General Outline of the Organisation of the Animal Kingdom: And Manual of Comparative Anatomy

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J. Van Voorst, 1855 - 842 Seiten
 

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Arrangement of the digestive apparatus according to Ehrenberg
xxxix
CHAPTER I
1
Homogangliata or Articnlata 7 22
7
Spermatozoa 1338
13
Organisation of Nicothoa astaci 4581193
17
ProteidceA mueba diffluent 2052
20
Currents visible in the living sponge 26 68
26
Ciliograda
27
Their external anatomy 4081061
32
CHAPTER III
43
General remarks on the Myriapoda
50
Organisation of the common polypary
57
CHAPTER IV
65
External organisation of Talitra
66
Mechanism of the oral tentacula 70182
70
CHAPTER XVIII
72
Beproduction of Hydra viridu
77
Cilia 8181
81
Structure of polyps
84
Beproduction by cuttings
92
Diffused condition of the vital principle
107
Reproductive organs 4851251
111
Vascular apparatus
119
CHAPTER VI
127
Structure of alimentary canal
147
General description 65172
172
Reproduction of Actinia 68
178
Development of the embryo 68178
193
Senses 202 594
202
Structure of articulated appendages
204
Locomotive apparatus of Starfish
209
Dermic secretions
215
Ambulacral suckers
221
Caecal appendages to the stomach
228
General sensibility of the Kchinodermata
231
Mode of their articulation with the shell
238
Development of embryo
244
Their power of destroying shellfish
247
Structure of the heart in the Scolopendride
248
Casting of the shell in Crustacea
251
Hepatic apparatus
259
Circulatory system
265
Generative organs of male Scolopendra
271
Vascular system of Asterias
272
Nervous system
278
Organisation of the Pycnogonida
280
Male apparatus of PaUlla 5441425
289
General description of the Acalepha 101291
291
Mechanism of the stem of Vorticella 3384
297
Development and growth of Julus lerrestris Observations of
311
Characters of the class 466 1208
328
Male generative organs
332
CHAPTER XV
335
Hthenoptera
348
Organisation of mouth 409 1063
358
General history of the Entozoa 127
359
Crop or suckingstomach
362
Trichina spiralis 129 864
365
Anatomy of Tania solium 130366
366
Gastric glands
369
Singular respiratory apparatus of Trombidium 410 1066
371
Structure of the ovum 134372
372
taste
375
Segments of the Strobile enjoy a community of life 136378
378
Inquiry concerning vision with compound eyes
382
Generative apparatus 411 1072
383
Van Benedens account of the metamorphoses of Tttrarynch 137384
384
Diffused condition of the bloodsystem of Insects
390
Diatoma Fasciola Linn hepalicum 139391
391
male generative organs 140
397
Muscular irritability
400
Monostomum mutabile 145
410
Senses of the ClRBHOPODA 4711215
439
Generative apparatus of Distoma perlatum 156444
444
Nematoneurose condition of the nervous system in the Calelmintha 156
445
Lacunar system in the Crustacea
446
Caecal appendages to alimentary canal met with in some species 159
451
Sensitive and motor tracts of nervous system
453
Olfactory apparatus 472 1216
455
Anatomy of Bowerbankia densa 161
457
Process of digestion 163
464
Muscular system of Bowerbankia 165
470
Cuvicr 474 1219
471
Arrangement of the polypcells 166476
476
Complemenial male 474 1221
477
Structure of tegumentary sac 167
482
Vascular system
484
CHAPTER XXI
486
Mechanism of opercular lid 1694S8
489
Sacculi
494
Reproduction by true ova 171
497
Adductor muscle
499
Arrangement of the viscera
501
Development of embryo 172503
503
Growth and formation of shelly valves
507
Anatomy of Cristatella mncedo 174508
508
CHAPTER XXIII
515
Circulatory system replaced by ciliary action 176
516
Sacculus calcareus regarded as performing the function of a kidney
521
Circulating system of the Gasteropoda
522
General characters of the class 177
523
Cause of apparent rotatory movement 180
529
Arrangement of digestive system 183
535
Excrementitious secretions of Aplysia
541
Nervous system of Itotifera 187544
544
Female apparatus of Patella 5i5J6
546
Tentacular apparatus 188
551
Structure of Jaws
553
General type of structure 254715
555
Water vascular system 191
557
Eyes of the Cephalopoda 5881541
562
Generative system of Asplanchnia 193563
563
Review of the classes composing the Homogangliate division of
565
General history of the Epizoa 195
570
Formation of the shell of Nautilus
571
Structure of cephalic arms
572
Respiratory system
577
Rudimentary articulated appendages 198
579
Posterior subxsophageal ring comparable to the medulla oblongata
583
Nervous system 199585
585
Nature of the eye of Nautilus 5881542
589
Structure of the ear in Sepia officinalis 5941557
598
CHAPTER XIII
599
Elements of the skeleton 6031581
605
Composition of typical vertebrate skeleton 610 1603
612
Sympathetic system 613 1608
660
Senses of the Vertebrata 6131609
719
General characters of the class 258728
728
Abranohiata 259729
729
Mechanism of dental saws 262
735
Circulatory system of the Leech 265741
741
Splanchnic ganglionic nerves of ditto 270
747
Generative system of the Leech as deciphered by Dr Williams 272
753
Abranchia terricola 275
762
Generative system of the Earthworm 280773
773
Evolution of ova 284779
779
Generative system of Nais after Duges 287
785
Capability of reproducing lost parts 291
791
DoRSIBRANCniATA 294
797
Spines of Aphrodite aculcata 296
803
Alimentary canal of the Dorsibranchiate Annelida 299
809
in Eunice sanguinea 302
815
Respiratory apparatus of Arenicola 306
825
Multiplication by gemmation 311
833

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Seite 652 - The eye itself differs in many points of structure from that of terrestrial Vertebrata, its organization being of course adapted to bring the rays of light to a focus upon the retina in the denser element in which the fish resides ; the power of the crystalline lens is therefore increased to the utmost extent, and the antero-posterior diameter of the eye-ball necessarily contracted in the same ratio, in order that the retina may be placed exactly in the extremely short focus of the powerful lens.
Seite 388 - The process was described for its better intelligibility in the Aphides as one of a simple succession of single individuals, but it is much more marvellous in nature. The firstformed larva of early spring procreates not one but eight larvae like...
Seite 222 - ... structure of the penis. The result of our own examination, in more than one species, is different still. We have always found the earthy matter forming a jointed calcareous tube. This tube, which is about the thickness of a surgeon's probe, is composed of rings of calcareous substance connected by membrane, so that viewed externally it is not unlike the windpipe of a small animal.
Seite 799 - ... with each other. The medulla spinalis is surrounded with a network of arteries in the same manner, more especially where it comes out from the brain, where a thick substance is formed by their ramifications and convolutions ; and these vessels most probably anastomose with those of the thorax.
Seite 569 - ... took one the day after the first experiment, and found that the aperture was covered by a thin glutinous lamina, which, somewhat in the manner of a cobweb, unites the two margins of the broken shell. The next day the lamina was, to a certain degree, thickened and more opaque, till, at the expiration of ten or twelve days, the new piece had become quite calcareous. Whilst the Argonaut was in the act of mending the fractures in its shell, I am quite sure that it applied the sails to the shell and...
Seite 276 - The attenuated rings in the neighbourhood of the mouth are first insinuated between the particles of the earth, which, from their conical shape, they penetrate like a sharp wedge ; in this position they are firmly retained by the numerous recurved spines appended to the different segments ; the hinder parts of the body are then drawn forward by a longitudinal contraction of the whole animal — a movement which not only prepares the creature for advancing further into the soil, but by swelling out...
Seite 799 - Thus the heart and aorta of the Spermaceti Whale appeared prodigious, being too large to be contained in a wide tub, the aorta measuring a foot in diameter. When we consider these as applied to the circulation, and figure to ourselves that probably ten or fifteen gallons of blood are thrown out at one stroke, and moved with an immense velocity through a tube of a foot in diameter, the whole idea fills the mind with wonder.
Seite 385 - Reaumur has proved that in five generations one Aphis may be the progenitor of 5,904,900,000 (billions) descendants; and it is supposed that in one year there may be 20 generations...
Seite 450 - The poor beetle, which we tread upon, In corporal sufferance feels a pang as great As when a giant dies.
Seite 394 - ... temple like the blinders of a horse ; and next, having by means of the joint at your chin let down the whole apparatus and uncovered your face, employ them in seizing any food that presented itself, and conveying it to your mouth. Yet this procedure is that adopted by the larvae provided with this strange organ.

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