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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE 1. FRONTISPIECE TO THE VOLUME-Mer de Glace, from the Montan

vert. 2. Frontispiece to the Introduction-Crossing the St. Lawrence in Winter.

2 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Appearances of Frost on Window-panes

25 8. Frontispiece to Chapter I.-Travelling on a Frozen Lake in America with Dogs and Sledges

46 9, 10, 11. Diagrams to illustrate the Expansion of Water by cold . 50 12, 13. Illustrations of the Freezing of Water at the Top and at the Bottom

55 14, 15. The same in Glass

56 16, 17, 18, 19. Apparatus to illustrate the Moulding of Ice

82 20, 21, 22, 23. Crystalline forms of Ice

83 24. Ice-flowers in a Block of Ice.

85 25. Frontispiece to Chapter II. — The Glacier Stream. Termination of the Glacier of Zermatt

106 26. Glacier of Zermatt, Middle portion

116 27. Glacier Tables

119 28. Union of Glaciers-Formation of Medial Moraine

120 29. Polished Rocks

121 30. The Toad Stone

123 31. Dirt Bands

125 32. Frontispiece to Chapter III.-Arch and Turret-formed Iceberg . 150 33. Optical Illusions among the Ice.

160 34. Tabular Iceberg seen in the Straits of Belle Isle

166 35. Tabular Icebergs in the Antarctic Seas

167 36. Breaking up of an Iceberg.

183 37. Frontispiece to Chapter IV.-Ice Caverns of Demenfalva .

184 38. Plan of Ice heap

200 39, 40. Plan and section of Ice House

206 41, 42. Plan and section of Improved Ice House

208 43. Portable Ice House

211 44. Entrance to Ice House

215 45. Frontispiece to Chapter V.-Wenham Lake--The Ice Company's servants cutting Ice .

216 46. Ice Marker

223 47, 48. Ice Spade and Ice Hook

224 49. Sectional elevation of Ice-making Apparatus

236 50, 51, 52. Section of Ether and Water Vessels, aņd of Water Vessels 239 53. Frontispiece to Chapter VI.-Skating.

242 54. Ice Palace on the Neva.

253

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CROSSING THE ST. LAWRENCE IN WINTER. (See page 17.)

THE

FROZEN STREAM.

INTRODUCTION.

THE GENERAL PHENOMENA OF ICE IN VARIOUS PARTS OF

THE WORLD,

ONE of the most striking natural changes produced by a low temperature is the freezing of water into a solid mass; a change so inconceivable to an uneducated inhabitant of the torrid zone, that any one attempting to convince him of it would be accounted an impostor. Or should the traffic in ice, or the artificial production of the same, have made him aware of the fact that water can be made to assume the solid state, yet the substance would still be accounted as a curiosity or a rarity, and it would be almost equally impossible to convey the idea of frozen rivers, and vast icy plains, such as are familiar to the minds of northern nations.

While the inhabitant of the torrid zone finds it thus difficult to believe in the existence of ice, the native of the frigid zone must find it almost equally difficult to believe in the existence of any land uncovered with ice and snow. These form his

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