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to mathematicians and chess-players, in great part of Europe, yet the secret by which he governed the motion of the arm had never been discovered. He prided himself solely on the construction of the mechanical powers by which the arm could perform ten or twelve moves; it then required to be wound up

like a watch; after which it was capable of continuing the same number of motions.

The automaton could not play unless M. De Kempelen, or his substitute, was near it to direct its moves. A small square box, during the game, was frequently consulted by the exhibitor : and herein consisted the secret, which he told Mr. Twiss he could in a moment communicate. He who could beat M. De Kempelen, was, of course, certain of conquering the automaton.

The strongest and best armed load-stone was allowed to be placed on the machine by any of the spectators.

. The Monthly Review for April 1784 says, that this automaton had beaten, amongst other great players, the celebrated Mr. Philidor. But this Mr. Twiss declares to be a

mistake; for that Mr. Philidor could give M. De Kempelen a castle and beat him.

It was the opinion of many that the whole was carried on by the help of a confederate, and a pamphlet was even published on the subject; but the minutest investigation has left no room for this suspicion.

Not altogether unconnected with the contents of this chapter is the account of a trick that may be played, of covering the sixty-four squares of the chess-board by the knight at as many moves. There are several ways of doing it; but the celebrated De Moivre having given one, which is nearly on a regular defined plan, it is presumed the reader will not be displeased at seeing it.

Supposing the squares to be numbered, beginning at the farthest left hand corner, the moves would be as follows:

The knight's first place would be on No. 8, second on 23, third on 40, fourth on 55, fifth on 61, sixth on 51, seventh on 57, eighth on 42, ninth on 25, tenth on 10, eleventh on 4, twelfth on 14, thirteenth on 24, fourteenth on 39, fifteenth on 56, sixteenth on 62, seventeenth on 52, eighteenth

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on 58, nineteenth on 41, twentieth on 26, twenty-first on 9, twenty-second on 3, twenty-third on 13, twenty-fourth on 7, twentyfifth on 22, twenty-sixth on 32, twentyseventh on 47, twenty-eighth on 64, twentyninth on 54, thirtieth on 60, thirty-first on 50, thirty-second on 33, thirty-third on 18, thirty-fourth on 1, thirty-fifth on 11, thirtysixth on 5, thirty-seventh on 15, thirty-eighth on 21, thirty-ninth on 6, fortieth on 16, forty-first on 31, forty-second on 48, fortythird on 63, forty-fourth on 53, forty-fifth on 59, forty-sixth on 49, forty-seventh on 34, forty-eighth on 17, forty-ninth on 2, fiftieth ón 12, fifty-first on 27, fifty-second on 44, fifty-third on 38, fifty-fourth on 28, fifty-fifth on 43, fifty-sixth on 37, fiftyseventh on 20, fifty-eighth on 35, fifty-ninth on 45, sixtieth on 30, sixty-first on 36, sixty-second on 19, sixty-third on 29, sixtyfourth on 46.

There is another trick, which will amuse the young player much more, called “ Philidor s Legacy:" whether it were written by that master or not, it is clever, and deserves notice; and the learner will find it inserted among the games.

51

CHAP. IV.

OF CHESS-PLAYERS, AND PUBLICATIONS

ON CHESS.

The following sovereigns were admirers of the game, and some of them great players.

The Emperor Charlemagne.
The Emperor Alexius Comnenus.
Richard Cour de Lion.
Tamerlane.
Sebastian, King of Portugal.
Philip II. King of Spain.
The Emperor Charles. V.
Catherine of Medicis, Queen of France.
Pope Leo X.
Henry IV. of France.
Queen Elizabeth.
Lewis XIII.
James I. King of England.
Lewis XIV.
William III.

Charles XII. King of Sweden.
Frederic, the late King of Prussia, &c.

The Prince De Tingry, a lieutenant-general in the French army, and knight of the Holy Ghost, died while playing at Chess.

The playing blind-folded, or with two or more antagonists at once, is not a novel thing. In the year 1266, there was at Florence a Saracen, named Buzecca, who played at one time at three chess-boards, with the best masters of Chess in Florence, playing with two by memory, and with the third by sight; two games he won, and the third he made a drawn game (by a perpetual check), which circumstance was at that time esteemed marvellous.

Salvio used to play blind-folded, as appears by his book.

Keysler, in his account of Turin, in 1749, says,

66 The late Father Sacchieri, of Turin, was a remarkable instance of the strength of human understanding, particularly that faculty which we term memory. He could play at Chess with three different persons at the same time, even without seeing any one of the chess-boards. He required no more

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