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in the opponent—and though last, not least, an unabstracted attention, and unshaken command of temper, during play, are the principal causes of the knowledge of the game, , and that excellence in it cannot fairly be taken as a criterion either of other faculties, or of other acquirements.

In order to place them in the most conspicuous light, and as containing the very essence of what this chapter is intended to convey, we may close it with these cautions, which may be considered, as well by the most experienced as the learner, the golden rules of Chess :

1. BEWARE OF OVERSIGHTS.

2. KEEP YOUR TEMPER; AND IF YOU

CANNOT GAIN A VICTORY OVER YOUR

ADVERSARY GAIN ONE OVER YOURSELF.

139

CHAP. IX.

PRACTICAL EXAMPLES, INTRODUCTORY TO

PHILIDOR'S ANALYSIS.

FROM

ROM an attentive examination of Philidor's mode of beginning a game, we may observe the following to be his general rules.

His FIRST MOVE was invariably the king's pawn two squares, and the defence the same, unless in cases where he gave up the king's bishop's pawn, when he would move either the king's knight to his rook's third square, or his queen's bishop's pawn two squares.

Wh. The K. Pawn 2 sq.

Bl. The same. His SECOND MOVE was almost as invariably the king's bishop to his queen's bishop's fourth square, in order to batter the adverse king's bishop's pawn, against which, in general, the serious attack was made.

Wh. K. Bishop at his Q. B. 4th sq.
Bl. 1. The same. Or
2. Q. B. Pawn 1 sq.

Or
3. K. Knight at his B. 3d.
The THIRD MOVE was according to the se-
cond move of the black; if that was the first
of the above three, then Philidor's was

Wh. Q. B. Pawn 1 sq. If the 2d. .
Wh. Q. Pawn 2 sq.

If the 3d,
Wh. Q. Pawn 1 sq.

His FOURTH MOVE was also depending on his adversary's third move: if, after Philidor's playing the first of the above three, he played his king's knight at his bishop's third square, Philidor's was

Wh. Q. Pawn 2 sq. This was generally followed by a mutual capture of the king's and queen's pawns, by which means the white was left with two pawns in the centre.

in the centre. But if instead of the knight he brought out his queen,

then Wh. K. Knight at K. B. 3d sq. If the moves went according to Philidor's second kind of third move, and the black king's pawn took his

pawn,

his

queen would

1

retaliate, and his king's pawn remain alone in the centre.

It is impossible to trace this farther with any degree of clearness, the learner must now, therefore, proceed with his own deductions and conclusions: he will, however, find several beginnings of games, a few pages hence, so classed, as to render the difference in them obvious, and his future progress will be founded on an attentive study of Philidor's parties.

FOOL'S MATE. This mate is given in two moves only. It is so called because the mode of playing in the party who begins is highly absurd. Nevertheless, it is thought necessary to give it, to put the young player on his guard.

1.
Bl. The K. Kt. Pawn 2

sq.
Wh. The K. Pawn 1

sq.

2.

Bl. The K. B. Pawn 2

sq Wh. The Queen at the bl. K. R. 4th sq.

and gives checkmate, the black king being able neither to move out of check, nor to interpose any of his pieces.

SCHOLAR'S MATE. The next speedy mode to the above of giving checkmate is called Scholar's Mate, and is effected as follows:

1 Wh. The K. Pawn 2 sq. Bl. The same.

2. Wh. The K. Bishop at the Q. B. 4th sq. Bl. The same.

3. Wh. The Queen at the bl. K. R. 4th sq. Bl. The Q. Pawn 1 sq.

4. Wh. The Q. takes the K. B. Pawn and gives

checkmate. The black King not being able to take her on account of the white Bishop which protects her, neither can he move out nor in

terpose any piece in his defence. There are many ways of evading this stratagem, which is rarely attempted except

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