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frame'its of what fineness they thought fit; they were bejely furnished with strings for their bows. .
*"The success of our unfortunate islanders in making the spears, and the use these pioved of, encouraged them to proceed; and to forge some pieces of iron into heads of arrows of the same shape, thoagh somewhat smaller in: size than the spears above mentioned. Having ground and sharpened these like the former, they tied them with the sinews of the white' bears to pieces of fit, ' to which by the help of fine threads of the same, they fastened feathers of sea fowl, and thus became possessed of a complete bow and arrows. Their ingenuity in this respect was crowned with success far beyond their expectation, for during the time of their continuance upon the island, with these arrows, they had killed no less than 250 rein. deers besides a great number of blue and white foxes. ...
The flesh of these animals' served them also for food, and their skins for necessary preservatives against the intense coldness of a climate so near the pole. .
They killed however, only ten white bears in all, and that not without the utmost danger, for those animals beo ing prodigiously strong, defended themselves with astonishing vigour and fury. The first our men attacked designedly, the other nine they slew in defending themselves from their assaults, for some of these creatures even ven. tured to enter the outer room of their hut, in order to devour them.
. A repetition, however, of these ferocious attacks threw the poor men into great terror, as they were in perpetual danger of being devoured.', " H!!. . .
The three different kinds of animals above mentioned, viz. The rein-deer, the blue and white foxes, and the white bears, were the only food those wretched mariners
tasted during their continuance in this dreary abode.
We do not at once see every resource. It is generally necessity that quickens our invention, opening by degrees our eyes, and pointing out expedients which others wise might not have occurred to our thought. The truth of this observation, our four sailors experienced in various instances. They were for some time reduced to the necessity of eating their meat raw, and without either bread or salt, for they were quite destitute of both.
-The intenseness of the cold, together with the want of proper conveniences, prevented them from cooking their victuals in a proper manner. There was but one stove in the hut, and that being set up agreeable to the Russian taste, was more like an oven, and consequently not well adapted for boiling any thing. Wood also was too precious a commodity to be wasted in keeping up two fires, and the one they might have made out of their habitation to dress their victuals would in no way serve to warm them.
Another reason against cooking in the open air, was the continual danger of an attack from the white bears. And here I must observe, that suppose they had made the attempt, it would still have been practicable only for some part of the year for the cold, which in such a climate, scarcely ever abates from the absence of the sun during six tedious months, the inconceivable quantity of snow which is constantly falling through the greatest part of the winter, together with the unceasing rains at certain seasons ; all these were insurmountable obstacles to that
expedient. - To remedy, therefore, in some degree, the hardship of eating their meat half raw, they bethought themselves
of drying some of their provisions during the summer, in the open air, and afterwards of hanging it up in the upper part of their hut, which, as mentioned before, was continually filled with smoke down to the windows ; it was thus dried thoroughly by the help of that smoke. This meat, so prepared, they used for bread, and it made them relish their other flesh the better, as they could only half dress it. Finding this experiment answer in every respect their wishes, they continued to practise it during the whole time of their confinement upon the island, and always kept up by that means a good stock of provisions.
In this critical juncture, let us take a view of these destitute Christians ; famine in a manner still continued their doorkeeper, while cold almost froze up the passage of life in every vein, their misery was likewise augmented to a great degree, from the dreadful apprehensions of fal. ling a prey to the fatal ravages of wild beasts ; waich fre. quently encompassed their little hut.
In this deplorable condition, the Almighty distributor of earthly events, caused hope once more to revive within theni; who can imagine the exte.cy with which their breasts were filled on beholding a ship making for the land. She proved to be a Russian, drove out of her course by a strong gale of wind; they were then taken on board the vessel, and safely conducted to their own country :-their deliverance was accomplished on the 29th of August, 1781.
Note-We shall notice several of the authors, from whom extracts are made, in the Index at the conclusion of the volume; and to those, to whom we are considerably indebted, respectful acknowledgements will be made in the Preface.
On the Utility of Periodical Publications.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHEAP MAGAZINE. .
IT was with the most lively interest that I perused your Prospectus, for so cheap a Repository of Amusement and Instruction, as I fondly hope your publication will prove itself to be. I have recommended it to the patronage of all the friends and acquaintances I could get access to ;-and I trust the country at large will coine forward to encourage a publication of so laudable a tendency, as to instruct the lower orders of society, and lead them to habits of reflection, industry, subordination and contentment, and at so easy a rate as your pages propose to do.
The shocking scenes which disgraced the streets of the metropolis at the commencement of last year, are fresh in the recollection of us all, and seem to have roused all the energy and benevolence of the country for striking at the root of this alarming evil.m-viz. the ignorance and consequent dissoluteness of the youth of the humbler walks of life. Periodical publications have been always held in great esteem in this country, especially since the SPECTATORS made their first appearance; which gave a Dew tone to the taste and manners of the country. But such works, excellent as they generally are, are beyond the reach of the multitude ; but this defect, I hope, shall be amply supplied by a wide circulation of The CHEAP MAGAZINE.
Short extracts from publications of merit; memoirs of eminent characters, who have raised themselves from the shades of obscurity and humble life, by their talents and virtues ; as also, select passages from the sacred writings, (familiarly commented upon) pointing out the social, relative, and great duties of life, should be frequently admitted into your columns.
I send you enclosed an Extract from the Biblical Pictures of the late amiable GRAHAME, author of " The Sabbath,”-and an attempt to paraphrase the iv. of Job and vii. chapter of Proverbs, to which you are welcome, if you think you can insert them in your Magazine*. In that case, I hope the duties connected with a laborious avocation, will excuse many inaccuracies, on account of the motive which induced the writer to send these--a desire to promote the lasting welfare of the rising generation, and to induce abler pens to step forward to entice them into' the ways of wisdom, which are pleasant, and whose patlis are peace.
With every good wish for the success of your present undertaking, and for your health and happiness in conducting it,
I am, &c. s—th–n, 7
PHILOJUVENIS, 1 January, 1813. S
* The Extract alluded to will be found in the Poetical Department of this number; but we hope our Correspondent will excuse us not availing ourselves farther of his kind favours for the present.
The Origin of Cock-Fighting. MEN have long availed themselves of the antipathy one cock shews to another, and have encouraged that natural hatred with arts that disgrace human reason. The 'origin of this sport is said to be derived from the Athenians on the following occasion: When Themosticles was