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following means : First, by a perpetual check ; secondly, by the two king's remaining alone on the field of battle; thirdly, by each king having only a single piece at the end of the game, without any local advantage on either side; fourthly, by the game being so situated, that both sides are on the defensive, and neither will be the first to yield and lose the advantage of his situation, and lastly, when the king, having lost all his men, is not mated in fifty moves, from the unskilfulness of his enemy, according to Law XVII.

LA TAVOLA-means that kind of drawn game which is occasioned by continual checks. The French term it, L'echec perpetuel.

GAMBIT, 1 Gambetto, L'ancarella, la Gambarola, Jambette, Croc en jambe.The real meaning of this word is doubtful ; it appears to be an expression borrowed from wrestling, when a man throws his adversary by a particular stroke of the leg. At Chess it means that kind of game which begins with pushing the king's and king's bishop's pawn two squares each, instead of making one defend the other ; or the queen's and queen's bishop's pawn.

The
pawn

first pushed is called the gambit-pawn: this game is founded rather on experiment than on system. The surrender of the pawn, indeed, is a common feature in all the gambits; but afterwards the moveş vary so much, and depend so greatly on the spirit of the player, that little connexion can be discovered. It appears, however, that a gambit, equally well played on both sides, will be indecisive; though the power, whith he who sacrifices the pawn has, of always attacking, will be fatal, unless-the other party play uniformly well the first ten or twelve moves.

It must be remarked, too, that playing the gambit is in no wise advantageous when a piece is given to the adversary.

EN PRISE.-A piece is said to be en prise, when it is in the adversary's power to

capture it.

85

CHAP. VI.

FRANKLIN'S MORALS OF CHESS.

T

he following little treatise on Chess might with great propriety have accompanied the anecdotes, expressive of the violent effects the game

has had on the mind and passions. It will not, however, unaptly precede the practical rules and directions, since the precepts laid down are so admirably calculated to allay, as well the transports of victory, as the chagrin of defeat, that it will not be amiss to consider them as forming an essential part

of the rules. This treatise was the production of Dr. Franklin ; whose comprehensive mind, like the proboscis of an elephant, was alike capable of wielding the most mighty, and grasping the most minute subject.

“ Playing at Chess is the most ancient and most universal game among men; for its original is beyond the memory of history, and it has, for numberless ages, been the amusement of all the civilized nations of Asia, the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese. Europe has had it above a thousand years ; the Spaniards have spread it over their part of America, and it begins lately to make its appearance in these States. It is so interesting in itself, as not to need the view of gain to induce engaging in it; and thence it is never played for money. Those, therefore, who have leisure for such diversions, cannot find one that is more innocent; and the following piece, written with a view to correct (among a few young friends) some little improprieties in the practice of it, shews, at the same time, that it may, in its effects on the mind, be not merely innocent, but advantageous, to the vanquished as well as the victor.

“ The game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement. Several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired or strengthened by it, so as to become habits, ready on all occasions. For life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effects of prudence or the want of it. By playing at Chess, then, we learn,

“ I. · Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may

attend an action : for it is continually occurring to the player, • If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation? What use can my adversary make of it to annoy me? What other moves can I make to support it, and defend myself from his attacks ?'

“ II. Circumspection, which surveys the whole chess-board, or scene of action ; the relation of the several pieces, and their situations ; the dangers they are repeatedly exposed to; the several possibilities of their aiding each other; the probabilities that the adversary may make this or that move, and attack this or that piece; and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.

“ III. Caution, not to make our moves too

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