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'N the present Volume we have stepped out of feudalism into the first day-spring of modern history. We have left the race of barons, grown too powerful for both Crown and country, and a divided Royal house which consumed the energies and the intellect of the nation in bloody conflicts for the possession of the throne. The predominating space which the Tudor dynasty occupies in the present pages is worthy of all attention. With Henry VII. a new blood and spirit entered the palace, and stirred within the golden circle of the Crown. The grandson of a Welsh yeoman of the guard became the monarch, and a vigour which had dwindled in the ancient race, from the days of Henry V., re-appeared,

but linked inseparably with an absolute self-will, which, whilst appearing to resist the onward progress of the nation, really gave to it accelerated momentum and spirit. The old impediments of religion and of aristocracy were swept away, to give unopposed scope to Royal license ; but this only cleared the ground for popular action. The nation had so far advanced that its impulses became the unmistakable law of tendency. From the remains of the ancient hierarchy arose the undaunted soul of religious freedom. With religious freedom, civil freedom was a necessity; and on the ruins of the ancient aristocracy arose a new race of landed proprietors, whose interests were more allied to the interest of the people. Before the close of the Tudor dynasty in Elizabeth, we behold unequivocal manifestations of a new order of things, of the limitation of the power of the Crown, and the establishment of the power of Parliament. We shall find in the opening of our next Volume the efforts of an unwise dynasty—that of the Stuarts—to resist this popular development, but only to its own destruction.

In our tracing of these events we have taken an impartial view of the character and conduct of Queen Elizabeth.

Perhaps with no other monarch is it so necessary to discriminate between fond traditions and the cold facts of history. Elizabeth was a woman of a masculine and penetrating mind; no ruler ever knew more ably how to select capable ministers, and surround herself with the splendour of statesmanlike talent, bravery, and genius. With a stout heart, and assisted by the counsels and the gallant deeds of those men, she carried the country through an arduous crisis proudly, and bore down and broke to atoms every foreign influence and the Armada which was directed against the Protestant ascendancy of England. All honour to her and to them on that account. But when we penetrate through the splendour of such glories, and through the extravagant adulations of the Elizabethan courtiers, we come to some deeds and characteristics which demand just reprehension.

We must remind our readers that we are not writing romance, in which we can at will colour, turn, and dispose of things as we please; but our object and bounden duty is historic truth. We are tied up to that standard inexorably by harsh and unbendable official documents, which, like the rocks about our coast, may not be shaken in their place or changed in their hard outline. The modern researches in the archives of the Tower and the State Paper Office, and the publication of many of the documents there remaining, the journals of the Lords and Commons, the rolls of Parliament and the patent rolls, and the mass of original letters collected by Howell, Ellis, Nicolas, &c., enable us and compel us to draw a somewhat different picture from that which was presented to the last generation. In our portraiture of “ good Queen Bess” we have used the facts left under the very hands of herself and her ministers, and from these there can be no appeal. On the other hand, it should be remembered by those who are startled into too severe a judgment of this queen, that the Elizabethan age, though the bright dawn of happier times, lies far behind our own in moral strength and purity ; that the darkness of the Middle Ages was not yet quite banished, and threw still its shadow even upon high places; and that consequently our verdict upon this great and imperious monarch must have its just relation to those precedents and traditions which no longer attach to the throne.

Again, some readers may be ready to accuse us of placing the Roman Catholics of those times in too favourable a light. We can only reply that the same undoubted authorities have guided our pen. We will yield to no man in our attachment to Protestant principles, nor in our estimation of their paramount truth and value. We regard the liberation of mind effected by the Reformation as the source of all our present blessings, and our national preeminence. We believe that our firm stand by the truths of the Bible, and the spirit of liberty and law which is their direct result, is the reason why the Almighty has seen fit to place us at the head of nations, and to give to the language, the institutions, the dominion, and the glory of England a pre-eminence and an expanse such as no nation ever before enjoyed ; that this is the secret of our invincible arms in all quarters of the globe, of our being chosen as the founders of the new and vast people of North America, of India, South Africa, and Australia, who form the links of a chain of British life, enlightenment, manliness, and religious reverence which encircles the globe as with an imperial zone. But as we hold and must hold the right of every man to maintain the independence of his creed and conscience, we are bound as citizens and subjects to deal out justice and impartiality to Roman Catholics as to Protestants ; and were we to sketch and colour the religious partisans of the periods over which we have passed in this Volume, not by the undoubted documents which those times furnish, but by the colours in which the opponents on each side arrayed them to themselves, we should commit a gross and unpardonable violation of the truth of history, and be unworthy to hold the high and responsible position of the narrators of the veritable past in its manysided completeness.

In our next Volume we shall be called on to detail the progress of still greater events and changes, the conflict of the monarchical and the national will, the overthrow of thrones and intolerance, and to hail the rising of the British Constitution as it now exists out of the waters of this agitated sea of antagonistic principles.

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FRONTISPIECE--Entry of Anne Boleyn

into London. Louis XI. and the Herald Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Henry

VI, and Edward IV. Jueen Elizabet? Wydville, with her chil.

dran, taking Sanctuary at Westminster Edward V. The Death of Clarence Parting of Queen Elizabeth Wydvillo and

her son, the Duke of York The Penance of Jane Shore... Great Seal of Edward V. Richard III. Great Seal of Biebard III. The Murder of the Prinees in the Tower Battle of Bosworth Field. Lord Stanley bringing the Crown of Richard to Rich.

mood - Jockey of Norfolk," killed at Bosworth House of the 15th Century, in which

Richard is said to have slept on the

night before the Battle of Bosworth ... Tournament, Harl. MS., 4,379 Criminals conducted to Execution, 15th

Centary. Harl. MS., 4,374 Execution of a Criminal, from a MS. of

Froissart's Chronides, 15th Century Prisr preaching from a movable Pulpit,

Royal MS., 14 E, 3 Isabel Hervey, Abbess of Elstow, from a

Brass Pilgrim buying a Glass Mirror. "From a MS. of Lydgate's Poem of "The Pil

grim” Parish Priest in Ordinary Costume, and

attired for the Altar, 15th Century Earl Rivers presenting William Caxton to

Edward VI. From a MS in the library of Lambeth Palace... Fac-simile from the Bible printed at May

ence in 1450, by Gutenberg Fragment Fac-simile of the 98th page of

the Psalter, printed at Mayence in 1457 Pac-simile of Caxton's Printing in the

• Dictes and Sayings of Philosophers,"

printed in 1477 Copyist at Work Physician bleeding a Patient, Harl MS., Abbot Whethamstede of St. Albans, from

the register book of the Abbey... Richard IIL and his Queen, engraved

from the Warwick roli Mason and Carpenter of the 15th Century,

MS. Reg. 15 E. 11 Gatehouse of the Priory at Montacute,

Somersetshire Gatehouse at Helmingham, Suffolk Rei Mount Chapel, at Lynn, Norfolk Window of Crosby Hall, London... Buttress of Beauchamp Chapel Staircase at Charlton House, Kent Fireplace at Charlton House, Kent Bay Window at Speke Hall Smithell's Hall, Lancashire Staircase leading to the Chapel, Smithell's

Hall Amusements of People of Rank, 15th

Century, Harl. MS., 4,425 Organ of the 14th Century, MS. 175, Imp.

Lib. of Paris... Cannon of the 15th Century, MS. Reg.,14

E. iv. ... Hand-gun, reiga of Edward IV., MS.

Reg., 15 É. is. Cannon, end of 15th Century. From an

engraving by J. Van Mechlin Soldier in a Floating Battery, with Hand

gan fitted on Stock. Printed at Verona

in 1472 ... Ship of War and Galley of the 150h Cen


PAGE Groat of Richard III.

65 Penny of Richard IIL

65 Half-groat of Henry V.

65 Angel of Edward IV.

65 Hall-groat of Edward IV.

65 Bedstead of the 15th Century. From a

MS. romance of the Comte d'Artois 66 Bedroom Furniture, time of Henry VI. Harl. MS., 2,278

66 Kitchen of the 15th Century. Harl. Ms., 4,375

66 The Knight's Return from the War. MS. in the British Museum

67 Costume of the Middle Classes in the

15th Century. Cotton MSS., Nero, D.7 68 Costume of Gentlemen, A.D. 1460. From a MS. History of Thebes...

68 Male Costume of Henry IV.'s reign. Harl. MS., 2,332

68 Ladies' Head-dresses

69 Costume of the eign of Henry V. Royal

MSS., 15 D 3
Lady Margaret Pennebrygg

69 Robert Skerne and Joan his wife. From a Brass

69 Female Costume. Royal MS. 16, G. 5 Male Costume. From various MSS.

Reign of Edward IV.
Hats and Caps. Harl MSS., 4,379-80 70
Ladies' Head-dresses. Harl MS., 2,278

From a MS. of
Froissart's Chronicles
Female Costume. From a MS. History

of Thebes
Couvrechef or Kerchief
Seals, Rings, and portions of Chains
From a Brass of Sir John Drayton
Knight in complete Armour, A.D. 1461-80
Mace, Hand-cannon, Hand-gun, and

72 Effigy of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, A.D. 1442-65

72 The Standards taken at Bosworth laid on the Altar of St. Paul's Cathedral

73 Great Seal of Henry VII.

75 Henry VII. Simnel presented to the Earl of Kildare. Elizabeth, Queen of Henry VII.

85 Remains of Bermondsey Abbey, in which

Queen Elizabeth Wydville was confined 90 An Old English Merrymaking, 15th Century

91 London in the 15th Century. From Royal MS. 16, F. 2...

97 Knight in complete Armour. Harl. MSS., 4,379-80

98 Bowmen of the 14th and 15th Centuries. 100 Beaulieu Abbey, where Perkin Warbeck took Sanctuary

102 Henry VII. at the Dispatch of Business. 103 The White Rose of Scotland

106 Thomas Stanley, first Earl of Derby 109 The Port of Weymouth

114 Interior of Henry VII.'s Chapel in Westminster Abbey

115 Great Seal of Henry VIII. ..

120 Curious Antique Clock, belonging to Henry VIII....

120 Henry VIII.

121 Death of Gaston de Foix, at Ravenna 126 The Battle of Spurs

127 Costume of an English Gentleman in the time of Henry VIII.

130 Lady in the time of Henry VIII.

130 Great Ship of King Henry VIII. ... 132 The Shrine of Prince Arthur, brother of

Henry VIII., in Worcester Cathedral, 133 The Lord Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 138 The Scottish Peers demanding the Children of Queen Margaret ...

139 Henry VIII., Catherine of Arragon, and Thomas Wolsey


PAGE King Henry VIII. retiring from Council 145 Meeting of Henry VIII. and Francis I. on the Field of the Cloth of Gold

150 The Field of the Cloth of Gold. From a

Bas - relief on the Hôtel du Bourtheroulde, at Rouen

151 Execution of the Duke of Buckingham... 154 The City of Bruges-Palace of the Franks 156 Queen Catherine of Arragon

157 Hampton Court Palace, the Residence of Cardinal Wolsey

159 Erasmus and Sir Thomas More

162 Windsor Castle

163 Old Greenwich Palace, as it appeared in the Reign of Henry VIII.

168 King Henry VIII. and his Council. From Hall's Chronicle

168 Francis I., King of France, taken Pri. soner at the Battle of Pavia

169 Louise reading of the Capture of the King

174 Bird's-eye View of Rhodes in the 16th

Century. From an ancient Manuscript 175 Bondoir of Anne Boleyn, in the Gateway of Hever Castle

178 Hever Castle, Kent. "Residence of Anne Boleyn...

180 Entrance to Wolsey's College, Ipswich... 181 Queen Anne Boleyn

186 Ball at old Greenwich Palace. Henry

VIII. dancing with Anne Boleyn 187 Ante-chamber in Hever Castle, Kent: Residence of Anne Boleyn

192 Trial of Queen Catherine

193 The Dismissal of Cardinal Wolsey 198 Wolsey at Leicester

199 Ruins of Leicester Abbey, the Scene of the Death of Cardinal Wolsey

202 Thomas Cranmer

204 Private Marriage of Anne Boleyn to Henry VIII. ...

205 Cardinal Pole

210 Place of Execution within the Tower of London

211 Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex

216 Margaret Roper taking leave of her

Father, Sir Thomas More, on the Tower

217 Tomb of Catherine of Arragon in Peter

borough Cathedral... Arrest of Anne Boleyn

223 Chapel on the Tower Green, where Anne Boleyn was buried...

228 Henry VIII. at the Royal Hunt in Epping

Forest, on the morning of the Execution of Anne Boleyn

229 Jane Seymour ...

23 The Pilgrimage of Grace

235 Miles Coverdale

240 Henry VIII. delivering the translated Bible to his Lords

241 Anne of Cleves...

246 Henry VIII. granting the Charter to the

Worshipful Company of Barber-Surgeons

247 City Watchmen of the time of Henry VIIL

252 The Block and Axe in the Tower of London

252 Old Richmond Palace

253 Queen Catherine Howard

258 King Henry and his Parliament. From an Engraving of the period

259 Henry VIII. delivering the Translated

Bible to the Lords. From Cranmer's

212 Chained Bibles set up in the Churches,

by the order of Henry VIII. Instruments of Torture used in the reign of Henry VIII., and still preserved in the Tower of London

tury, Harl MS. 4,3749

264 Domestic Architecture in the reign of

Henry VIII. Old Houses at Shrewsbury 265

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