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Cambridge. According to his own statement, he was made a poet by the perusal of Spenser, whose works were wont to lie in his mother's parlour. A volume of poems, entitled Poetic Blossoms, was published by him at the age of 15, and one of the pieces contained therein was written when he was 10 years old. At Cambridge he obtained distinction through the elegance of his translations; and while there, he composed the greater part of the Davideis, an epic in four books—a work which he never completed. He was attached to the court party, and, in consequence, was ejected from his college in 1643, after he had taken his degree of M.A. In 1646, he followed the queen to Paris, in which city he remained ten years; and on his return to England, being under suspicion, he was seized and bound in heavy securities for his future behaviour. In the same year, he published an edition of his poems, with a preface, in which certain passages appeared, supposed to have a political Dealing, which were suppressed in subsequent editions. After the Restoration, he expected to obtain the mastership of the Savoy, but was disappointed. He subsequently obtained a lease of the queen's lands at Chertsey, in Surrey, whither he retired in 1665. He died in July 1667, in his 49th year, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, near Chaucer and Spenser. In 1675, a monument was erected to his memory by the Duke of Buckingham.

Although almost forgotten now, the time was when C.'s poetry was considered equal to Shakspeare's or Spenser's. It certainly possesses merits of ingenuity and verbal brilliancy. He is often splendid, but it is the splendour of the rocket rather than of the glowworm or the star. Wis prose is more natural than his verse, and some of its passages reach a stately eloquence, reminding the reader of the magnificent prose of Milton.

COWLEY, Henry Richard Wellesley, first Earl (his father being first Baron Cowley, better known as Sir Henry Wellesley), an English diplomatist of liberal opinions, was born in 1804. He early devoted himself to diplomatic pursuits. An attachS at Vienna in 1824, he was afterwards successively promoted to be secretary to the legation at Stuttgart, and to the embassy at Constantinople. Having acted as minister-plenipotentiary to Switzerland, and afterwards to Frankfurt, he was (1851) appointed minister to the Germanic Confederation, and in the following year he succeeded the Marquis of Nonuanby as ambassador at Paris. For this position he has displayed such eminent qualifications that he has ever since continued to hold the appointment, whether his party was in or out of office. Along with the Earl of Clarendon, he represented Great Britain at the Paris Congress of 1856; and it has been greatly owing to nis tact and temper that the ill feeling that has occasionally oozed out Bince that time between the two countries has not resulted in more serious disagreement

COW-PEN BIRD (Mohlhna pecoris), also called Cow Bird, Cow Troopial, Cow Blackbird, Cow Bunting, 4c., a bird nearly allied to the Baltimore Birds and Troopials, having a short, conical beak, and remarkable for its habit of depositing its eggs, like the cuckoo, in the nests of other birds. It is a uative of North America, common in some of the southern states in winter, and migrating northward in spring. Great flocks are sometimes seen together. The C. B. is about seven inches in entire length, of glossy brownish black plumage. It derives its name from its frequenting cow-pens, to feed on the insects contained in, or attracted by the dung. It selects

for the reception of its eggs the nests of birds smaller than itself, and by an interesting provision of nature, its egg, which is not much larger than theirs, is hatched sooner, and theirs appear to bo generally removed as addled eggs.

COW'PER, William, an English poet, was born on the 26th November 1731, in the parsonage house of Great Berkhamstead. His father, who was chaplain to George II., married Ann, daughter of Roger Donne, Esq. of Ludham Hall, in Norfolk. This ladjr expired in childbirth in 1737, leaving two sons, William, the poet, and John. This event made a deep impression on C.'s mind; and the lines addressed to his mother's portrait have drawn more tears than any other poem in the English language.

C. was a delicate and sensitive child, and boyhood brought with it only deeper melancholy and depression. At the age of six he was placed at a considerable school, kept by a Dr Pitman, in Market Street, Hertfordshire. The period he spent here was very miserable, and laid the foundation of that settled gloom which oppressed him till death. It is to the remembrance of these wretched days that we are indebted for the fierce invective that burns in the somewhat one-sided Tirocinium, or a Review of Schools. C. completed his studies at Westminster School, and shortly after was articled to a Mr Chapman, an attorney in London.

After completing his three years' articles with Mr Chapman, C. went, in 1752, to reside in the Middle Temple. In 1754 he was called to the bar, but never practised. His father died in 1756, and left him a small patrimony. In 1759 he removed to the Inner Temple; and although at this period he expected to secure Borne legal appointment through the influence of his family, he hated law with a perfect hatred, and seldom opened a book that bore on his profession. Yet he was industrious enough: he scribbled poetry, read Homer, and, in conjunction with his brother, translated Borne of the books of the Henriade. Soon after his settlement in the Inner Temple, he was appointed a Commissioner of Bankrupts; but there is no reason to believe that he ever entered on the duties of his office. An influential relative now offered him the office of Clerk of the Journals of the House of Lords, which was accepted; but he, having to undergo an examination at the bar of the House, was seized with nervousness, and could not appear. At this period his misery was so great, that he meditated suicide, but fortunately failed to carry out his intentions for want of courage. In December 1763 he was removed to the house of Dr Cotton at St Albans—a prey to the deepest remorse.

C.'s pecuniary means had suffered considerably by the loss of his appointments, but his friends contrived to make up an income sufficient for his wants. After his removal from St Albans, he went to reside in the town of Huntingdon. Here he formed acquaintance with Mrs Unwin, the Mary of his poems—an acquaintance which ripened into the deepest friendship, and which subsisted till death. He went to reside with the Unwins, and enjoyed much tranquil happiness under that religious roof. When on a visit, in January 1773, to the Rev. Mr Newton, a friend of the Unwins, and a man of sincere piety, but, from the peculiar cast of his religious views, perhaps not the best physician ' to minister to a mind diseased,' his malady returned. Mrs Uuwin carefully tended him through the crisis of • his delirium, and through his long and slow recovery. When convalescent, he betook himself to writing hymns along with Mr Newton, and to domesticating hares, with the particulars and little incidents of which amusement the world is pleasantly familiar. Mrs Unwin also suggested, as a subject suited to his

COW PLANT—COWLEY.

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Cow Parsnip Fruit.

in at the middle, and flat compressed fruit. One species only is a native of Britain, the Common C. P.

or Hog-weed, called Kieah in Scotland; a common and rank weed, with coarsely hairy leaves, and stem about 3—5 feet high. It is gathered in some parts of England for fattening hogs, and is said to afford wholesome food for cattle. Some Siberian species are much larger, and have been recommended for cultivation on account of the great quantity of herbage which they yield very early in the season, particularly //. panaces, which sometimes attains a height of 10 feet, and the root leaves are 3—5 feet long.

COW PLANT (Gymncma lactiferum), a perennial plant of the natural order A sclepiadaeece, a native of Ceylon; with erect stem, ovate leaves, and very short umbels; which has acquired a factitious celebrity from the statement made and often repeated that its milky juice is used as a substitute for milk, and that its leaves are boiled to supply the want of cream! But this, according to Sir J. E. Tennant, is altogether a mistake, and the name is derived merely from the appearance of the juice.

COW TREE, a name given to a number of species of tree of different natural orders, the bland milky juice of which is used instead of milk. They are

all natives of tropical countries, and mostly belong to natural orders in which acridity is the general characteristic of the milky

i'uice. Some of them iclong to the natural order Moracea, and are closely allied to the Fig; others to the natural order Artocarpacece, one of which is the famous Palo De Vaca or C. T. of the Cordilleras and Caraccas (Qalactodendron Cow Tree (Oalactixlendron utile), utile, now rather referred to the genus Brosimum, see Bread-nut). Another is the HvaHva (Tabernmmontana uiilin), a native of equatorial America, belonging to the natural order Apocynacece.

The Palo De Vaca grows in rocky situations, at an elevation in equatorial regions of about 3000 feet.

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stream of sweet and nourishing milk. The milk flows most freely at sunrise. The natives arc then to be seen hastening from all quarters with bowls to receive it. The milk has an agreeable odour and a viscidity which does not belong to the milk of animals; it becomes yellow in a short time, and thickens or forms a sort of cream at the surface, which gradually thickens into a cheesy consistency before it begins to putrefy. This milk is nutritious, and is much used by the negroes and Indians; but differs very materially in ite composition from the milk of animals; more than one half being wax and fibrin; a little sugar, a salt of magnesia, and water, chiefly making up the rest.

The Hya-hya also yields a copious milky juice, which is used in Demerara and elsewhere as a substitute for milk, and is very agreeable and nutritious.

COW'AGE, COW'HAGE, or COW'ITCH, consists of short, slender, brittle hairs, which grow on the outside of the pods of plants of the genus Mtiaina, natives of the tropical parts of America and Asia. This genus belongs to the natural order Leguminosce, suborder Papilionacrap, and has a knotted, two-valved pod, divided by transverse partitions. The species are twining plants, shrubby or herbaceous, with leaves of three leaflets. That which yields most of the C. brought to Europe is M. prurient, a native of the West Indies, with racemes of fine purple flowers, which have a disagreeable alliaceous smell, and pods about four inches long. M. prurita of the East Indies, and M. urens, the Ox-eye Bean of the West Indies, yield C. of similar quality. The hairs readily stick in the skin, and cause intolerable itching. C. is used in medicine, acting mechanically in killing and expelling worms, particularly the species of Ascaris (q. v.). That it does not act on the inner surface of the intestinal canal, is supposed to be owing to the mucous secretion. It is generally administered in syrup, treacle, or honey.—Before the pods of C. plants are ripe, they are used as a vegetable like kidney-beans, and are very palatable.

COW'BANE. See Hemlock.

COWBERRY. See Whortleberry.

COWBRIDGE, a municipal and parliamentary borough in the south of Glamorganshire, on the Ddaw, 12 miles west of Cardiff. It chiefly consists of one long and wide street. It once had walls with three gates, built in the end of the 11th century. One of the gates, a Gothic structure, still remains. Pop. 106G. With Cardiff and Llantrissant, it returns one member to parliament.

COWES, West, a seaport and watering-place in the north corner of the Isle of Wight, on the west side of the mouth of the estuary of the Medina (here a third of a mile broad). It stands on a hill slope, and has a striking .aspect from the sea. There are many elegant villas in the vicinity. C. has much trade, being the port of the Isle of Wight. It has daily steam communication with Southampton, from which it lies 10J miles to the south-southeast, and with Portsmouth, from which it lies 11 miles to the west-south-west. At the angle formed by the Medina and the sea, is a small battery built by Henry VIII. C. is the head-quarters of the Royal Yacht Squadron and Club, who hold their annual regatta here. Many ships are built. Pop. 4786. In 1859, 2052 vessels, of 66,065 tons, entered and cleared the port.—East Cowes is situated on the east side of the mouth of the Medina, and 2 miles north-west of Osborne House, the marine residence of Queen Victoria.

COWLEY, Abraham, was born in London in 1618. He was the son of a grocer, and was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. According to liis own statement, lie was made a poet by the perusal of Spenser, whose works were wont to lie in his mother's parlour. A volume of poems, entitled Poetic Blossoms, was published by him at the age of 15, and one of the pieces contained therein was written when he was 10 years old. At Cambridge he obtained distinction through the elegance of his translations; and while there, he composed the greater part of the Davideis, an epic in four books—a work which he never completed. He was attached to the court party, and, in consequence, was ejected from his college in 1643, after he had taken his degree of M.A. In 1646, he followed the queen to Paris, in which city he remained ten years; and on his return to England, being under suspicion, he was seized and bound in heavy securities for his future behaviour. In the same year, he published an edition of his poems, with a preface, in which certain passages appeared, supposed to have a political Dearing, which were suppressed in subsequent editions. After the Restoration, he expected to obtain the mastership of the Savoy, but was disappointed. He subsequently obtained a lease of the queen's lands at Chertsey, in Surrey, whither he retired in 1665. He died in July 1667, in his 49th year, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, near Chaucer and Spenser. In 1675, a monument was erected to his memory by the Duke of Buckingham.

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Although almost forgotten now, the time was when C.'s poetry was considered equal to Shakspeare's or Spenser's. It certainly possesses merits of ingenuity and verbal brilliancy. He is often splendid, but it is the splendour of the rocket rather than of the glowworm or the star. His prose is more natural than his verse, and some of its passages reach a stately eloquence, reminding the reader of the magnificent prose of Milton.

COWLEY, Henry Richard Wellesley, first Eirl (his father being first Baron Cowley, better known as Sir Henry Wellesley), an English diplomatist of liberal opinions, was born in 1804. He early devoted himself to diplomatic pursuits. An attachfi at Vienna in 1824, he was afterwards successively promoted to be secretary to the legation at Stuttgart, and to the embassy at Constantinople. Having acted as minister-plenipotentiary to Switzerland, and afterwards to Frankfurt, he was (1851) appointed minister to the Germanic Confederation, and in the following year he succeeded the Marquis of Kormanby as ambassador at Paris. For this position he has displayed such eminent qualifications that he has ever since continued to hold the appointment, whether his party was in or out of office. Along with the Earl of Clarendon, he represented Great Britain at the Paris Congress of 1856; and it has been greatly owing to his tact and temper that the ill feeling that has occasionally oozed out since that time between the two countries has not resulted in more serious disagreement.

COW-PEN BIRD (Molothrus pecoris), also called Cow Bird, Cow Troopial, Cow Blackbird, Cow Bunting, &c, a bird nearly allied to the Baltimore Birds and Troopials, having a short, conical beak, and remarkable for its habit of depositing its eggs, like the cuckoo, in the nests of other birds. It is a native of North America, common in some of the southern states in winter, and migrating northward in spring. Great flocks are sometimes seen together. The C. B. is about seven inches in entire length, of glossy brownish black plumage. It derives its name from its frequenting cow-pens, to feed on the insects contained in, or attracted by the dung. It selects

for the reception of its eggs the nests of birds smaller than itself, and by an interesting provision of nature, its egg, which is not much larger than theirs, is hatched sooner, and theirs appear to be generally removed as addled eggs.

COWPER, Wtlliam, an English poet, was born on the 26th November 1731, in the parsonage house of Great Berkhamstead. His father, who was chaplain to George II., married Ann, daughter of Roger Donne, Esq. of Ludham Hall, in Norfolk. This lady" expired in childbirth in 1737, leaving two sons, William, the poet, and John. This event made a deep impression on C.'s mind; and the lines addressed to his mother's portrait have drawn more tears than any other poem in the English language.

C. was a delicate and sensitive child, and boyhood brought with it only deeper melancholy and depression. At the age of six he was placed at a considerable school, kept by a Dr Pitman, in Market Street, Hertfordshire. The period he spent here was very miserable, and laid the foundation of that settled gloom which oppressed him till death. It is to the remembrance of these wretched days that we are indebted for the fierce invective that burns in the somewhat one-sided Tirocinium, or a Review Schools. C. completed his studies at Westminster hool, and shortly after was articled to a Mr Chapman, an attorney in London.

After completing his three years' articles with Mr Chapman, C. went, in 1752, to reside in the Middle Temple. In 1754 he was called to the bar, but never practised. His father died in 1756, and left him a small patrimony. In 1759 he removed to tho Inner Temple; and although at this period he expected to secure some legal appointment through the influence of his family, he hated law with a perfect hatred, and seldom opened a book that bore on his profession. Yet he was industrious enough: he scribbled poetry, read Homer, and, in conjunction with his brother, translated some of the books of the Henriade. Soon after his settlement in the Inner Temple, he was appointed a Commissioner of Bankrupts; but there is no reason to believe that he ever entered on the duties of his office. An influential relative now offered him the office of Clerk of the Journals of the House of Lords, which was accepted; but he, having to undergo an examination at the bar of the House, was seized with nervousness, and could not appear. At this period his misery was so great, that he meditated suicide, but fortunately failed to carry out his intentions for want of courage. In December 1763 he was removed to the house of Dr Cotton at St Albans—a prey to the deepest remorse.

C.'s pecuniary means had suffered considerably by the loss of his appointments, but his friends contrived to make up an income sufficient for his wants. After his removal from St Albans, he went to reside in the town of Huntingdon. Here he formed acquaintance with Mrs Unwin, the Mary of his poems—an acquaintance which ripened into the deepest friendship, and which subsisted till death. He went to reside with the Tin wins, and enjoyed much tranquil happiness under that religious roof. When on a visit, m January 1773, to the Rev. Mr Newton, a friend of the Unwins, and a man of sincere piety, but, from the peculiar cast of his religious views, perhaps not the best physician ' to minister to a mind diseased,' his malady returned. Mrs Unwin carefully tended him through the crisis of his delirium, and through his long and slow recovery. When convalescent, he betook himself to writing hymns along with Mr Newton, and to domesticating hares, with the particulars and little incidents of which amusement the world is pleasantly familiar. Mrs Unwin also suggested, as a subject suited to his fenius, The Progress of Error. C. set to work in •ecember 1780, and by the following March had completed Truth, Table- Talk, The Progress of Error, and Expostulation. Although the volume was completed in 1781, its publication was delayed till the following year.

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In 1781, C. made the acquaintance of Lady Austen, who suggested to him The Task, urged him to translate Homer, and—what the world is perhaps still more grateful for—she related to him the history of John Gilpin. The story so seized C.'s fancy, that in the course of a single night he produced the poem which has tickled the midriffs of three generations. The Task was begun in the winter of 1783, and published in 1785. Its success was great, and C. began to be considered the greatest poet of his day. In 1784 he began the translation of Homer, which appeared in 1791. It was received with great applause. He had laboured hard, and had now to pay the penalty. The pen was the only weapon with which ne could keep his constitutional malady at bay; but now, when seated at his desk, his genius would not answer the call. He began to hear again the voices and the whisperings which had af&icted him in earlier days. Mrs Unwin's faculties also became affected, and the two friends were groping in the same twilight, deepening for both into the darkness of death. They left Olney, and were received into the house of Mr Johnson, in Tuddenham, in Norfolk. Here Mrs Unwin died on the 17th December 1796. C. now fell into » state of utter dejection; in 1799 he was attacked by dropsy. He died on the 27th April 1800.

C. was a great innovator in English literature; he destroyed the sentimentalists led by Hayley, and the image-huntere headed by Darwin. His poetry is eminently healthy, natural, and unaffected. C. and Robert Burns we have to thank for bringing back nature to .English poetry. Besides being a poet, C. was perhaps the most delightful letterwriter in the English language. Nothing can surpass the charm of his epistles—full of fun, gentle sarcasm, anecdote, acute remark, and a tender shadow of melancholy thrown over and toning down the whole. The best edition of C.'s works (accompanied by an admirable biography) is that of Southey, 15 vols. 12mo, Lond. 1837—1838.

COWRY (Cyprcea), a genus of gasteropodous molluscs of the order Pectinibranchiata—the type of a family, Cypraridae, to all of which the name C. is

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Money Cowry.

often extended—having the margin of the mantle prolonged into a siphon, by which water is conveyed into the gill chamber, and a spiral convoluted shell, the spire visible in the young, but entirely concealed in the adult, and the outer lip then thickened and bent in. The aperture extends the whole length of the shell. The shells, called Porcelain Shells by the French and Germans, are almost entirely calcareous in their composition, are richly enamelled, and often very beautiful. They are most abundant, and attain their largest size in the seas of warm climates. Only a few very small species are found on the

British coasts. Some of the species are much prized by collectors of shells. The Money C. (C. monela) is of commercial interest, from its general use as a substitute for coin in many parts of Asia and Africa. It is not of great beauty, is yellow or white, often with a yellow ring, about an inch long, and nearly as broad as long. It is found on the Indian coasts, and in particular abundance on those of the Maldive Islands, and is one of thenprincipal exports. In Bengal, 3200 cowries are reckoned equal to a rupee, so that a C. is about equal in value to one thirty-sixth of a farthing. Yet cowries to the value of 200.000 rupees are said to have been at one time imported annually into Bengal. Many tons of cowries are annually imported into Britain, to be used in trade with the west of Africa, and this importation began when it was in the slavetrade that they were employed.—To the family Cyprcados belong the shells called Poached Eggs (Ovulum), the Weaver's Shuttle Shell (Ovulumvolva), remarkable for its prolongation at both ends, 4c. Fossils of this family are numerous in some strata, as in the Bagshot Beds (q. v.).

COWSLIP (Primula

common native of pastures in England and many other parts of Europe, although rare in Scotland, a delicate and modest little flower, a universal favourite, both for its beauty and its fragrance. The flowers are small, in an umbel at the top of the scape, the limb of the corolla short and concave. The flowers have sedative properties, and are sometimes used as an anodyne and anti-spasmodic. They are fermented with sugar to make cowslip wine, an agreeable and favourite soporific domestic medicine.—The name Virginian Cowslip is given to the Dodecatheon Meadia, a perennial plant, also of the natural order Primulaceez, a native of North America, with a stalk about 8 inches high, bearing an umbel of gracefully pendent lilac

verts; see Primkosk), a

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Sowers, "the petals reflexed over the calyx, the stamens and pistil long, and the anthers of a golden colour. It is very ornamental in the flowerborder, flowering in the end of April or beginning of May.

COW-WHEAT (Melampyrum), a genus of plants of the natural order Scrophxdariacece, having an oblong two-celled capsule, with a few seeds somewhat resembling grains of wheat. The species are natives of the temperate parts of the northern hemisphere, annual plants with opposite narrow leaves and yellow flowers, growing m woods, cornfields, pastures, &c. Several are natives of England. They arc Baid to be very fattening to cattle, and to give a yellow tinge and peculiar excellence to butter made from pastures in which they abound.

COXE, William, a very industrious historical writer, was born in London, March 1747, and was educated at Cambridge. As tutor to the sons of several noblemen, he, at various times, spent many years on the continent, where he neglected no

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opportunity of collecting information about the countries which he visited. The result appeared in many volumes of travels and history, all of which are characterised by close observation, care, and research; but the writing in general is far from sprightly. Among the best known of C.'s works is his History of t/te House of Austria, which is still a standard work. C. also wrote History of tlie Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon, Memoirs of tJie Duke of Marlborough, Memoirs of Sir Hubert Walpole, and Memoirs of the Pelham Administration, besides many contributions to our knowledge of the topography and social condition of several continental countries. C, who commenced his clerical life in 1771 as a curate at Denham, near Uxbridge, ended it as Archdeacon of Wilts, which appointment he obtained in 1805. He died June 1828. Several of his works have been published in Bonn's Standard Library.

COXI'M, one of the head-waters of La Plata, rises in Matto Grosso, a frontier province of Brazil, towards Bolivia and Peru. After flowing first to the north-east, and then to the north-west, it enters the Taquari, itself a tributary of the Paraguay, in lat. 18° 24' S. The C. receives many affluents.

COY'PU (Myopotamus Coypu),a. rodent quadruped nearly allied to the beaver, with which it agrees in the number and character of its teeth, in its short limbs, in its feet having five toes each, the hinder feet webbed and the fore feet not webbed, and to a considerable extent in its habits; but from which it differs in the form of its skuIL having a more elongated muzzle and a contracted palate, and in its

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slender tail resembling that of a mouse. It is the only known species of its genus, and inhabits great part of South America, on both sides of the Andes, burrowing in the banks of the rivers, and sometimes in forests near the sea-beach. It is very nearly equal in size to the beaver, has small ears, very long and stiff whiskers, and long hair mixed with dense and soft short hair, the upper parts beautifully pencilled with different shades of yellow, tho sides and under parts lighter and more uniform in colour. The fur has become an important article of commerce, under the names of Racoonda (q. v.) and Nutria, the latter name signifying in Spanish an otter, having apparently Deen given to it through mistake, but being that chiefly in use in Britain.

CRAB, the popular name of all the crustaceans of the order Decapoda (the highest order of crustaceans, characterised by great concentration of the nervous system and corresponding general concentration, by five pair of thoracic limbs, and by having the gills enclosed in a special cavity on each side of

the thorax, covered by the carapace) and sub-order Bracityoura (characterised by the small size of the abdomen, which resembles a short tail curved under the thorax and appressed to it, all the most important viscera being included in the thorax), and extended also to some of the sub-order Anomoura (Purse-crabs, Hermit-crabs, Jtc, characterised by a condition of abdomen intermediate between that of the Bracityoura and that of the Macroura, or Longtailed Decapod Crustaceans, such as the Lobster, Cray-fish, &c). All the crabs, besides many other crustaceans, were comprehended in the Luuueau genus Cancer; but the number of species is very great, and the Bracliyoura alone are now arranged

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into many genera and even families. The different kinds of crabs differ very much in the form of the carapace (the back), which in some is orbicular or nearly so; in some, much broader than it is long; in others, longer than broad; in some, prolonged in front into a kind of beak, &c.; also in its smoothness, or roughness with hairs, tubercles, or spines; in the length of the legs, &c. The eyes are compound, with hexagonal facets, and are elevated on stalks, which are generally short, but sometimes considerably lengthened, and which have the power of motion, so as to turn the eye in different directions. The first pair of linibs are not used for locomotion, but exhibit in great perfection the characteristic claws or pincers (chela') of the decapod crustaceans. Crabs are inhabitants of almost all seas; most of them, however, having their limbs formed for walking rather than for swimming, are found chiefly near the coast; some inhabiting comparatively deep water, and others abounding in those parts which are left by the receding tide, where they occur equally in the rock pools and among the moist sea-weeds. Some small kinds of crabs (Pea Crabs) are often found in the inside of mussels and other bivalve molluscs. Some crabs inhabit fresh water, particularly in the wanner parts of the world; and others, known as Laud-crabs (q. v.), live among moist herbage, or burrow in sand or earth. Some have the last pair of limbs expanded at the extremity into a broad blade for swimming, and some have even all the four pair of limbs intended for locomotion thus expanded, and sometimes occur far out at sea. Some of the crabs, with very long legs, are known as Spidercrabs. Crabs moiUt or change their shell, not at fixed intervals or seasons, but according to the exigencies of their growth; the change being made with great frequency when they are very young, but rarely in advanced age: indeed, from the molluscs, and other animals sometimes found adhering to the carapace, it is inferred that the same covering is sometimes worn for a number of years.—The metamorphosis of crabs is noticed in the article CrusTaceans.—Crabs are interesting inmates of tho aquarium, from their readiness in seizing food, their activity in tearing and eating it, their general habits, and, in particular, their pugnacity. The

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