation. senting the French loss at little less It is said that there is to be a kind of than two thousand, and saying that Upper Chamber, or Senate, as in the object of the garrison, which was America—that the King is to have a merely to ascertain the force of their veto as in England, and that the 92d opponents, was fully attained. In article of the Constitution, at pre- the meantime, the Cortes are desent suspended, is to have operation; liberating with as much coolness as this article nominates a certain qua- if their country was in profound lification in property, in order to ens peace. As for Ferdinand, his emtitle a subject to a seat in the legis. ployments quite sufficiently bespeak lature. Undoubtedly, if these terms his mental tranquillity-his time, are to form the basis of negociation, they say, is divided between emas is very confidently stated, the con- broidering a new petticoat for the duct of the Regency, the detected Virgin, and flying paper kites from intrigues of Russia, and the unex- the roof of the Custom House in which he resides ! Occasionally, the a general attack upon the houses of French papers boast, he appears at all who were not devoted to their the windows of his residence, and system! For three days the scene of waves his handkerchief to the block- destruction went on uninterrupted ading squadron, in token of his under the very eyes of the Regency, friendship! Every day, however, who proved their paternal affection proves that he never was more bene- by never once interfering. A private ficially employed for his people than letter from the place pithily describes he is at present. The following pa- the progress of the faithful—" they triotic anecdote of him has just come sing, they dance, they illuminate, to light. A short time previous to they rob, they burn, and they masthe French invasion a new coinage of sacre !". At length, the French soldoubloons had been prepared, and as diery who remained, voluntarily ina compliment to him before the issue terfered and checked their ferowas ready for the public, a quantity city. In what a state must that of them was sent to the royal trea- country be where even invaders are surer as part of his Majesty's allow- obliged to restrain the anarchy of the ance: not long afterwards several loyal! and who, after this, can say prisoners having been made from the that the drunken excesses of republiforces of the faith by the constitue canism and impiety have not been at tionalists, some of these very doub- least, equalled by the triumphs of loons were actually found upon their “social order," and the thanksgivings persons! As to the identity of the of “the faithful ?" We are sorry to coins there could be no doubt, the say, however, that if the degradation mint not having at the time of the of our nature can afford a cause of capture sent the issue into general triumph, the adherents of Ferdinand circulation. Even situated as he is have better foundation for rejoicing at present, he omits no opportunity than in the fabrications of Cadiz. of doing all the mischief in his power, Another shameful addition must be insulting the ministers upon every made to the treachery of the consti, occasion, and throwing every embar- tutional commanders. Abisbal and rassment in their way. Though it is Morillo have found in Ballasteros a well understood that he is at perfect companion in degradation. This Geliberty to take any range he chooses neral, to whom the Cortes had conwithin the walls of Cadiz, still for a fided a high command in Andalusia, long time he persisted in remaining has signed a personal capitulation within the Custom-house, to give the with Molitor, and is at this instant, people an idea that he was a close no doubt, a tolerated renegade at the prisoner. At length, whether wea- French head-quarters. What makes ried of this self-imprisonment, or in his defection the more shameful and order to spread an opinion that con- inexcusable is, that he chose the stitutional reverses bad caused his moment of victory for its accompersecutors to relax in their oppres- plishment-it really appears as if he sion, he made a grand procession to wished to coin the blood of his brave one of the churches attended with as soldiery. By his base convention, he much parade as he could command. stipulated for pay and rank for himSome of his faithful friends in Cadiz self and such officers as adhered to immediately spread a report that him, and presumed to guarantee the their “beloved" was at large, that treachery of the troops under his the Duke d’Angoulême was ap- command, the fortresses in his proproaching, and that the embarkation vince, and also of General Zayas, the of the Cortes was about to consum- next in seniority. As far as we could mate the joyful triumph of_legiti- learn, none of the army had followed macy and the Inquisition! The fa- him: Zayas is not yet claimed by the brication unhappily found its way to French press, so that we may conMadrid--the serviles and the monks clude him still loyal; and certainly St. commenced scene of rejoicing Sebastian, Pampeluna, Santona, and which ended consistently in blood all the fortresses within his circle, and devastation. After having ex- have hitherto held out with as dehausted all the fantastic tricks of their termined a spirit as ever.

It is reimaginary triumph, they commenced markable enough that no body of the



soldiery bave followed the fortunes of his life would long since not hare Abisbal or Morillo-we hope to be been worth a minute's purchase—he able to record hereafter that the same has been a hundred times hemmed honourable fidelity has distinguished in beyond the possibility of escape the troops of Ballasteros-may a so- confiüed to bed-starved to deathlitude surround their treason—such deserted by every one

with a frozen heartless perfidy should be a beacon, foot and a famished carcase-all in not an example. It is far from im- Moncey's bulletins. Upon the hills probable, however, that the know- of Catalonia, however, he cuts a difledge of this fact may incline the ferent figure—he issues no bulletins, Cortes to negociate, if terms should not having time to write—but his be offered honourable in their impo- deeds are gazetted in the inventions sition. It is but too clear that the of his enemy, and will be recorded, utmost bravery on the part of the no matter what may be the issue, by troops cannot avert their sacrifice the gratitude of his country. if their Generals prove faithless. From Greece, the accounts are not Amidst this unparalleled desertion of a desponding nature. A descent there is some consolation in turning had been made by the Turks upon to the career of Mina. This cham- the isle of Negropont, in which the pion of freedom, almost alone wor- horrors of Scio were repeated—the thy of the cause in which he combats, women and children were, indeed, has not only sustained the spirit of upon this occasion spared, but the the province of Catalonia, but found island was one scene of continued ample employment for all the troops conflagration. The Greeks, in reof Moncey. Indeed, he has so ha- taliation, landed a force in Asia rassed and outgeneralled the old Minor, and after a short contest, Marshal, that it is said he has more plundered the inhabitants and burnthan once expressed a wish to retire, ed the houses. A fire of a much which appears to have been at last more serious nature, howerer, took acceded to, and Suchet is named as place by conspiracy, in the suburb his successor. It is reported that, of Costini, in Constantinople. It when Mina was apprised of the de- was three times extinguished, and fection of Ballasteros, he issued a three times re-lighted. It destroyproclamation, declaring that he never ed the arsenal and 2,500 houses; would surrender, and that sooner but the great loss was a naval one: than follow the example, "he would one 74, two corvettes, five brigs, and burn every town in Spain.” Infor- 110 smaller ships, féll a sacrifice. mation has also been received that Thus in the space of one year the the commanders of the fortresses in two arsenals of Tophana and TerAndalusia have one and all indig- sana were destroyed by fire, a proof, nantly rejected Ballasteros's man- say the Greeks, of the interposition date to surrender; and the Governor of Providence. It is a melancholy of Pampeluna is reported to have re- detail altogether; but where one plied that “ he acknowledged him party resorts to such atrocities, their only as the General of a constitu- imitation becomes almost a matter, tional King, but would not recognise of self-defence, and the Turks, we him when acting under a rebellious know, are not regulated by any Euregency." Of Mina's movements we ropean, or indeed, civilized system. can learn nothing except from the Their chief and most disgraceful deFrench bulletins--a suspicious chan- feat has now even been in a place nel—but even they furnish the infe- which seems consecrated to Grecian rence of his skill, activity, and almost glory, the Straits of Thermopyleinvariable success. Moncey's ac- there Mahomet Pacha, commanding counts are almost ludicrous in their a force of 27,000 men, has been utresults—he talks of the heroism of terly overthrown by Odysseus, at his troops-their desperate persever- the head of something less than three ance-their indifference to danger- thousand-the contest was furious, their prodigies of valour-and then and lasted four hours, during which ends with a detail of 5 lilled and 16 the Turks suffered dreadfully. The wounded! If Mina could have died names of Ulysses and Thermopylæ by a bulletin instead of a bullet, are of good omen-may they provę so!' In Thessaly also, the Greeks of the richest and most ancient have been victorious in three succes- churches in the Christian capital, sive battles, fought on different that of St. Paul extra muros, has points of the ridge of Pindus—those just been burned down. It was redefeats have been attended with the markable for its colonnades of Greek loss of one of the best Turkish gene- and African marble. Twenty-four rals, an Albanian. Indeed, consider- of the finest pillars, which had been ing the protracted warfare which taken from the tomb of Hadrian, Greece has now been able to sus- were buried beneath the ruins. tain, the comparatively superior state The King of Prussia has shown of discipline at which her forces have some symptoms of a design to perarrived, and the confidence which form his ancient promise, of giving success is calculated to inspire, it is his subjects a constitution. We far from probable that the Ottoman should not be surprised if the state Empire will ever regain in that coun- of Ferdinand had in some degree retry the ascendancy for which it is freshed his memory. The affair, contending

however, is still too much in its inFrom Portugal there is no intelli- fancy for us to enter into its details. gence, since our last, of a nature As some counterpoise to this, the worth recording. Private accounts, Legitimates have to boast a recent however, mention, that the state of decree of the King of Sardinia, conthat country is very far from being fiding the education of the youth in settled. They say that a great body his dominions to the jesuits! Every both of the people and the army are party has its turn now-a-days. still attached to the constitutional Some marriages have taken place, system, and that, strange as it may and others are spoken of, in the seem, the King himself is suspected Buonaparte family, which indicate of a tendency of the same nature. an intention of retaining amongst Even in the ultra party there, which themselves the wealth acquired unmay be considered as the Queen's, der the Emperor. Joseph has foundthere exists a strong division of opi- ed a city in America, to be named nion, one part of it soliciting the pre- after himself; it already contains sence of the French, and the other, of 3000 inhabitants, chiefly French. a British force in Portugal; a crisis The British government have sent must of course be expected, when the out to St. Helena a tomb for Nainterference of a foreign power is thus poleon! Thus the world goes. It agreed upon by both as desirable. is said, that Ministers have not The discontent of the soldiery has agreed upon the inscription-in this originated those fears, that body they are wrong—it would be most considering themselves to have been unwise in them to leave it to be cajoled on the occasion of the recent written by posterity. counter-revolution, and concurring There is but little domestic intelwith but a bad grace in the present ligence worthy of note since the proabsolute arrangements.

rogation of Parliament. The state Accounts have been received from of Ireland is represented as less disRome which represent the health of the turbed than usual. It would seem Pope as exceedingly precarious. Of as if the periodical number of malthis, he seems himself fully conscious, contents had been hanged or transas he has given orders for the issuing ported, and, of course, a fresh supof three bulls, the nature of which ply cannot be expected under three clearly indicate his opinion. The months at least. This would be unfirst directs the approaching con- reasonable. At the same time, howclave to be held in the Quirinal pa- ever, the zealots of each party seem lace, in which he resides, and not in quite determined to prove, that the the Vatican as usual—the second cessation is not to be imputed to any contains directions as to his obse. improvement, either in the morals or quies—and the third ordains the con- intellect of the people. Now that timuance in power of all his present the Legislature has formally declared ministers, &c. till the appointment their meetings to be illegal, the of his successor. Cardinal Gonsalvi heads of the Orange Lodges have is said to aspire to this honour. One assembled, and subscribed 40,0007.

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