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same looks, tones and gestures, would pass, with his hearers, for a very injudicious speaker.
The whole art of reading and speaking all the rules of eloquence, may be comprised in this concise direction: Let a reader or speaker express every word as if the sentiments were his own.
FOR EXPRESSING CERTAIN
PASSIONS OR SENTIMENTS.
[From the Art of Speaking.]
MYRTHor laughter, opens the mouth, crisps the nose, lessens the aperture of the eyes, and shakes the whole frame. Perplexity draws down the eye-brows, hangs the head, casts down the eyes, closes the eye-lids, shuts the mouth and pinches the lips: then suddenly the whole body is agitated, the person walks about hastily, stops abrubtly, talks to himself, &c.
Vexation adds to the foregoing, complaint, fretting, and lamenting.
Pity draws down the eye-brows, opens the mouth, and draws together the features.
Grief is expressed by weeping, stamping with the feet, lifting up the eyes to heaven, &c.
Melancholy is gloomy and motionless, the lower jaw falls, the eyes are cast down and half shut, words few, and interrupted with sighs.
Fear opens the eyes and mouth, shortens the nose, draws down the eye-brows, gives the countenance an air of wildness; the face becomes pale, the elbows are drawn back parallel with the sides, one foot is drawn back, the heart beats violently, the breath is quick, the voice weak and trembling. Sometimes it produces shrieks and faintings.
Shame turns away the face from the beholder, covers it with blushes, casts down the head and eyes, draws down the eye-brows, makes the tongue to faulter, or strikes the person dumb.
Remorse casts down the countenance, and clouds it with anxiety. Sometimes the teeth gnash, and the right hand heats the breast.
Courage, steady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the
The voice is firm,
whole form an erect and graceful air. and the accent strong and articulate. Boasting is loud and blustering. The eyes stare, the face is red and bloated, the mouth pouts, the voice is hollow, the arms akimbo, the head nods in a threatening manner, the right fist sometimes clenched and brandished.
Pride assumes a lofty look, the eyes open, the mouth pouting, the lips pinched, the words slow and stiff, with an air of importance, the arms akimbo, and the legs at a distance, or taking large strides.
Authority opens the countenance, but draws down the eyebrows a little, so as to give the person an air of gravity. Commanding requires a peremptory tone of voice, and a severe look.
Inviting is expressed with a smile of complacency, the hand with the palm upwards, drawn gently towards the body.
Hope brightens the countenance, arches the eye-brows, gives the eye an eager wishful look, opens the mouth to half a smile, bends the body forward.
Love lights up a smile upon the countenance; the forehead is smoothed, the eye-brows arched, the mouth a little open and smiling, the eyes languishing, the countenance assumes an eager wishful look, mixed with an air of satisfaction. The accents are soft and winning, the tone of the voice flattering, &c.
Wonder opens the and makes them appear promiThe body is fixed in a contracted stooping posture, the mouth is open, the hands often raised. Wonder at first strikes a person dumb; then breaks forth into exclamations. Curiosity opens the eyes and mouth, lengthens the neck, bends the body forward, and fixes it in one posture, &c.
Anger is expressed by rapidity, interruption, noise and trepidation, the neck is stretched out, the head nodding in a threatening manner. The eyes red, staring, rolling, sparkling; the eye-brows drawn down over them, the forehead wrinkled, the nostrils stretched, every vein swelled, every muscle strained. When anger is violent, the mouth is opened, and drawn towards the ear, shewing the teeth in a gnashing posture; the feet stamping, the right hand thrown out, threatening with a clenched fist, and the whole frame agitated.
Peevishness is expressed in nearly the same manner, but with more moderation; the eyes a-squint upon the object of displeasure, the upper lip drawn up disdainfully..
Malice sets the jaws, or gnashes with the teeth, sends flashes from the eyes, draws the mouth down towards the ears, clenches the fist and bends the elbows.
Envy is expressed in the same manner, but more moderately.
Aversion turns the face from the object, the hands spread out to keep it off.
Jealousy shews itself by restlessness, peevishness, thoughtfulness, anxiety, absence of mind. It is a mixture of a variety of passions, and assumes a variety of appearances. Contempt assumes a haughty air; the lips closed, and pouting.
Modesty or Humility bends the body forward, casts down the eyes. The voice is low, the words few, and tone of utterance submissive.
Lessons in Reading and Speaking.
In the following Lessons, there are many examples of antithesis, or opposition in the sense. For the benefit of the learner, some of these examples are distinguished by Italic Letters; and the words so marked are emphatical.
O be very active in laudable pursuits is the distinguishing characteristic of a man of merit. 2. There is an heroic innocence, as well as an heroic courage.
3. There is a mean in all things. Even virtue itself has its stated limits, which not being strictly observed, it ceases to be virtue.
4. It is wiser to prevent a quarrel before hand, than to revenge it afterwards.
5. It is much better to reprove, than to be angry secretly. 6. No revenge is more heroic than that which torments envy by doing good.
7. The discretion of a man deferreth his anger, and it is his glory to pass over a transgression.
8. Money, like manure, does no good till it is spread. 9. There is no real use of riches, except in the distribution; the rest is all conceit.
10. A wise man will desire no more than what he may get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and live upon contentedly.
11. A contented mind and a good conscience, will make a man happy in all conditions. He knows not how to fear,
who dares to die.
12. There is but one way of fortifying the soul against all gloomy presages and terrors of the mind; and that is, by
20. A good man will love himself too well to lose, and his neighbour too well to win, an estate by gaming. The love of gaming will corrupt the best principles in the world.
1. AN angry man who suppresses his passions, thinks worse than he speaks; and an angry man that will chide, speaks worse than he thinks.
2. A good word is an easy obligation; but not to speak ill, requires only our silence, which costs us nothing.
3. It is to affectation the world owes its whole race of coxcombs. Nature, in her whole drama, never drew such a part; she has sometimes made a fool, but a coxcomb is always of his own making.
4. It is the infirmity of little minds to be taken with every appearance, and dazzled with every thing that sparkles; but great minds have but little adıniration, because few things appear new to them.
5. It happens to men of learning as to ears of corn; they shoot up, and raise their heads high, while they are empty; but when full and swelled with grain, they begin to flagand droop.
6. He that is truly polite, knows how to contradict with respect, and to please without adulation; and is equally remote from an insipid complaisance and a low familiarity.
7. The failings of good men are commonly more published in the world than their good deeds: and one fault of a deserving man will meet with more reproaches, than all his virtues praise: Such is the force of ill-will, and ill-nature.
8. It is harder to avoid censure, than to gain applause ; for this may be done by one great or wise action in an age; but to escape censure, a man must pass his whole life without saying or doing one ill or foolish thing.
9. When Darius offered Alexander ten thousand talents to divide Asia equally with him, he answered: The earth cannot bear two suns, nor Asia two kings. Parmenio, a friend of Alexander's, hearing the great offers that Darius had made, said, Were I Alexander, I would accept them. So would I, replied Alexander, were I Parmenio.
10. An old age unsupported with matter for discourse and
tation, is much to be dreaded. No state can be more