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form, is found already to be mu- which Dr Jamieson somewhat boldly tilated of these peculiarities, and attempts the solution, and which we not only so, but to be largely com- humbly think would require the nice bined with a foreign tongue, and as analysis and unerring sagacity of a highly Normanized as the language philological Cuvier, capable of breathof England, from which indeed, at ing life into dead bones, and of conthat period, it can with difficulty be · structing a living creature out of a toe distinguished, and from which it is as or a tooth. little distinguishable, as one provincial Let us suppose that the whole body dialect of a country is from another. of Anglo-Saxon literature and history

5. We know, generally, that at dif- had perished, and that we possessed ferent periods anterior to the first ap- in English nothing earlier than Robert pearance of the Scottish language in de Brunne and Chaucer. In such a any authentic shape, the inhabitants case it would require no small skill to of the country must by war, commerce, reanimate the Teutonic portion of and colonisation, have had a large our language, and refer it to the old intercourse and admixture with other Saxon, which, in that view, would be Teutonic nations—with Danes, with its nearest known relative, and we Flemings, and with Saxons—sufficient might certainly expect a good many to account for the introduction of schismatics, who would found on the various peculiarities of speech from all large admixture of Danish peculiarities and each of these sources.

which it presents, as clearly indicating 6. We know that the Anglo-Saxon its Scandinavian origin. The case itself was not a uniform or unmixed supposed would resemble the actual tongue, but, like all other languages, state of the question regarding the was diversified by local dialects, and Scottish language, as to which, in the interspersed with exotic words; and absence of all authentic history, and consequently that its literary monu- of all original monuments, our conments, while aiming at a refined style jectures, in so far as they diverge and classical standard, cannot be relied from the plain and simple appearances on as fully exhibiting it in all its forms of things, must be in the highest deor varieties, much less as revealing that gree hazardous and precipitate. under-current of homely phraseology, In addition to the mere absence of which constitutes so large a part of earlier monuments or information, we common speech, but which is so sele have this material circumstance to disdom embodied in any early literature. turb our speculations; that when the

Keeping these premises before us, Scottish language does appear in a which we humbly think ar e beyond written form, it resembles the language all question, we revert to the enquiry of England so closely, that no two in which Dr Jamieson and others of forms of speech can be pointed out the same school have expended so that have so strong a similarity. It is much labour and ingenuity. That in the face of this clear and near reenquiry is simply this What was the semblance that Dr Jamieson and his character of the early_Teutonic lan- followers would seek to persuade us guage, and of the early Teutonic people that the Scottish tongue, of which we of Scotland-a language of which we have no other or earlier monuments, have no monuments whatever in a was in its unknown original shape primitive shape, and a people of whom essentially different from that of the we have no authentic history, till 1000 sister kingdom. It may be possible or 1200 years after their alleged intro- to make out this proposition ; but canduction into the country? Given dour must confess that it cannot be merely the writings of Barbour, and easy to do so, and that nothing but the romance of Sir Gawaine and the the strongest light thrown on the obGrene Knight, or even if you will, the scurity of previous ages, ought to perapocryphal Sir Tristrem himself, all suade us that two things so strikingly of which are in a Normanized tongue, alike in their visible manifestations and belong to the thirteenth or four- were at one time distinguished by teenth century-to tell what was the substantial diversities. The common nature of the pure Teutonic Scotch, arguments employed are wholly inspoken 1000 or even 500 years before, sufficient for the purpose. If it be said when the Normans had not been that Scotch is in some points widely heard of? That is the problem of different from Anglo-Saxon, why, so

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VOL. LII. NO. CCCXXI.

assert vur

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is Euglish; yer we know that Eu_lish alupe would seek in such a composiis a product of Anglo-S1x00. The tion any reason or room for inferring vernacular Scotch may have at this a Scandiuavian as opposed to an Anday, and may have had from an early glian structure. The fact seems to be, period, peculiarities for wbich the that an over-anxiety to Anglo-Saxon or even the English national dignity has led our counwill not account. But who sbali tell trymen to maintain the original indeus, in the absence of authentic records, pendence, not only of the two crowns by what influences and at what periods in point of sovereignty, but of the two these peculiarities have been intro- countries in point of community of duced, in the course of rents and blood : a feeling nearly the countervicissitudes of many centuries ? The part of that which makes some Ameriquestion is not whether the Scottish cans of the present day indignant that and English dialects are literally their language should still be called identical, but whether they are diver. English. It were enough for our resified more than can be explained by putation, we humbly think, that concasual and superficial causes ;

nected as the two nations were by the whether we have clear, unequivocal, nearest consanguinity, the poorer and and solid reasons for inferring that the humbler of the two was able to mainScotch language, if we could distinct- tain her ground in arts as well as in ly see it during the period in which it arms, and to contribute her fair conseems to be wrapped in total darkness,' tingent to the advancement and celewas radically different from its sister, brity of their common language. and therefore radically different from If there be grounds for holding that, itself in the only living shape in which independently of any influx of Angloit has been preserved. The change Saxons, there was a direct colonizathat made Scotch so like English, if tion of the eastern portion of Scotland it was not originally so, must have been from continental countries, it would very great, and the necessity of such still remain to be proved that such an unexplained supposition, should colonies were of Scandinavian and induce us to be cautious in giving way not of Germanic origin. We have to conjectures which in any view no doubt that much of our laws and must be unsatisfactory.

some part of our language have been If we adopt the general opinion, derived from lower Germany; and that the verses quoted by Wintown we are certain that at least as many as having been composed on the death of our peculiarities may be referred of Alexander III. have come to us in to that source, as to Scandinavian an authentic form, we must see in countries; though we must observe, full force the tendency of the views at the same time, that the original above suggested. With the excep- identity of all the Teutonic tribes, tion of one peculiar word, which is makes it difficult often to tell from either French or Gaelic, these lines what section of them, in particular, any are pure English, and, if analyzed, custom or expression has been derived. can be correctly referred to genuine We cannot,' we think, give a more elements of an Anglo. Saxon and Nor. characteristic specimen of Dr Jamieman character. They are worth in- son's industry and candour, and at the serting, to remind us of their true same time of his mistaken prepossesbearing and great importance: sions in this respect, than is supplied

by the following articles in the DicQuhen Alysander, oure kyng, wes dede,

tionary and Supplement under the That Scotland led in luwe and le,

word Steelbow: Away wes sons of ale and brede, wyne

of

gamyn and gle. STEELBOW Goods.-" Those goods on a Oure gold wes changyd into lede,

farm which may not be carried off by a Christ, born in-to virgynyte,

removing tenant, as being the property of Succour Scotland, and remede,

the landlord, (S. see Supp.) That stad is in perplexite.

« Till towards the beginning of this Looking at this relic as the earliest,

century, landlords, the better to enable

their tenants to cultivate and sow their or as a very early, specimen of the

farms, frequently delivered to them, at language, and as affording a fair sam- their entry, corn, straw, cattle, or instruple of the stock, we are lempted to ments of tillage, which got the name of think that prejudice or presumption steelbow goods, under condition that the

Of

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like, in quantity and quality, should be at the expiration of the lease, the farmer re-delivered by the tenant at the expira- shall leave cattle of an equal value to those tion of the lease,' (Erskine's Instit. B. ii. which he has received.' (Pinkerton's ReT. 6, S 12.)

collections of Paris, ii. 222–3.) « « The stocking in Sanday, belonging “ The French term cheptel is from L. to the proprietor, is called steelbow,' (P. B. capitale, denoting a stock of cattle ; Cross., Orkney Statist. Acc. vii. 472.) for the word cattle is traced to this. (Vide

“ This term, which appears to be very Du Cange.) This seems to be an ancient ancieut, may be deduced from Teut. custom, perhaps introduced into France stell-en, Su. G. staell-a, to place, and by the Normans. The term fer might Teut. bouw, a field, q. goods placed on a seem a translation of the first syllable in farm, or attached to it; or A. S. stael, steelbow. I mention this fact, as it may Su. G. staell, locus and bo, supellex ; q. be a clue to some other writer, more conthe stocking of a place or farm. Bo is versant with law, for discovering, by anaused in a very extensive sense, as denoting logy, the origin of the designation. No a farm : furniture of any kind, also cattle; light can be borrowed from Du Cange. from bo, bo-d, to prepare, to provide. From the termination, it is most probable This word, as still used in Orkney, is that the word has been imported from most probably of Scandinavian origin. Denmark, through the Shetland or OrkIt may be merely an inversion of Su. nty islands; for we find a word of similar bo-staelle, a residence, domicilium. formation, though different in signification,

Steelbow Goods.-" I find, however, still used in Denmark. This is sterboe that this custom is referred to by Schilter, (Wolff,) or rather stervboe, as given by Gloss. vo. Stal, chalybs ; stahline brieven, Baden ; rendered by the former, the he says, are denominated from the matter estate after a dead man,' by the latter, which they respect, such as stahline vi he, hæreditas, bona relicta. It is evidently or otherwise eisern vieh, (literally steel from sterv-e to die, and boe, the same with or iron cattle, S. fe or fee.) · Such a Su. G. bo, supellex, Isl. bu, res familiaris, brief,' he adds,' is a convention or bar- pecora, &c. Thus stael-bu may be viewed gain, by which he who receives a thing as strictly analogous to German stahline from another is bound to restore it, al- ' vieh. The same law had extended to though it has perished by violent means.' Denmark, and even to Iceland. For He cites a variety of writers on jurispru- Haldorson renders Isl. kugilldi, pecudes dence ; but, in his usual manner, is inde. ferreæ, and also by Dan, iernfae, i.e. iron finite and obscure.

cattle." “ Wachter is more distinct, and throws considerable light on the subject, by what

We see here, in the first place, the he advances on the German term eiserni, inference drawn, that the word steelferreus. From him we learn that this bow “ is most probably of Scandinaword, in a forensic sense, means inviols vian origin," and " may be merely an able. An eisern brief, he says, signifies inversion of the Swedish bo-staelle, a

letters of prorogation, which give secu- residence, domicilium.” This very rity to a debtor that he shall not be in- hasty and unsatisfactory conjecture is carcerated for five years, or be compelled afterwards abandoned, on its being to payment by his creditors ; eisern vieh, discovered from Scbilter that the Ger. animals substituted in place of those that mans use both stahlin and eisern, (of have died, if a tenant changes his place of steel and of iron,) as applicable to residence. The reason of the phraseology cattle in this very sense of perpetuity, is, that the animals belonging to farms But still the doctor, “ from the termi. are viewed as immortal, and die to the nation," thinks it “ most probable that tenant, not to the proprietor who placed the word has been imported from Den. them there. All from the nature of iron, mark, through the Shetland or Orkney which, while by its hardness it resists

islands." The termination is certainly the touch and corruption, is a symbol of things inviolable and immortal. Hence

a very inadequate ground for this conthe same figure was used by the Lating. clusion, as the word bow, German bau,

ackerbau, &c., is diffused among all Ferrea jura, i.e. perpetual and inviolable rights,' (Virgil, Georg. ii. 501.) Thus,

the Teutonic nations in the sense of the metaphorical phrase would literally occupation, cultivation, tenancy, and

their accessories. A bowman or bower signify' unperishable goods.' One mode of contract, to be found in the Code Na. is a common term for a tenant or huspoleon, seems to resemble the steelbow. bandman in most Teutonic countries.

What is called the Cheptel de Fer, or We are told by Mr Cay, in his work Cheptel of iron, is that by which the pro- on Registration law, that there is in prietor of a farm lets it on condition that, several counties in Scotland a particu

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lar kind of location called a “Bowing demonstrates both negatively that it of Cows." The arrangement is, that is not Scandinavian, and positively the lessor is owner of the stock of cows, that it is Saxon or Germanic, being and lets them out with the privilege substantially in fact what it appears of grazing to the bower for å slump to be-a dialect of English, and a annual sum. Such transactions are daughter of that Anglo-Saxon lanfully discussed in Pothier's Treatise guage which assumed its most polished « Des Cheptels,” particularly under form in the classical writers of Saxonthe article - Du Cheptel de fer." The England, but of which there were in. contract of steelbow was too widely definite varieties in the different porspread over the continent, to admit of tions of the island over which it was the supposition that we derived it from diffused. Denmark through the Orkney islands; The Teutonic languages bear unand if the thing might have been got equivocal marks of having at some refrom Germany, with which, in the mote period possessed an uniform or middle ages, we must have had at identical character, of which the most least as much intercourse as with authentic representation appears to Denmark, we may conclude that the have been retained in the Gothic of word also came from the same quar. Ulphilas. But long before the date ter, especially as the precise reference of the Gothic Scriptures, and long, to steel is literally to be found in the probably, before the Christian era, German phraseology. The doctor these languages had mutually diverged would have seen the nature and pre- from their common centre, and asvalence of this custom well explained sumed diversities of character which in the following passage of Besoldus, widely and palpably separated them quoted in Dirleton :-" Pecora dantur from each other. The earliest Scanin socidam cum animalium casus in dinavian writings that remain are dispastorem transfertur ; qua conven- tinguished by peculiarities of language, tione pecora ferrea effici et appellari as remote from Gothic and Saxon as solent; quod fit in multis provinciis French is from Italian and Spanish, Germaniæ ; ubi cum fundo certus and those peculiarities are the most numerus ovium et vaccarum in feu- conspicuous in the most ancient forms dum dari solet, ita ut vasallus, feudo of Scandinavian-the mythological finito, eundem numerum supplere et poems of the Edda, or the heroic songs restituere teneatur." The idea and of the early Northmen. Stories are expression, however, are not limited loosely told of the early Saxons and to the case of tenancy.

It was com- Scandinavians being mutually intellimon for feudal superiors, municipali- gible when speaking their native ties, and others, all over Germany, to tongues ; but these are deserving of engage, for the convenience of the only a very qualified belief. Indivineighbourhood, to keep up a certain dual words may have been internumber of breeding or domestic cattle, changed and understood ; but we must which got the name of eisernes, stah- impeach altogether the authenticity of lernes, ewiges, vieh. A stehelin rint our best Teutonic monuments before or steel bull seems to have been a

we can suppose that Cædmon would common subject of stipulation. We ever have been understood by an believe that the laws and social cus- audience of Danes, or the Voluspa by toms of Scotland, if carefully investi- one of Anglo-Saxons. In process of gated from the time when they can time, indeed, a certain degree of assifirst be authentically traced, would milation was produced. Danish peshow that we have derived much more culiarities were partially engrafted on from Northern Germany, including the Saxon stock, or, more frequently Friesland and Flanders, which were still, a compromise was made between remarkable for early civilization and the extreme points, and a sort of commercial enterprize, than the pre- Lingua Franca may have been introvalence of an erroneous theory has as duced, which might be intelligible to yet allowed us to discover.

both nations. It must be observed, We think that the objections to the however, that the change thus proScandinavian theory of our origin are duced was not all on one side. The not exhausted by what we have now Scandinavian languages were themsaid: but that a close examination of selves materially affected by the muthe structure of the Scottish language tual intercourse that took place. Ihre

expressly on this subject acknowledges the ancient Gothic, which is a Low the obligations under which his native Germanic dialect, and to which, first language lay towards her elder sister, the old Saxon of Germany, and next, the Anglo-Saxon, as the great instru- the Anglo-Saxon, are the most nearly ment of her civilization and conversion allied of all the ancient Teutonic to Christianity ; and Rask, a still idioms. By connecting us with Scan. higher authority, places the question dinavia, therefore, Dr Jamieson was beyond a doubt. He observes that not truly bringing us nearer the foun. the Anglo-Saxon, though widely dif- tain-head, but carrying us further off ferent from Icelandic, has had great from it. influence on the inore modern northern A comparative examination of some tongues.

of the most prominent peculiarities “ It was the frequent expeditions of the

of structure in the Scandinavian and Scandinavian nations into England which,

Saxon dialogue, will help to refute Dr next to the introduction of Christianity,

Jamieson's theory. gave the first blow to the ancient language

1. One of the most striking characin the kingdoms of the North. The Danes teristics of the Scandinavian languages continued their course of wars and vic- is their sparing use, and sometimes tories the longest, and most steadfastly; their absolute rejection of the gultural their language has consequently undergone aspirate, so conspicuous in the rest of the greatest change ; and from Canute the Teutonic family. In particular, the Great's conquest of England, we may where the aspirate should occur in the date the decline of the Icelandic in Den. middle of a syllable before the letter mark.

The court was now often in Eng. t, it is uniformly absorbed in Scandiland; the army lay there a considerable navian words, and assimilated to the length of time, and all laws, and public following consonant. Compare in acts relating to England, were issued in

this respect the following cognate Anglo-Saxon ; while our own Scandina

words in the Scandinavian and other vian forefathers had, at the time, neither dialects :grammar nor dictionary, nor did they

Nahts, Goth. nox, niht, A.S. :make their language an object of learned

Natt, Icel. natt, Swed. nat Dan. [Comapplication. Every barbarism was therefore but too easily propagated. Inter

the Italian notte, &c.] pare

Dauhtar, Goth. filia, dohtor, A.S.:course with those Danes and Norwegians, who were previously settled in Northum

Duttir, Icel. dotter, Swed, datter, Dan. berland and other provinces, and had

Ahtau, Goth. octo, eahta, A.S. ;formed for themselves a mixed dialect,

Atta, Icel. atta, Swed. otte, Dan. opened the way to this corruption. Canute

Mahta, Goth. potui, mihte, A.S :made himself master also of Norway; and, Mátti, Icel. matte, Sued. matte, Dan. although that kingdom was soon lost

Raihts, Goth. rectus, riht, A.S.:again, there was a great mutual intercourse Réttr, Icel. rat, Swed. ret, Dan. among the northern kingdoms, and with Bairhts, Goth, lucidus, beorht, A. England. Thus the Anglo-Saxon became S. :- Biartr, Icel. as it were a secondary source to these Waihts, Goth, res, wiht, A.S. :tongues, in their later state.”

Vélt, vætt, Icel. Misled by a mere name, Dr Jamie. It is impossible not to be struck. son seems to have seen in the ancient with the peculiarity here pointed out, Norse, a form of speech more allied to and which is not accidental but systhe proper Gothic than any Saxon tematic. But when we ask, whether tongue ; and indeed, by a strange mis- the Teutonic Scotch belongs to the take, the Suio-Gothic or Swedish, a Scandinavian family which thus bavaluable and important dialect, but of nished the guttural, or to the Anglowhich we believe there are no authen. Saxon branch which retained it, we tic monuments prior to the 13th or 14th shall not pause long for a reply. It century, is frequently referred to in is notorious that one of the strongest his dictionary as the most ancient and peculiarities of our vernacular tongue authentic of all the Teutonic lan- is its free use of the guttural aspirate. guages. These assumptions are found. The words nicht, dochter, aicht, micht, ed on delusion. Though the names richt, bricht, wicht, are framed on the of Gothic and Gothland are geographi. very opposite system from the Scancally connected with Sweden, the dinavian. In speaking of the SweSwedish and Scandinavian languages dish interjection ach, but which is have no peculiar connexion with the pronounced and sometimes written

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