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he might have moved to, but on that lying diagonally before him on the right or ft.

The power of taking is reciprocal ; so that any

adverse piece you can take, may take

you. The goodness of play, therefore, consists in having the greatest number of pieces defending, so that in case of mutual exchanges you may gain more than your adversary. The power of taking is also general ; and is inherent in the pawn as well as in the king, queen, &c. each taking every thing within its range. It is also optional ; as the beautiful variety of the game

would be lost were it otherwise, as at Draughts.

A piece guards another, when he is so placed that he might capture the one guarded were he an adversary; so that the protection arises from the fear of reprisal. The king alone must be defended by placing his guard between him and the danger, as he must not in any case be taken.

The arrangement of the pieces, according to their real powers, is as follows :-Pawn, Knight, King, Bishop, Rook, Queen. The power each may be said to possess is about

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The value of each is commensurate with the power, except that of the pawn and the king. If the pawn's chance of promotion be taken into the question, his value will be 4]. And the nature of the game, making the king inviolable, his value is above all calculation.

The knowledge of these powers is necessary, in order to appreciate exchanges that may

be offered. But, as every player's mode must differ, the learner will himself fix an imaginary value, depending on his own and his adversary's prevailing method.





The laws, as established under the authority of Philidor, are thus elegantly introduced by him :—“ The laws, or constitutions of a game are originally established, either to prevent or decide contests; because, by defining what is in itself indefinite, by determining that which, without any explanation, would be uncertain, they put an end to all obstinacy and dispute. These statutes, founded at first in reason, consecrated afterwards by custom, confirmed at length by the practice of the best players, and the approbation of the most illustrious

be reduced to the XVII following Laws; which the Society or Club of Chess in England have adopted for their code.”

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I. The chess-board must be turned in such a manner, that both players may have the white square at their right hands.

II. He that gives a piece is supposed to have the move, unless it be agreed otherwise. In

games without odds, lots must be cast for the move; afterwards it becomes alternate.

III. If a pawn or piece has been forgotten at the beginning of the game, it will be in the adversary's choice, either to begin the game afresh, or to go on, permitting nevertheless the piece forgotten to be again set in

its place.

IV. If it is agreed to give the advantage of a piece or a pawn, and it has been forgotten at the beginning of the game, it will be left to the choice of him who has suffered by such a mistake, to go on with the game, or to begin it again.

V. A piece once touched must be played, unless it is said, in touching it, j'adoube *: but if by chance it is displaced or overturned, it will be allowed to put it right, and set it again in its place.

VI. If you touch one of your adversary's pieces without saying j'adoube, he has a right to oblige you to take it, and in case it was not takeable, you, who have touched it, must play your king, if

king, if you can.

VII. When one has quite left a piece, he cannot take it again, to play to another place; but so long as he keeps his hold of it, he is at liberty to play it where he pleases.

VIII. Whoever' makes a false move, must play his king, as in Law VI. but no false

* " I replace.” It is a word made use of only at Chess, or Tric-track when a person touching a piece intimates that he does it only to adjust, and not to play it. The word seems to have arisen from radouber, to refit or repair a ship.

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