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PUBLISHED BY GRAY AND BOWEN;
HILLIARD, GRAY, AND CO.; CARTER AND HENDEE ; AND RICHARDSON, LORD,

AND HOLBROOK. — NEW YORK, G, AND C. AND H. CARVILL. — PHILA-
DELPHIA, JOHN GRIGG; AND CAREY AND HART. - - BALTIMORE, E. J.
COALE. — CINCINNATI, C, D. BRADFORD AND CO.
Checked

say 1913

DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS, TO WIT.

DISTRICT CLERK'S OFFICE. Be it remembered, that on the eleventh day of November, A. D. 1830, in the fiftyfifth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Gray & Bowen, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:-"The American Almanac and Re pository of Useful Knowledge, for the Year 1831." In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled “An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned”; and also to an act, entitled “An act supplementary to an act, entitled, "An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."

JNO. W. DAVIS,
Clerk of the District of Massachusetts.

CAMBRIDGE:

PRINTED BY E. W. METCALF AND COMPANY,

Printers to the University.

PREFACE.

“The main object of this work," as was stated in the first volume, “is utility.” The Conductors engaged in the design under the impression that such a work was wanted by a numerous class in the community, and that, if well executed, it would meet with a good degree of success; and they have been gratified by the manner in which their attempt has been received.

In this volume the general character and design of the work remain unaltered; though the plan has been, in some particulars, changed. The first volume was divided into five parts ; but the contents of this, though embracing as great a variety of subjects, have been formed into two general divisions, the First Part comprising the topics corresponding to those of the first two parts of the former volume, and the Second Part, the topics corresponding to those of the other three parts. For explanations respecting the astronomical department, the reader is referred to the Preliminary Observations of Mr. Paine, who has executed this portion with great labor and ability.

The large space occupied by the numerous and interesting details relating to the great eclipse of the 12th of February, has rendered it necessary to postpone several articles corresponding to those of the second part of the first volume.

The Second Part of the present volume is particularly characized by containing a view of the general and state governments, the constitution of the United States, the executive government, the national legislature and judiciary, outlines of the constitutions of the several states, and complete lists of their governors from the first organization of the respective governments. This informa, tion is of permanent value, and will be useful, for reference, at any future period; but that portion of it which is unchangeable, having now been inserted in this volume, will not need to be repeated in the volumes which may follow.

The plan adopted with respect to the articles relating to the several states has left less space than could be wished for the notice of foreign countries; and although the information given respecting them will probably not be deemed an unimportant part of

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