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il existe moitié moins d'esclaves, nous obvious fallacy; in our opinion, the
l’aurions payé que quarante-neuf vices of the present system are so millions quatre-vingt-seize mille francs, great, so numerous, and so preponc'est-à dire que nous aurions fait une derating, that no time should be lost économie de vingt millions deux cent dix
in effecting its abolition. The subneuf mille huit cent francs. Si
ject should, we think, be considered, l'avions acheté dans les pays où les travaux de l'agriculture sont exécutés par des
not only, as Mr Merivale has consider
ed it, with reference to this country, but ouvriers libres, l'économie aurait été plus
with reference also to that vast region grande; car nous aurions payé environ trente millions de moins. La préférence of the earth which is the immediate donnée aux productions des peuples libres
object of our speculation. Now, as nous procurerait des avantages bien plus far as this country is concerned, Mr grands encore; la consommation du sucre
Merivale considers all prospect of the deviendrait plus étendue, plus générale ; reformation of the criminal as despeune multitude de personnes qui sont
rate and chimerical. This is an opiobligés de s'en priver ou d'en restreindre pion, however, in which we do not leur consommation, au prix où il est concur; in many instances where actuellement en acheteraient, ou en con- jails are properly regulated, the most sommeraient d'avantage, s'il se vendait à salutary effects have been wrought plus bas prix.
upon hardened offenders by their im“ Ainsi, en donnant la préférence aux prisonment. Suppose, however, that productions que nous vend l'aristocratie we admit the criminal to be incorrigide nos colonies, nous donnons gratuite- ble, of what weight is the admission ? ment, sur une seule denrée, un peu plus The improvement of the criminal is a de vingt millions toutes les années. Nos desirable, it is true, but a collateral sacrifrces ne s'arrêtent pas là; nous payons, object-it is not for his own sake that en outre, plus de la moitié de leur admin
his punishment is inflicted, nor is it istration; nous payons les troupes qui les gardent, les navires qu les protègent.”
by the desire of effecting this reformaP. 121.
tion, still less by way of revenge for M. Merivale enters into a very long justified.
the injury he has done, that it could be
To Him who reads the examination of the practice, as it now heart alone, this privilege belongsprevails, of transportation. The old and when man rashly, weakly, presystem he decidedly condemns. But sumptuously arrogates to himself the he defends the system which now pre- attribute of omniscience, the convails of making the admission into the service of a master the reward of good rable.
sequences have been ever most deplo.
Never can it be repeated too conduct, at the expiration of a certain often, that example is the sole end of period of severe labour, instead of punishment-it is inflicted that the being, as was the case till a very punishment of a few may be a check recent period, the immediate destina
to all. tion of the criminal.
“ Ut metus ad omnes pæna ad paucos ments of those who would abolish transportation altogether, and of
proveniret.” those who would uphold it in its But this effect is altogether incompresent improved state, are set out by patible with transportation. The cri. Mr Merivale with great clearness and minal is suddenly removed from all with great impartiality. He decides his kindred and acquaintance, and in favour of the latter--and as this is carried to a spot where he sees not the one of the very few points in which eye of scorn, he hears not the voice our opinions do not coincide with his, of reproof; where, under a milder we will shortly state the reasons which climate, and on a soil more fertile, have led us to a different conclusion. food and clothing are provided for For while we fully admit the force of him—where, in a society composed of his argument, and the necessity of criminals, all sense of his degradatior keeping in view the fact which rea- is extinguished—where, after a certain soners on all political subjects are too time, at the worst, abundant nourishapt to forget, that the question is one ment, and, at the best, wealth and of compromise, that perfect and un- importance, are within his reach; a mixeď good is not attainable, and new career is open before him, and that to dwell exclusively on the evils his crime enables him to follow the of one side, without taking those of track which a spirit of enterprise has the other into consideration, is an led some of the best born and best
educated inhabitants of this over- admits. That it may afford “requiem peopled country to pursue. Can there spatiem que,” while other remedies, be a doubt that the change, so far as more durable and requiring longer he is concerned, must be for his bene- time for their operation, are preparing, fit? But if we consider its effects upon he does not deny. But that it is, as the society which he has injured, and the style of some writers would induce to which he owes reparation, it is us to believe, to be valued as a panawidely otherwise. The spectacle of cea, long required and now happily his unrewarded toil, of his legitimate found, against all the evils of society, sufferings, of his deserved ignominy, as a standing resource against causes can neither reclaim the guilty nor the influence of which is constant, im. intimidate the wavering. As a lesson mutable, and universal. these he to the community he has injured, his considers as the wild conceits of enpunishment is flung away, and if it thusiastic projectors, as fancies wholly does not operate as a motive to encou
without foundation in reason or expe. rage, it can afford no reason to deter. rience. Theremedy afforded, compared Again, if we consider the country to with the evil to be alleviated, is as an which he is sent, in what code, human atom of sand to the ball of the earth, or divine, shall we find permission of Upon the prevailing habits of the ladisgorging upon other countries the bonrer, the amount of population must refuse of our own -of inoculating the principally depend; and as the relief most distant extremities of the globe afforded by emigration can only be with a moral pestilence-of adding to transient, a very short time will elapse the miseries of savage life the gigantic before its repetition will be necessary. vices of abused civility-of lending the To imagine, so long as the fountain is passions that spring up in the rankness redundant, that we can prevent the of untaught nature, a type still more
stream, which malignant and incurable than their “ Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis own-of letting loose upon the help- ævum,' less natives, ruffians, stripped of the
from flowing onward, is ridiculous. very instincts which distinguish their
This effect can only be produced by species in its rudest state, in compari
more extended foresight in the people son with whom the wild beasts of the
and the increased productiveness of forest would be mild and merciful?
the labour, whether arising from the Must we not regret that the lines of greater use of machinery or the disour great poet are still true as when
covery of new markets. But without they were first written
such assistance, the evils engendered " Here let my sorrow give my satire place, by a pernicious system, as, for inTo raise new blushes on my British race; stance, the subdivision of land in Ire. Our sailing ships like common sewers we land, cannot be successfully encounuse,
tered by such an expensive, limited, And through our distant colonies diffuse
and precarious remedy. In ancient The draught of dungeons, and the stench
times, we read of plagues that have of stews. Whom, when their home-bred honesty is of a people; but in a generation or
swept away the third or fourth part lost,
two, the loss was replaced, and the We disembogue on some far Indian coast;
amount of their population was the Thieves, panders, palliards, sins of every These are the manufactures we export.”
The Isle of Skye, in 1755, contain
ed 11,000 inhabitants ; upwards of The views of Mr Merivale on the 8000 emigrants left it, in the years subject of ernigration are marked with immediately succeeding that era, for the same vigorous sense and sound the United States. After their deparjudgment which distinguish the pas- ture, its population consisted of 14,000 sages that we have quoted. That emi- residents. The provinces of Old gration may, under certain circum- Spain which furnished America with stances, under the pressure of sudden colonists were always, in like manner, distress, or where it is intended to the most populous. It is a mistake to check the pernicious effects of an in- imagine, that the first emigrants who veterate system, act as a remedy leave an ancient country belong to against immediate evils arising from the lowest class of its inhabitants. local and temporary causes, he readily The middle class, unwilling to sin!
lower, and yet unable to maintain so obtained into a fund to facilitate emis their original position, are those by gration, which is a direct tax on capital whom the evils of an over-peopled the settler being obliged to employ country are most keenly felt, and most part of the money he would have emspeedily avoided. It is not till after ployed in the cultivation of his land they have succeeded in establishing upon its purchase. This being the themselves, that a market for the la- scheme which combines every conbour of the lower classes is open, and ceivable disadvantage, and is most among the many flagrant absurdities directly at variance with common into which certain speculators, whose sense and common experience, it has theories we shall have presently occa- of course enlisted on its side a number sion to examine, have been misled. of ingenious advocates, who have sucThe total disregard of this truth is ceeded by clamour, abuse, and misreperhaps the most conspicuous. To presentation, in forcing it, in part at begin a settlement with paupers is to least, upon a reluctant, and for some build upon sand. In moral, as well time a hostile government. as in other structures, unless the What can be more pernicious than foundation be firmly laid, all the la- such a system to the class which Mr bour and expense bestowed upon Merivale emphatically terms the “core them is flung away. That Mr Me- of a colony," on which the prosperity rivale, though we do not find any pas- of all colonies must peculiarly depend, sage in which he explicitly insists consisting of men who rely partly on upon the truth, is fully aware of its their own labour, and partly on importance, the following extract, in their small savings, for the success of which the class of men on whom the their enterprize, and for carrying them, prosperity of all colonies must depend as Mr Merivale observes, through the is accurately and powerfully describ- first years of certain privation, and ed, will suffice to show.
almost inevitable distress? In colonies “ But the class of settlers is that of
the wages of labour are, in fact, the small farmers, and others possessed of price of land. The judicious scheme some means, however slight, and at the
we are now considering is to turn the same time able and willing to maintain price of land into the wages of labour. themselves by the labour of their hands. The evil of artificially raising the price To them it is not too much to say, that of land is to be met by an artificial with good conduct on their own parts, supply of labour, since, as the money and exemption from extraordinary casual- thus raised is to be set apart as a fund ties, North America offers, after four or for providing labourers, labour will be five years of probation, a certainty of a comparatively cheap. But the artifihappy competence, or probability of ac- cial price of land must limit the dequiring moderate wealth. These form mand for labour, and thus the remedy the core, the most useful and healthy part, for an injury inflicted upon one class of the great mass of settlers whom this is to be found in a still greater injury country annually sends across the Atlantic, inflicted upon another. Again, if the destined to augment the increasing my- colonist gains by the diminished price riads of small yeomanry, who constitute of labour as much as he loses by the the body of the people in our colonies, artificial price of land—i.e. if he neiand in the northern states of the Union.”
ther gains nor loses, but is left where P. 111.
—what becomes of the argument Three systems have been adopted urged in favour of the scheme, that it with regard to emigration during the offers a check upon the occupation of last two hundred years, by this coun- land? No ingenuity, however-and a try; Ist, That of granting emigrants great deal has been exercised on this a free passage, and on their arrival subject-could reconcile us to any atapprenticing them to settlers, who pay tempt to alter human nature by Act in return a certain sum to government, of Parliament, or to restrain the pro. which is, in other words, a tax on pensities of colonists by method of wages. 2dly, That of obliging emim committees, discussing at the distance grants settled on government land to of half the globe, under the influence pay rent to government, which is a of violent party feeling, matters of tax on profits. 3dly, To exact a cer- which they are for the most part protain price for the land on which the foundly and incurably ignorant. That colonists settle, and to turn the money liberal wages, joined to plenty of land,
dispose men prematurely to exchange whose behalf its parental vigilance was the condition of labourer for that of exercised. We did Mr Wakefield proprietor, is unquestionable. It is no injustice. He has improved upon his less true that liberal wages encourage original. Centuries of experience population, that the high price of la- were requisite before the transcendant bour, and cheapness of land, oblige folly of such a project as his could be the superior class to treat the inferior ripened into full perfection. with kindness and generosity, and in- If, however, any of the profound sure the proper care and nurture of theorists whose projects have led to the children of the colonists. When so fortunate a result as that which the these children arrive at maturity, they late intelligence from Australia has will endeavour to establish themselves presented to an admiring and grateful as their fathers have done. Real public would condescend to rely less wealth and happiness will then keep on their own natural abilities, and to pace with the progress of population. appeal to the recorded experience of The theory in question is neither more others, they would perhaps discover nor less than a revival, under a spe- that the tendency to occupy new, and cious name, of a malignant and ex- to abandon less productive land, is an ploded prejudice. Tacitus tells us infallible law of colonial progress. ihat, by keeping up the old names of M. Talleyrand in his work on cothe Republican magistrates, “ eadem lonies thus expresses himselfmagistratuum vocabula,” Tiberius hoped
“ Dans l'Amérique septentrionale un to veil from the Romans the depravity voyageur qui part d'une ville principale of that servitude to which they were où l'état social est perfectionné, traverse actually reduced. The less sagacious successivement les degrés de civilisation advocates of this system imagine, by et l'industrie, qui vout toujours en s'affoi an inverted application of this rule, blissant jusqu'à ce qu'il arrive, en tres-peu that a new name can disguise the de jours, à la cabane informe et grossière, real antiquity of a barbarous supersti. construite de troncs d'arbres nouvellement tion, which, since it has ceased to abattus. Un tel voyage est une sorte provoke the indignation of mankind d'analyse pratique de l'origine des peuples et by its mischief, has been overwhelmed des états. On part de l'ensemble le plus by their derision for its absurdity. composé pour arriver aux données les plus It is a folly which, from the days of simples ; on voyage en arrière dans l'histhe Heptarchy down to the æra of Mr
toire des progrès de l'esprit humain; on Wakefield, impertinent projectors have retrouve dans l'espace ce qui n'est dû never been wanting to support, and
qu'à la succession du temps.”— Talleyrand, wretched dupes to act upon.
Essai sur les Colonies nouvelles. aphorism on which it depends is this Not less striking is the following
-" That people are not the best extract from M. De Tocqueville's adjudges of their own interest." So, as mirable work, which we earnestly rethe labourer was once pinned down to commend to the perusal of our readers. his parish, colonists are now to be We regret that our limits will not al. tethered to a particular spot in a
low us to quote the whole passage. wilderness. They are to be straitened It seems as if it had been written for and confined (Mr Wakefield not being the express purpose of contradicting yet able, literally, to carry his happy Mr Wakefield. After describing a spot idea of an iron belt into effect) by in the wilderness, he finds that it imaginary lines and capricious demar- had already been occupied by some cations; and in addition to other diffi- colonist, and abandoned for another culties naturally arising from their situation, (Mr Wakefield's iron belt situation, for fear prosperity should not being yet appreciated by the inmake them wanton, others are to be habitants of Ohio.) These are his contrived for them which they have reflections on the occasion. left their country to avoid. What are
50:the laws of the Plantagenets and Tu- « Au milieu de ces arbustes, on apércedors—the laws against engrossing and vait encore quelques pierres noircies par regrating, and the statute of labourers—
le feu, répandues autour d'un petit tas de to this? Inoperative as they were, cendre : c'était sans doute dans ce lieu the objects of these laws were under qu'était le foyer-la cheminée, en s'éthe eye of Parliament—seas did not roll, croulant, l'avait couvert de ses débris. and mountains did not rise, between Quelque temps j'admirai, en silence, les
Legislature and the victims on ressources de la nature et la faiblesse
T. 3, p. To suppose
l'homme; et lorsque enfin it fallut m'éloig- are surprised that an Italian opera and ner de ces lieux enchantés, je répétais en- a French ballet, and the shops of recore avec tristesse : Quoi ! déjà des ruines!
staurateurs, elegantly furnished draw“ En Europe, nous sommes babitués à
ing-rooms, and exclusive balls, were régarder comme un grand danger social
not specified, as they were, of course, l'inquietude de l'esprit, le désir imunodéré included in this deseription. What des richesses, l'amour extrême de l'indé.
would an American emigrant in the pendence. Ce sont précisément toutes
present day think?
What would the ces choses qui garantissent aux républi- Spanish soldier or the English puritan, ques Américaines un long et paisible
in former days, have thought of such avenir. Sans ces passions inquiètes, la
an instrument of success? Will “ a population se concentrerait autour de cer
high tone of society” clear the forest, tains lieux, et éprouverait bientôt, comme des besoins difficiles à satisfaire,
or drain the swamp, or repel the saparmi nous,
vage? Is it in search of “a high The true secret of colonial prospe. tone of society" that man becomes for rity is to allow the colonists to ma- a time the companion of felons and nage their affairs in the way they wild beasts, and the inmate of the think most suitable to their own in. howling wilderness ? Was it by en. terest. “Wise and salutary neglect," couraging “a high tone of society to use Mr Burke's phrase, on the part that the children of America now pour of the mother country, is greater kind- along the valley of the Mississipi ? ness than all the regulations that pro. No, undoubtedly not! jectors and speculators can imagine, that you can unite opposite advan. or committees and governors enforce. tages is preposterous. The man who If any lesson can be inferred from his- leaves the land of his fathers in search tory at all, it is this : that colonies have of opulence or freedom, is not the man always flourished in an inverse pro- who will obey the “centralizing influportion to the care bestowed upon " which Mr Wakefield is so desi. them by the metropolis. All begin- rous to establish. If he were, he would nings are hard ; but when full scope is be eminently and peculiarly unfit for given to industry and enterprise, the the situation he has chosen to occupy. incitements they carry with them are The restless, and it may be fiercer, so mighty, that whatever mistakes may feelings which prompt the settler to happen in the management of affairs traverse the ocean-to thread the at first, they seldom fail of proving forest—to fling himself upon an unbeneficial in the 'end. Numberless trodden shore—to exchange the home were the Spaniards, many were the where he has lived, and the altars English, who perished from impru- where he has worshipped, and the sodence, famine, and disease, in their ciety of his friends, for the burning first attempts upon the continent of plain and trackless solitude-dwell not America. But the terror inspired by in the same breast with the feelings such examples is transient; the good which dispose a man to acquiesce in they produce is lasting; and it is the arbitrary enactments—to maintain " a nature of all men, and especially of all high tone of society”--to content liimcolonists, to think that their greater self with what is tolerable, when what energies or better fortune will carry is better is within his reach—to forego them through, where other adventurers his own obvious personal advantage have been unsuccessful. The most for the sake of doubtful public good. singular proof, however, of the height These may be desirable qualities in a which this fantastical project has citizen ; they certainly tend to embelreached is to be found in the speech lish social life : but they are precisely of Colonel Gawler, to whom princi- those which are most fatal to such un. pally its execution was confided-a dertakings as we now discuss. The production in comparison with which love of society, of its refined amuse. all the descriptions of human folly ments and its tranquil pleasures, is itself that may be found in the pages of pernicious to new settlements ; Rabelais, and Cervantes, and Swift, are cordingly, we see that the attempts of tame and feeble, and which we believe, the French, the nation in the world in real history, it is as yet impossible most remarkable for this very turn of to match. Among the elements of mind, at colonization, have been alcolonial prosperity this gentleman in. most, without exception, unsuccessful. cludes " a high tone of society." We You cannot, to borrow an expression