Abbildungen der Seite


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Origin and Genealogy of his Family. — His Birth. — His Mother. — Employments in his Boyhood. — Anecdote. — Character of his Father. — Epitaph on his Father and Mother. — Fond of reading.

— Apprenticed to his Brother to leam the Printer's Trade.— Writes Ballads. — Intimacy with Collins. — Practises Composition.

— Adopts a vegetable Diet. — Studies the Socratic Method of Disputation. — Concerned in publishing a Newspaper. — Disagrees with his Brother. — Leaves Boston and takes Passage in a Sloop for New York.


Journey to Philadelphia. — Adventure in a Boat — Dr. Brown.— Burlington. — His first Appearance in Philadelphia. — Quaker Meeting. — Seeks for Employment as a Printer. — Commences Work in Keimer's Office. — Forms Acquaintances. — Patronized by Sir William Keith, Governor of Pennsylvania. — First Interview with him. — Keith proposes to set him up in Business.— Returns to Boston. — His Father disapproves Keith's Plan. — Voyage to New York. — Incident on the Passage from Newport.

— Meets his Friend Collins in New York. — They go together to Philadelphia. — Calling's ill Conduct causes a Separation. — Keith insists on executing his original Plan, and proposes sending him to London to purchase Types.— Returns to the Use of animal Food. — Anecdotes of Keimer. — His Associates, Osborne, Wat

VOL. I. d c

son, Ralph. — Their Exercises in Composition. — Resolves to visit
England, as advised by Governor Keith. 29


Sails for London, accompanied by Ralph. — On his Arrival delivers

Letters supposed to be written by die Governor. — Discovers that

Keith had deceived him.— His Money exhausted. — Engages to

work as a Printer at Palmer's, in Bartholomew Close. — Writes

and prints a metaphysical Tract — Frequents a Club, consisting

of Dr. Mandeville and Others. — Disagreement with Ralph and

Separation. — Removes to Watts's Printing-house, near Lincoln's

Inn Fields. — Habits of the Workmen. — His Expenses of Living.

— Feats of Activity in Swimming. — Enters into Mercantile Bus-

iness with Mr. Denham.— Sir William Wyndham. ... 53


Voyage from London to Philadelphia. — His Mercantile Plans de-

feated by the Death of Mr. Denham. — Accepts an Offer from

Keimer to superintend his Printing Establishment — Description

of the Workmen in the Printing-house. — Resolves to separate

from Keimer, and commence Business on his own Account —

Engraves the Plates for Paper Money in New Jersey, and prints

the Bills. — His Views of Religion. — Account of his London

Pamphlet — A New Version of the Lord's Prayer, with Explan-

atory Remarks. — Forms a Partnership with Hugh Meredith in

the Printing Business. 67


The Junto. — Description of its original Members.—Franklin writes

the "Busy Body." — Establishes a Newspaper. — Partnership with

Meredith dissolved. — Writes a Tract on the Necessity of a Paper

Currency. — Opens a Stationer's Shop. — His Habits of Industry

and Frugality. — Courtship. — Marriage 81


Origin of the Philadelphia Library. — Mode of obtaining Subscrip-

tions. — Thrives in his Business. — Anecdote of the Silver Spoon

and China Bowl. — Religious Sentiments and Remarks on Preach-

ing.— Scheme for arriving at Moral Perfection.— Explanation of

the Scheme.— List of Virtues enumerated, and Rules for Prac-

tising them. — Division of Time, and the Occupation of each Hour.

— Amusing Anecdote. — The Art of Virtue. — A Treatise on

that Subject proposed. 98

Scheme of a Society for extending the Influence of Virtue. — Belief

in one God, the Immortality of the Soul, and future Rewards and

Punishments.— Poor Richard's Almanac. — Rules for conducting

a Newspaper. — Controversy concerning Hemphill, the Preach-

er.—Studies the French, Italian, and Spanish Languages. — Visits

Boston. — The Junto.— Chosen Clerk of the Assembly. — Ap-

pointed Postmaster of Philadelphia. — Suggests Improvements in

the City Watch.—Establishes a Fire Company. . . .118


Forms an Intimacy with Whitefield. — Building erected for Preach-

ers of all Denominations. — Character of Whitefield, his Oratory

and Writings. — Partnerships in the Printing Business.—Propos-

es a Philosophical Society. — Takes an active Part in providing

Means of Defence in the Spanish War. — Forms an Association

for that Purpose. — Sentiments of the Quakers. — James Logan.

— Anecdote of William Penn.— The Sect called Dunkera.— Re-

ligioos Creeds.— New-invented Fireplace 136


Proposals relating to the Education of Youth.—Subscriptions for that

Object . — An Academy established. — Appointed one of the Trus-

tees for managing it . — Partnership with David Hall. — Electrical

Experiments. — Chosen a Member of the Assembly. — A Com-

missioner for making a Treaty with the Indians. — Pennsylvania

Hospital. — Writes in Favor of it, and procures Subscriptions.—

Advice to Gilbert Tcnnent.— Suggests Plans for cleaning, paving,

and lighting the Streets of Philadelphia. — Project for cleaning

the Streets of London. — Appointed Postmaster-general for Amer-

ica. — Receives the Degree of Master of Arts from Harvard and

Yale Colleges. 158


Attends a General Convention at Albany, as a Delegate from Penn-

sylvania. — Proposes a Plan of Union for the Colonies, which is

adopted by the Convention. — Interview with Governor Shirley

at Boston. — Conversations with Governor Morris on Pennsylvania

Affairs. — Assists Mr. Quincy in procuring Aids for New Eng-

land.— Visits General Braddock's Army in Maryland. — Procures

Horses and Wagons to facilitate the March of the Army. — Ob-

tains Supplies for the Officers. — Character of Braddock. — Ac-

count of his Defeat in the Battle of the Monongahela. — Braddock

Franklin advises the Conquest of Canada.— His Scheme adopted by

the Ministry. — Journey to Scotland. — Lord K nines, Robertson,

Hume. — " Parable against Persecution." — First published by

Lord Kames. — How far Franklin claimed to be its Author. — His

Mission brought to a favorable Termination. — Lord Mansfield's

Agency in the Affair. — Franklin's Sentiments in Regard to Can-

ada. — Writes a Pamphlet to show that it ought to be retained at

the Peace. — Tour to the North of England. — Receives Public

Money for Pennsylvania. — Tour in Holland. — Experiments to

prove the Electrical Properties of Tourmalin. — Cold produced

by Evaporation. — Ingenious Theory for explaining the Causes

of Northeast Storms. — Invents a Musical Instrument, called the

Armonica. — His Son appointed Governor of New Jersey. — Re-

turns to America. 347


Receives the Thanks of the Assembly. — Tour through the Middle

and Eastern Colonies. — Engages again in Public Affairs. — Mas-

sacre of Indians in Lancaster. — Franklin's Pamphlet on the Sub-

ject, and his Agency in pacifying the Insurgents. — Colonel Bou-

quet's Account of his Public Services. — Disputes revived between

the Governor and the Assembly.— Militia Bill defeated. — The

Governor rejects a Bill in which the Proprietary Estates are taxed.

— The Assembly resolve to petition the King for a Change of Gov-

ernment . — Petition drafted by Franklin. — Chosen Speaker of the

Assembly. — Norris, Dickinson, Galloway. — Scheme for Stamp

Duties opposed by the Assembly. — Franklin is not elected to the

Assembly. — Appointed Agent to the Court of Great Britain. —

Sails for England 370


Origin of the Stamp Act . — Franklin's Opposition to it . — His Re-

marks on the Passage of the Act, in a Letter to Charles Thomson.

— False Charges against him in Relation to this Subject . — Dean

Tucker. — Effects of the Stamp Act in America.—Franklin's Ex-

amination before Parliament . — Stamp Act repealed. — Mr. Pitt . —

Declaratory Act . — American Paper Currency. — Franklin's An-

swer to Lord Hillsborough's Report against it . — New Scheme

for taxing the Colonies by supplying them with Paper Money. —

Franklin travels in Holland and Germany. — His Ideas of the Na-

ture of the Union between the Colonies and Great Britain. — Plan

of a Colonial Representation in Parliament . — Franklin visits Paris.

-His "Account of the Causes of the American Discontents." —

Change of Ministry. — Lord Hillsborough at the Head of the

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