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Proceedings of the Privy Council on the Petition.
count of those Proceedings. - Wedderburn's abusive Speech.
The Petition rejected. - Franklin dismissed from his Place at the
Head of the American Postoffice.
Franklin remains in England to await the Result of the Continental
Congress.-Josiah Quincy, Junior. - Anecdotes. - Death of Dr.
Franklin's Wife. - Family Incidents. He receives and presents
the Petition of Congress.- Rejected by Parliament. — Galloway's
Plan of Union. - Franklin's Attempts to promote a Reconciliation
between the two Countries. Visits Lord Chatham.- Remarks
on Independence. — Mrs. Howe. — He draws up Articles as the
Basis of a Negotiation, at the Request of Dr. Fothergill and Mr.
Barclay. Interviews with Lord Howe respecting some Mode of
Reconciliation. He drafts another Paper for that Purpose.- Lord
Camden. Lord Chatham's Motion in Parliament.- Franklin's
Interviews with him in forming a Plan of Reconciliation. - This
Plan offered to Parliament, and rejected. Negotiation resumed
and broken off. - Franklin sails from England and arrives in
Chosen a Member of Congress.- Proceedings of Congress. - Prep-
arations for Military Defence. - Petition to the King. - Franklin
assists in preparing for the Defence of Pennsylvania, as a Member
of the Committee of Safety. Drafts a Plan of Confederation.-
His Services in Congress. - Goes to the Camp at Cambridge on
a Committee from Congress.- Chosen a Member of the Pennsyl-
vania Assembly. - Writes Letters to Europe for the Committee
of Secret Correspondence. — His Journey to Canada as a Com-
missioner from Congress. - Declaration of Independence. — An-
ecdotes. - President of the Convention of Pennsylvania for form-
ing a Constitution. - His Opinion of a Single Legislative Assem-
bly. His Correspondence with Lord Howe, and Interview with
him on Staten Island. - Appointed a Commissioner to the Court
of Versailles. Lends Money to Congress.
Voyage to France. - Arrives at Nantes.- - Proceeds to Paris, and
takes up his Residence at Passy. His Reception in France.-
Influence of his Name and Character. - Pictures, Busts, and Prints
of him. Interview with Count de Vergennes. - Money obtained
from the French Court, and Military Supplies sent to the United
States.Contract with the Farmers-General. - Franklin disap-
proves the Policy of seeking Alliances with the European Powers.
-Lord Stormont. — Application of Foreign Officers for Employ-
ment in the American Army. - Lafayette. Reasons why the
French delay to enter into a Treaty with the United States. -
Interview with Count de Vergennes on that Subject. -Treaty of
Amity and Commerce. - Treaty of Alliance.- Franklin and the
other Commissioners introduced at Court.
Preparations for War between France and England. — M. Gérard.-
Mr. John Adams. Secret Advances made to Dr. Franklin for
effecting a Reconciliation between England and the United States.
—Mr. Hutton. — Mr. Pulteney. Mr. Hartley.— An Emissary
in Disguise. — Franklin's personal Friends in Paris.—Interview
with Voltaire. Franklin appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the
Court of France. Machinations of his Enemies to procure his
Recall. Mr. Arthur Lee.- Mr. Ralph Izard. — Visit of Sir Wil-
liam Jones to Paris. -Franklin instructs the American Cruisers
not to seize Captain Cook's Vessel. - Grants Passports to Vessels
carrying Supplies to the Moravian Missionaries on the Coast of Lab-
rador.-Paul Jones. - The Marquis de Lafayette.—Mr. Vaughan's
Edition of Franklin's Political and Miscellaneous Writings.
A French Army sent to the United States.-Lafayette. - Northern
Powers of Europe combine in Defence of Neutrals. - Franklin's
Opinion of Privateering. - Correspondence between Count de
Vergennes and Mr. Adams. - Franklin's Remarks upon it.—
Charges against Franklin by his Enemies, examined and refuted.
-New Attempt in Congress to procure his Recall. Count de
Vergennes's Opinion of him as Minister at the French Court.-
The numerous Duties of his Office. - Colonel John Laurens.
Franklin proposes to retire from the Public Service. - New Prop-
ositions for Peace, through the Agency of Mr. Hartley. — Frank-
lin's Answer to them.-His Friends at Passy and Auteuil.-
Madame Brillon. Madame Helvétius.
Negotiations for Peace. - Debates on the Subject in the British
Parliament.Change of Ministry. - Mr. Oswald sent to Paris to
consult Dr. Franklin on the Mode of Negotiating. - Grenville's
Commission; disapproved by Franklin. - Mr. Fox's Views of In-
dependence. Lord Shelburne's Administration. Mr. Fitzher-
bert. Mr. Oswald commissioned to negotiate the American Trea-
ty. Essential Articles of the Treaty proposed by Franklin.-
Advisable Articles. Mr. Jay disapproves Mr. Oswald's Com-
mission. - An Alteration required and obtained. Progress of
the Treaty.Independence, Boundaries, Fisheries. — Attempts
of the British Ministry to secure the Indemnification of the Loy-
alists. Mr. Adams joins his Colleagues and resists the British
Claims. Franklin proposes an Article for Indemnifying the
Americans for their Losses during the War.- British Claims
relinquished. Treaty signed. Ratified by Congress.
Treaty signed without the Knowledge of the Court of France. -
-Count de Vergennes's Opinion of the Treaty. Unfounded Sus-
picions. Rayneval and Marbois. - Franklin's Explanation of the
Grounds upon which he acted.-False Rumor concerning his Ex-
ertions in obtaining the Boundaries and Fisheries. - His Financial
Contract with Count de Vergennes.- Negotiates a Treaty with
Sweden. Mr. Hartley. - Definitive Treaty of Peace signed.—
Franklin's Sentiments on this Occasion. - Animal Magnetism.—
Negotiations. His Request to be recalled is finally granted by
Congress. Treaty with Prussia. - Franklin prepares to return
Home.-Journey from Passy to Havre de Grace. - Sails from
Southampton and arrives in Philadelphia.
Receives congratulatory Letters and Addresses. — Chosen President
of Pennsylvania, and holds the Office three Years. - His private
Circumstances. Appointed a Delegate to the Convention for
Framing the Constitution of the United States. His Speeches in
the Convention. His Religious Opinions. — Extracts from Dr.
Cutler's Journal describing an Interview with him. - President of
the Society for Political Inquiries. — Neglect of Congress to exam-
ine and settle his Accounts. Various Pieces written by him dur-
ing the last Year of his Life. — His Illness and Death. - Funeral
Ceremonies. Tribute of Respect paid to him by Congress and
other Public Bodies. - Conclusion.
I. Remarks on the Origin and Genealogy of the Franklin Family,
II. Journal of a Voyage from London to Philadelphia,
III. Proposals relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania,
IV. American Philosophical Society, .
V. Extracts from a Private Journal,
VI. Extracts from a Private Journal,
VII. Proceedings of Congress, and of the National Assembly of
ESSAYS AND TRACTS, HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL, before the
AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE CONSTITUTION AND
GOVERNMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA,
ESSAYS AND TRACTS, HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL, BEFORE THE
AMERICAN REVOLUTION, CONtinued.
II. Letter from the Abbé Nollet to Benjamin Franklin,
III. Speech of the Earl of Macclesfield, President of the Royal
Society, on the Occasion of awarding to Franklin a Medal
for his Discoveries in Electricity,
IV. Letter from John Baptist Beccaria to Benjamin Franklin,
V. Letter from Professor Thorbern Bergman, of Upsal, to Ben-
VI. Letter from M. Dubourg to M. de Lor. Parallel between
the Theories of Franklin and Nollet,
LETTERS AND PAPERS ON PHILOSOPHICAL SUBJECTS.
PART FIRST; COMPRISING PRIVATE LETTERS TO THE Time of
THE AUTHOR'S FIRST MISSION TO ENGLAND. 1725-1757. 1
PART SECOND; COMPRISING LETTERS, PRIVATE AND OFFICIAL,
FROM THE TIME OF THE AUTHOR'S FIRST MISSION TO ENG-
LAND, TO THE BEGINNING OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
PART SECOND, CONTINUED, .
PART THIRD; COMPRISING LETTERS, PRIVATE AND OFFICIAL,
FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, TO
THE END OF THE AUTHOR'S MISSION TO FRANCE. 1775-
I. A Fragment of Polybius; from his Treatise on the Athenian
II. Memoir of Sir John Dalrymple; or a Project of Lord Roch-
ford to prevent the War,