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feventy miles. Except in shallow places the lakes never freeze, and the navigg. tion of the Seneca Lake has not been impeded since the settlement of the country; this will appear the more remarkable, when frequently within that period the North river has been frozen at New-York, the Delaware forty miles below Philadelphia, and the Chesapeak Bay as low as Annapolis. The northerly and westerly winds which scourge the coast of America by blowing over the Alleghany Mountains late in the spring and carly in the fall, covered with snow, are tempered by palling over our waters; and these mountains to the south of us, do at the same time, prevent the destructive effects of the southerly breeze in winter, which by suddenly thawing the frozen wheat-fields, destroys thousands of bushels.

The town of Bath has this season increased considerably, and the opening a mar. ket to Baltimore for our lumber and fat catlle, has raised a spirit amongst the inhabitants to improve the navigation of the Conhocon. A handsome court-house and a very secure and convenient goal is added to the number of our buildings, and the inhabitants have encouraged a clergyman to settle amongst them; this is the first establishment of the kind in the country.

It has very erroneously been supposed that the face of the Genesee country was a dat, level, rich country, full of swamps and stagnant waters, but the contrary is the case ; the whole tract of country from Geneva to the Genesee river, with very few exceptions, is composed of a range of gentle ridges of land running most frequently from north to south, between cach a run of water, and considerable bottom fand on cach side. It is timbered chiefly with hickory, oak, and walnut, elm, ball-wood, sugar-tree, &c. The stone to be found on these ridges mostly inclines to lime-ftone, which is a certain indication of lands of the best quality for grain of all kinds. The openings or large tracts of land found frequently in this country free of all timber, and thewing great signs of being once in a state of cultivation, is a Angular circumstance. This fort of land, from the ignorance of the first settlers of its quality, was supposed to be barren, and little valued ; neceflity at first obliged fome to attempt the cultivation of it, and they were most agreeably disappointed to find the crops excellent, and in several instances have continued to reap a crop every year, for these seven years. This sort of land, which six years ago would not have Sold for a quarter dollar per acre, is now reckoned cheap at ten dollars.

It is difficult to account for these openings or the open flatts on the Genesee river, where 10,000 acres may be found in one body, not even encumbered with a buih, but covered with grass of such height, that the largest bullocks at thirty feet from the path, will be completely hid from the view. Through all this country there are not only signs of extensive cultivations having been made at some early period, but there are found the remains of old forts, where the ditches and gates are ftill vifible; they appear to me in general to be well chofen for defence; from the circumstance of swords being found in them with French inscriptions, it is concluded that they are of French origin : I do not recollect the that French had ever so great a force in this part of America at so early a period ; for these forts from very large decayed timbers lying in m, and large timber growing over, the others falling down, must be at Jealt 200 years old ; the forts are besides too numerous for mere stations, and great collections of human bones are found in them, which shews they have been occupied for a number of years. An examination of this part of the country by men of ob. fervation and science, might throw fome light on the history of this part of America Dow so little known,

The foil of the country has in every instance proved favourable to the raising of grain ; the long and moderate summers seem particularly adapted

to bring to perfection wheat, barley and oats; the two last fo inferior on the coast to the English, are here of a quality nearly as good : the crops of timothy, hay, and clover, are superior to most in America, and have been frequently known to produce from three to four tons of excellent well dried hay.

It has also been found that the temperate climate of the Genesee country, and richness of the pastures, has particularly adapted the country for every branch of farming dependent on cattle; the country well affords dairy farms, the finest in America; at no time is the weather fo hot, but butter may be made and salted for markef. Already several farmers keep from twenty to thirty cows, and the cattle brougat

into the country from the neighbouring States, some of which have grown to a great size. The mildness and short duration of the winter when compared with the great cattle countries in the New-England States, is much in favor of the Genesee country.

As settlements are already formed on the principal navigations, the most ada vantageous markets, for the surplus provisions and other articles that may be in demand, are found a speedy and profitable fale and may be exported. Beef, salt pork, lour and whiskey, bave already been sent to a great amount for so young a councountry. To the county of Stuben, nature has pointed out its market by the Susquehanna river; several of its branches afford a good navigation to the most wefterly parts of the country. Boats may be navigated up the stream, for five or fix months in the year, carrying from five to eight tons ; but when the surplus produce requires the carriage of heavy articles to Baltimore, (the natural seaport of this part of the country) a kind of boats may be made to delcend the stream, (ela pecially in the spring) that will carry from two to five hundred barrels of four +

The case with which bulky articles can be carried to Baltimore, one of the best markets in the United States, places the county of Stuben in a situation highly Aattering to its future prospects.

The success of every individual who has emigrated to the Genesee, has stamped a greater value on the lands than ever was known in any fo recently settled, and lo diftant from the old settled country. In most instances roads, mills, stores, taverns and blacksmiths shops preceded the settleinent, and the best mechanics in America have been employed." By the efforts of men of property and information, the latent powers of the country, which by the ordinary process of improving new countries, might have lain dormant . these 30 years, have been brought into view, and in many instances into actual operation.

The Legislature of the State of New York, in their last session, passed a law to cnable persons, tho' aliens, to purchase and hold lands or real estates in the State of New-York. This bill it is presumed in the present state of Europe, will be a deBrable circumftance to many who may wish to secure a certainty to themselves and families : to such as think it prudent to leave England, or to secure an alye lum on this side of the Atlantic, this part of America will be particularly suited, The climate and soil is similar, and by no means inferior to their own: The laws and customs of the State of New York, bear still a stronger fimilitude to those of England; and they will find a greater number of Europeans mixed in these various settlements than in any other of the same standing.

Men of property wishing so secure their families an estate in America, will experience much satisfaction by joining their friends and neighbors in such a co

* A four years old bullock was killed at Bath in November last, that weighed 12 ct. 281b. and this spring a bullock was killed at the same place that measured 17 1-2 hands high, 11 feet 6 inches from the root of his horns to the root of his cail, 9 feet 6 inches in the girth; ke sold for, in beef, 247 dollars.

# A great quanty of spirituous liquors is necessary for the supply of the weltern pofts and Indian trade in Canada; the whiskey for some years back, has been fent from Northumberland, in Pennsylvania--after a carriage of 400 miles, it is fold for 12s. per gallon at Niagara ; at Detroit, at 20s. The county of Ontario, from its communication with Lake Ontario, has a very decided advantage, and it has already become an object to our farmers.

+ A Mr. Kruydar, of Juniata river, invented these boats, called Arks, about 6 years ago; the high price of boards induced him to make the experiment, and he arrived safe at Baltimore with his load. They have been used every year since, and are made of plank; they are broke up after discharging their cargo, and fold for lumber with little lofs; they are navigated by three or five men, and will Hoat down at the rate of 80 miles per day.

$ The proper articles for which are lumber; such as fhip plank, boards, scantling, lath and thingles; fat case, barselled beef and pork four, barley and herop.


touy; the estate they select for themselves can be improved according to their fancy, and each day's industry will procure additional conveniency. Those who have been born to gain a livelihood by labor, will, thus patronaged, find that a few years continuance of the same industry, as was absolutely necessary to support their families in Europe, will, in this country, make them rich and independenti and enable them to leave their families a comfortable support. The first two years I spent in this country, my companions and myself scarcely, ever slept on a bed, and seldom could command the most common necellaries of life. But opening of roads, improving the navigation, and building of mills, not only procured neceflaries from a distance, but ensured a rapid progress of the country in cultivation and every species of improvement, so that what four years ago was impracticable is now easy, and the new settlers are not only supplied realonebly with the necessaries, but even the luxuries of life. No part of the country is now far distant from mills, and the best mechanics America can afford are to be found in it.

I have confidered the'apprehensions and difficulties of new settlers when scattered in a woody country, as well as the advantages they may gain by being mutually able to aid and encourage each other. I have proposed that the whole body should, in the first place fix themselves on the village lots, and excepting one acre for a garden the whole to be worked in one field, by the settlement, under one common feuce, but each lot to belong to the proprietor. Houses can be built at a small expence on each town lot to accomodate the family. One third the number of catile will be sufficieet for the purposes of husbandry, and a great deal more produce will be raised in a large field than in a number of small ones, making the same extent of land. For in a field of ten acres cut out of the woods, one half will be overshadowed so as to bear little crops, and as the settlers find it convenient they can improve, and afterwards move to their farm lots, and let or sell to mechanics their town lots.

By adopting a plan of this kind, one mill, one blacksmith, and one road, will serve the settlement, at a time when every shilling is valuable, and every hour's labor of much consequence; and the satisfaction of a society laboring together, who are bound together by the strongest motives of friendship, will lighten the most arduous task.

The first settlers in this country were entirely from New-England, from the circumstance of the only access to this country being from that quarter, and the purchasers from the State being New-England people; indeed until after the opening of the road to Pennsylvania over the Allegany mountains, there was scarcely one instance to the contrary. But the opening of that communication, and the means that have been taken to make the inhabitants of the adjoining States to the southward acquainted with the country, have induced a great many to emigrate from the Jerseys, Pennsylvania and the Delaware States, and this season a confiderable number from Maryland. The settlers of New-England, a people remarkable for boldly pushing into new countries, long supposed that no other people would venture into a country, fo remote from their homes, but fince the improving of the waggan road to the southward it is found to be considerably casier to remove a family from Philadelphia, Lancaster, Trenton and Baltimore, than from New-England.

The number of the emigrants from Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey has been greatly on the encrease, and a little custom has made the distance fami. liar. I have known several above fixty years of age, ride with ease in seven days from Baltimore to Bath: when they compare this with the difficulty of reaching the new settlement on the western waters, and the little produce of these coun tries, the comparison is highly in favor of the Genesee country;* here they find the inhabitants enjoying more comforts and conveniencies than is at this moment experienced in settlements of longer standing. The most advantageous markets

* I found that the price of lumber, fat cattle, butter and cheese is at leafton an average, 50 per cent. higher in Baltimore than Albany, a circumstance much in favor of Stuben county, when compared with the counties north of Albany.

are courted, and recourse is had to them by such exertions, that men of respectability and property are drawn into the country, not only from the ncigliboring States but from Europe.

From the Genesce, droves of fat cattle can at any time be sent to Philadelphia, New-York, Albany or Baltimore. The distance is not greater than that of the best grazing countries in Massachusetts, where they have for many years past drove their fat cattle to the Philadelphia market. From the fouth part of the Genesee country, cattle can, in the spring, be fent down the Susquehannah either for the Philadelphia or Baltimore markets, as well as every other article of produce. The Onondaga salt-works being in the immediate vicinity of the Genefce country, afford salt at an easy rate for curing beef and pork, or for exportation. These are the advantages to a new country, which are incalculable, and afford the means of bringing thousands of acres into cultivation.

For my own part, after having seen great part of the United States, and resided fix years in the Genesee country, seen it a dreary wilderness, and seeing it now posses every comfort man can defire who divests himself of the foibles and follies of large cities, I must decidedly give this country the preference. It is to this country as Yorkshire is to England, it is near' enough to the large cities to draw a revenue from their markets, but too distan- to be affected by cheir vices and follies. It is the only part of America calculated for the relidence of gentlemen of easy fortunes I have seen. A little industry will make the roads excellent in a country, where, for 65 miles in any direction, you cannot find a mountain or a swamp, or any barren land, and thick population will give convenience and luxuries.

Our vicinity with Maryland and Pennsylvania, procures us the finest horses in America, and we have had the same advantage of a breed of cattle and sheep from New-England. The lakes and rivers fupply us abundantly with fish, the woods with venison, * the maple tree with sugar, t and our industry with excelle ent grain.

The most convenient route for Europeans to come to this country, will be to land at New-York; they will with much ease reach Albany by water, and from thence they can either hire waggons or take navigation by the canals on the Mohawk river to Geneva: unless the water was in good order I would cersainly prefer the land journey. A waggon with two oxen and two hoi fes will go twenty miles per day with a load of 30cwt. The accomodation by the fate road will be found very good, and should any accident happen on the road, alfistance can be procured at every stage. Cabinet-makers from Scotland and London are to be found in several parts of the country: the soil producing excellent timber for furniture, which may be procured at every law-mill, and con. verted into furniture for little more expense than the carriage of it would amount to from any diftant part.

For three several years back 500 deer have been killed in the neighbourhood of Bath annually.

+ A settlement of fifteen families in No. 4, 7th range, made this year two tons of sugar from the maple-tree; fome families made 500lbs.

SUPPLEMENT OF MEN OF LEARNING AND GENIUS. 1799. Hon. John Henry, of Maryland.

Thomas Mifflin, late Governor of Pennsylvania.
Judge Iredell, of the Judiciary of the United States.
Judge Paca, of do.

do. Nathanial Fish, D. D. of Brookfield, GEORGE WASHINGTON, Commander in Chief of the American armies during the late Revolution, and late President of the United States, expired on the 14th of December, in the 68th year of his age, universally regretted, not only by his fellow citizens, but by all good men throughout the world.

He possessed a clear and a penetrating mind, a strong and a found judgment, calmness of temper for deliberation, with invincible firmness and perseverance in resolutions maturely formed, drawing information from all, acting for himself with incorruptible iniegrity and unvarying patriotism, his own fuperiority and the public confidence alike marked him as the man designed by heaven to lead in the great political, as well as military events, which have diftinguished the era of his life.

“ First in war, firft in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen. He was fecond to none in the endearing scenes of private life : pious, juft, humane, temperate and fincere: uniform, dignified and commanding, his example was as edifying to all around him, as were the effects of that example lasting,

" To his equals he was condescending, to his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily tender: correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand : the purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues.

“His laft scene comported with the whole tenor of his life —Although in extreme pain, not a figh, not a groan escaped him; and with undisturbed serenie ty he closed his well (pent life. Such was the man America has loft. Such was the man for whom the nation mourns."

In testimony of the veneration, which the citizens of the United States entertain for the transcendent virtues of this illustrious character, on the 23d of December lat, the joint committee of the Senate and house of Representatives of the United States appointed to report what testimony of respect ought to be paid to the man, first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, advised, " That a marble monument be ereeted by the United States, in the Capitol the city of Washington, and that the family of General Washington be requested to permit his body to be deposited under it, and that the monument be so desigend as to commemorate the great events of his military and political life.

" That it be recommended to the people of the United States to wear crape on the left arm, as mourning, for thirty days. As also to assemble an the 22d rebruary next, in number and manner as may be most convenient publicly to testify their grief for his death, by suitable orations and discourses, or by public prayers and that the President be requested to issue a proclamation for the purpose of care rying the foregoing resolutions into effect.”

The above, with several others relative to the fame {ubject, were unanimoudy carried, and have been attended to accordingly.

With refpe&t to the first, we have only to obferve, that the President immedia ately after wrote to Mrs. Washington, from whose excellent answer we shall give the following quotation Taught by the great example, which I have so long had before me, never to oppose my private wishes to the public will, I mor consent to the request made by Congress, which you have had the goodne!s to transmit to me, and in doing this I need not I cannot say what a facrifice of individual feeling I make to a sense of public duty."

It therefore cannot be doubted, but that in due tíme a comb will be created, in she city whichbears his name, as expressive as possible of his transcendent deeds.

He lived to see the complete organization of the government of a new empire, to the establishment of which, bis real talents and patriotism, eminently costributed,

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