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At the place where it is constructed from rather less than four acres and the river is confined by rocks, which' a half. The seed was sown in Fehave furnished strong points of at- bruary, came up in March, and the tachment for the bridge-a 'band gathering commenced in the latter composed of eight iron wires, each end of July, when the poppies had 1-22 of inch in diameter, is fixed by lost their petals and were covered its extremity to a bolt in the rock. with a bluish white bloom. By It then crosses the river and passes horizontal incisions, opium was proround a pully on the opposite side, cured from them daily, until the profrom which it goes to that where it duce would no longer bear the excommences, and again returning to pense; 99 pounds 1 ounce were obthe other side, and again back, cross- tained for 3il. 11s. 24d., which, when ing the water four times; small pieces properly evaporated, yielded 60 of

wood are fixed to the bands of wire, pounds of dried opium. The poppies over which are placed planks that stood till they became yellow, about form the foot-path of the bridge. the middle of August; they were then Two other bands are carried across pulled and laid in rows on the land, the river at a convenient height to and, when dry, seeds were got from serve as hand rails, and these are them amounting to 13 cwt. which connected to the others by descending was expected to yield 714 gallons of wires. The bridge is also fixed at oil. The oil cake was used with great the middle to large stones thrown advantage in feeding cattle. From into the water, to prevent any lateral the capsule from which the seed is motion. This bridge, so light as to obtained, an extract may be got by occasion fear on first going on it, is cold water, eight grains of which are so steady and strong, that no sensible equal to one of opium, an acre provibration or bending is perceived in ducing 80 pounds of it, and the popgoing along it. It is 2 feet broad py straw, when laid in the yard in a and 55 long. The weight of wire compact heap, makes excellent maabout 25 pounds. The expense of the nure. The quantity of opium conwhole materials it is stated was 35 sumed in this country is about francs, the labour is estimated at 15 50,000 pounds, which could be easily francs, so that the bridge was con- raised in many parts where there is structed for 50 francs.

dry land and a superfluous popula

tion. On the moderate calculation Messrs. Cowley and Staines, of of 10 pounds per acre, 5000 acres Winslow, Bucks, have cultivated would be sufficient, which would poppies for opium, with such suc- employ about 50,000 people, such cess, as to induce the belief that this as are not calculated for common branch of agriculture is of national agricultural labour, and at a time importance and worthy of support. when there is scarcely other labour In 1821, they produced 60 pounds of for them ; viz. between hay time and solid opium, equal to the best Turkey, harvest.

ENGLISH OPIUM.

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. The intelligence from Spain, since therefore, compelled to invest in their our last, although interesting, is, we progress. This, to be sure, must neare sorry to say, not very flattering cessarily delay and distribute their to the friends of the constitution. forces, but still the delay must be The military details indeed are so merely temporary, unless they are trifling as scarcely to be worthy of encountered by a more general and insertion. They consist invariably active opposition. This, we fear, is of the advance of the French after not likely to be the case, unless insome irregular skirmishing; and the deed the spirit of the people proves invaders appear now to be checked more sincere than that of some of merely by the fortresses, which uni- those in whom they have confided. It versally resist, and which they are, appears, that on the establishment of

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the French army at Madrid, the Cortes Downie, to induce the military to began to think their residence at See rise and resist the king's removal ville insecure, and determined upou Its discovery was curious. In the their own removal, and that of the Alcazar of Seville, a person belongRoyal family, to Cadiz. Ferdinand, ing to the palace was accidentally however, who takes a different view passing, and heard some tumultuous of an invader's advance into the heart expressions proceeding as if from beof his dominions, thought proper now neath him: he instantly proceeded to remonstrate as lustily against his to the place to discover the cause, departure from Seville, as he had be when he found seventeen persons fore against his departure from Ma- sitting in council with several padrid—the authorities argued with pers before them, which they hastily him, but they preached to the winds, concealed on his approach. The disand were at last obliged to appeal to coverer being intimidated, retreated the Cortes, who declared Ferdinand to the door and gave an alarm. They to be in a state of mental aberration, were all taken, and Sir John Downie and appointed a Regency to act un- and his nephew, a Mr. Barrie, were til his arrival at Cadiz. He was sent, under a strong escort, to Paris, then removed vi et armis, very much where it was thought that they would against his will, and arrived in the be tried and shot. Most sincerely do isle of Leon safe, and as rational as we hope, for the sake of the country, ever, on the 16th. The rapid ad- that this detail may be without fourvance of General Bourdesoult upon dation; but it is asserted too posiSeville with a considerable force, is tively to be totally discredited. We stated to have been the cause of this need not say, however, that we state determination on the part of the it on no authority of our own, but Cortes; and, strange to say, this very merely as it has come to us through advance, intended, no doubt, as most the public journals. If these reports friendly to Ferdinand, is said to have are true, and were known to Ferdithus operated against his meditated nand, he certainly showed more sense escape. It was arranged, it seems, than insanity in his opposition to the to have enclosed Ferdinand in a bala journey. He was three days upon of blankets, to have thus carried him the road, and appears to have been out of the castle, and having em- treated with neglect, if not contempt, barked him in a steam boat on the by the people as he passed along. Guadalquiver, he was to have been The intention of the Cortes, in thus transmitted to the French squadron for the time deposing him, was, it in the bay of Cadiz ! The precipi- seems, merely to compel his deparą tate approach of Bourdesoult, how- ture; for on his arrival at Cadiz ever, alarmed the Cortes before the they immediately met, and formally scheme was ripe, and thus defrauded restored to him his authority. It is the blankets of the Royal bug! It said, that when the ceremony of re, was a pity-the very situation might instating him in his power was finish. have afforded Ferdinand a fine sub- ed, he exclaimed, “ Ahora es acaject for some future piece of embroic bada mi locura," (now is my maddery, and thus his loyal subjects ness over!) We hope so. The first might have bad the safety of his per- sitting of the Cortes at Cadiz was son producing a most legitimate oc- held on the 18th, and 110 members cupation for the exercise of his mind. answered to their names; a plain Certain it is, that his mind never could proof that so many men of considerahave been more innocently employed, tion, at least, are contented to abide The account of this plot is taken by the responsibility of this measure from the Constitutionnel. Another The Royal family were lodged in the plot, of a much more serious nature, palace of the Customs, and their aris, however, spoken of in accounts rival was marked by a melancholy from Cadiz, which, being to the same event, namely, the self-destruction purport, has, we hope untruly, the of the war minister, who cut his name of an Englishman of rank as- throat after burning his papers. That signed to it. The article is dated the Constitutional Cortes have, if they Cadiz, June 14, and asserts, that a fail, incurred something more than a conspiracy was detected at Seville, verbal responsibility, appears pretty at llie head of which was Sir John clearly from the proceedings of the Angoulême regeney, on hearing of those who so nobly opposed Napotheir proceedings. On the 21st of leon, and perished in their opposition, June they published a proclamation, have been shedding their blood for denouncing as enemies to God and the establishment of a system to be the Monarch,” all who were con- deplored equally by the friends of cerned in the deportation of Ferdi- freedom and Christianity. This acnand to Cadiz. On the 22d they met count of a division amongst the again, and issued a decree declaring Cortes was soon to be followed up by that a list should be formed of the one but too well authenticated, and members of the Cortes, the military of a nature almost equally calamiofficers, &c. &c. who ordered or exe- tous; we mean the defection of the cuted the removal; that their pro- Spanish General, Morillo. He had perty should be sequestrated; that defeated General Bourke, with conthey were guilty of high treason, and siderable loss in Leon; when all of a that they should be put to death sudden he stopped in his career, and whenever taken, without any judicial issued a proclamation, which approcess, upon simple proof of their peared at the moment somewhat identity! We really cannot see why suspicious, but which, nevertheless, those who advocate the framing of left some loop-hole for hope. In this such a decree as this should complain document, dated at Lugo, his head so loudly that the Constitutional quarters on the 26th of June, he adleaders deny quarter to the rebel dresses the soldiers and inhabitants Spaniards found in arms against of the fourth military district, and them. This fact is surely “ simple disclaims the authority of the Reproof of their identity" as enemies. gency, established by the Cortes, at There are, however, much more dis- Seville. He declares that he had colastrous reports with respect to the lected the sense both of the soldiers Cortes, than any with which the An- and the people, and that it expressed goulême Regency can affect them; a determination not to obey the dewe allude to rumours of division crees of the Cortes, who had unconamongst themselves. Such a division stitutionally deprived the king of his had taken place in the councils of the privileges. He then named a counConstitutionalists, and to such a cil to assist him in the command of height had their disagreements been the district which he retained, until carried, that General Zayas, to whom “ the king and the nation should the command of the troops had been have adopted a regular system of confided, threatened to leave the city, government.” He also declared his and join 'Ballasteros. The Consti- intention of proposing to the French tutionalists are stated to be now an armistice, until it was seen what formed into two parties ; one of turn' affairs would take. This, it which is called the moderate party, must be admitted, was sufficiently and espouse the safety of Ferdinand; alarming ; but still those who conthis is headed by Romero Alpuente, fided in him were willing to hope and Gasca, the ex-minister of the in- that when he received intelligence of terior; the other is named the phre- the restoration of Ferdinand's authoz netic party, led by Galiano and rity at Cadiz, his scruples would be Arguelles, determined in time of dan- silenced, and his allegiance resumed. ger upon the sacrifice of the Royal Notwithstanding, however, that this Family. Though so extreme a mea- was communicated to him in such a sure as this can scarcely be justified, way as destroyed all incredulity, he still our readers will not be sur- not only proposed an armistice, but prised that the most ardent, or per- actually delivered up Lugo to the haps we should say the least ardent French, and went over to them with of the Constitutionalists, should be the few troops which he could induce exasperated to the very utmost a- to follow him, and few they were, as gainst their invaders, when we ar- it is not denied that they almost all nounce that the adherents of the deserted him when his perfidy befaith have, under the fanatic auspices came apparent. Perhaps, after all, of the French Prince, actually esta- this defection, though undoubtedly blished the Inquisition in all its power to be deplored, is not much to be in Madrid! Thus, if the Bourbons wondered at. Morillo was one of How succeed, it is quite clear that Ferdinand's most able but devoted generals, and had fought too long fected, advanced with some conand too zealously at his command fidence rather too near the fortress; against the infant liberties of South the consequence was, an immediate America, to have imbibed very sin- salute of grape shot from the batcerely the principles of liberty at teries, and a sally from the garrison, home; the cause is the same every in which the invaders admit considerwhere. But it is our business sim able loss; this shows that the negoply to record the fact, and leave ciations terminated in something more others to comment on it. The de- than smoke, and that all patriotism fection of Morillo has not, however, has not perished with Morillo. The at present, produced all the bad ef- officer, however, who has displayed, fects which were naturally to be not the most zeal, for the zeal of feared from it. Though he has gone Quiroga, Riego, and Ballasteros, reover, he has gone almost alone; the mains still unquestioned, but beyond military deserted him, and the civil comparison the most activity, is the authorities of the province denounced indefatigable Mina. This chieftain him. Before he had passed the Ru- has traversed Catalonia, from north bicon completely, and while he yet to south, according even to Marshal might be said to linger on its banks, Moncey's own dispatches, unmolesthe addressed a letter of half entreaty, ed. Most of his men are stationed half remonstrance, to General Qui- in the fort of Bellaguer, Tarragona, roga, his second in command, seek- Figueras, Zerida, &c. which serve ing sophistically to justify his con- him as points d'appui, and in which duct, and to induce Quiroga to follow he changes his flying corps, leaving his example. Quiroga, however, re- them whenever the men are tired, plied to this by a most indignant de- and taking out fresh troops. He nunciation, and followed it up by a has been reinforced by the corps of proclamation, explaining to the pro- Manso, who has died. Manso was vince that the open treachery of Mo- a brave, a good and faithful officer; rillo now shows that his previous and his death must, at such a moapathy in suffering the French to ad- ment, operate as a severe loss to the vance so far, was the result of a pre- Constitutionalists. In the meanconcerted treason; he gives the ne- time, the Angoulême Regency are cessary directions for rallying the making every preparation for the force of the province around the Con- investing of Corunna and Cadiz ; stitutional standard under which he upon the fall of the latter place, they declares it to be bis individual deter- build their greatest hopes; its demination to resist to the last. This fence, however, unless terminated by attempt was followed up by another treachery, is likely to prove tedious. equally unsuccessful upon the Go. Upon their creation, they immedivernor of St. Sebastian. A French ately appointed the Duke of San officer was sent to the fortress with a Carlos Ambassador Extraordinary flag of truce, informing him of the to Louis XVIII. It is related, that events which had occurred in Madrid, when he presented his credentials to Seville, Cadiz, and also of the subé the French King, he strongly excited mission of Morillo to the Regency. his Majesty to continue his aid to This last point, it seems, was con- rescue the King of Spain and the sidered by the French of such Royal Family, to which Louis reimportance, that they offered to plied, “ I am very sensible, Sir, of allow the Governor to send one of the sentiments which you express to his officers to Madrid, in order per- me in the name of the Regency of sonally to convince himself of its Spain. I follow it in its labours, truth. The Governor replied, that with the interest inspired by tender all he wanted to know was, the exact children, who conduct the affairs of state of the garrisons of Santona and a father who is confined by sickness. Pampeluna; but the French General God has hitherto protected the justest refused to allow any communication of causes in a manner too visible not to with these fortresses, upon which the hope that he will continue to render it intercourse was immediately con- his support. For me, strong in the pucluded. At its close, however, some rity of my intentions, and of those of of the French troops fancying that an the Sovereigns, my Allies; I am reaccommodation was about to be ef- solved not to lay down my arms until I restore to Spain her happiness, fidelity to the king and country.to the King his liberty, and to Indeed, if we may credit the Lisbon Europe that repose of which, the Gazette,, the counter-revolution aptroubles of your country threatened pears to prove most palatable to all to deprive it."

ranks of the community. According With respect to Portugal, the coun- to it, deputations and congratulatory ter-revolution in that country to addresses continue to pour in from which we alluded in our last, ap, every part of the country; and the pears, whether through the popular only trouble occasioned to the auinfluence, or, as is more probable, the thorities was to restrain the popular influence of French gold, to have zeal directed against the revolutionbeen fully consummated. By official ists, and particularly against the accounts from Lisbon, we learn that freemasons. Amidst the commotions the King, on the 5th of June, made consequent on this change, our couna, a grand triumphal entry into that tryman, Sir Robert Wilson, appears Capital, where his presence inspired, to have had a narrow escape. He, it is said, universal rejoicings. It accompanied by one or two young certainly appears that he relies much gentlemen, had gone over to Spain upon the popular opinion, as he has to assist the Revolutionists, and was, gone several times since into public, during this rupture, at Oporto, in and the enthusiasm with which he is consequence of some negociations restated to have been received, seems lative to an expected command in to justify his confidence. On his ar- the Portuguese army. He was imrival, he issued a number of decrees, mediately arrested by the new aue which were substantially as follow. thorities, but suffered to depart for He revoked the decree of the Cortes Gallicia, on pledging his honour that against the Queen, declaring that he he would not attempt to interfere had signed it with great grief and on with the new order of things. On compulsion-her Majesty immedi. his way, however, at Braga, the poately returned to Lisbon, from the pulace, instigated by the priests, country house to which the Cortes gave him such treatment, that he bad banished her. He restored Count was glad to escape back again to Amarante to his honours and emolu- Oporto. The authorities there again ments—he nominated Prince Miguel forced him to depart from the counCommander in Chief of the army- try; and he, at last, with some diffiopened the Portuguese ports to French culty, arrived at Vigo, from which ships-revoked the liberty of the place he published an address to the press-appointed a censorship for Portuguese nation, grievously come each journal-restored to the monas- plaining of the usage he received. teries, convents, &c. all the property Sir Robert, according to the last acof which the Cortes had deprived counts from Spain, was to assist in them, and finally nominated a junta the defence of Corunna. The Spaof fourteen members to prepare a niards, it seems, expected that he new Constitution! Most undoubt. would land in their country, at the edly, if future navigators should dis head of 10,000 British volunteers ; cover future countries, the present and letters from his friends,, which day in Europe will furnish spare have been published, now say, that Constitutions in abundance to supply he is to have the commission of a them, and suit all their tastes, how, lieutenant-general in the Constituever various. On the 4th of June, tional service, on the landing of a the day previous to the entry of the fourth part of the legion. For ourKing, the Constitutional General, selves, we profess, wishing well to Don Louis de Nego Barreto, who every free cause, as undoubtedly we commanded the arıny against Ama, do, we cannot clearly comprehend rante, signified his abandonment of the source of these expectations, the government by reading Don MiWe cannot forget that our minis, guel's proclamation to his troops, ters, whether justly or unjustly, The king granted a distinctive medal have continued in force the provito all the officers and non-commis- sions of the foreign enlistment bill ; sioned officers who accompanied the and while that is the case, it is utterinfant, Don Miguel, to Villa Franca ly impossible that any such force can de Merina. It bears the legend be equipped in this country for the

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