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Poenammoo, and are situated between the latitudes of 34" and 48° South, and between the longitudes of 181° and 1940 Weft.
Tovy rVenammoois for the most part mountainous, and to all appearance a barren country; and the people whom we saw in Queen Charlo:te's Sound, those that came off to us under the snowy moun• tains, and the fires to the west of Cape Saunders, were all the inhabitant;, and signs of inhabitants, that we discovered upon the whole island.
Eaheinomauwe has a much better appearance; it is indeed not only hilly but mountainous, yet even the hills and mountains are covered with wood, and every valley has a rivulet of water: the foil in these vallies, and in the plains, of which there are many that are not overgrown with wood, is in general light but fertile, and in the opinion of Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, as well as of every other gentleman on board, every kind of Euiopean grain, plants, and fruit, would flourish here in the utmost luxuriance: from the vegetables that we found here, there is reason to conclude, that the winters are milder than those in England, and we sound the summer not hotter, though it was more equally warm; so that if this country should be settled by people from Europe, they would, with a little industry, be very soon supplied not only with the necessaries, but the luxuries of lite in great abundance.
In this country there are no quadrupeds but dogs and rats, at least we saw no other; and the rats are so scarce that many of us never saw them. The dogs live with the
people, who breed them for no other purpose than to eat: there might indeed be quadrupeds that we did not fee, but this is not probable, because the chief pride of the natives, with respect to their dress, is in the slcins and hair of such animals as they have, and we never saw the skin of any animal about them but those of dogs and birds: there are indeed seals upon the coast, and we once saw a sea lion, but we imagine they are seldom caught; for though we saw some of their teeth, which were fashioned into an ornament like a bodkin, and worn by the natives at their breast, and highly valued, we saw none of their fluns: there are whales also upon this coast, and though the people did not appear to have any art or instrument by which such an animal could be taken and killed, we saw patoo-patoos in the possession of some of them, which were made of the bone of a whale, or of some other animal whose bone had exactly the same appearance;
Of birds the species are not many; and of these none, except perhaps the gannet, is the fame with those of Europe: here are ducks indeed, and ihags of several kinds, sufficiently resembling those of Europe, to be called the same, by those who have not examined them very nicely. Here are also hawks, owls, and quails, which differ but little from those of Europe at first fight: and several small birds, whose song, a; has been remarked in the course of the narrative, is much more melodious than, any that we had ever heard.
The sea coast is also visited by
many oceanic birds, particularly
albatrosses, slieerwaters, pintados,
H 3 an$ and a few of the birds which Sir John Narborough has called Penguins, and which indeed arc what the French call Nuance, and seem to be a middle species between bird and fish; for their feathers, especially those upon their wings, differ very little from scales; and their wings themselves, which they use only in diving, and not to accelerate their motion even upon the surface of the water, may, perhaps, with equal propriety, be called fins.
Neither are insects in greater plenty than birds; a few butterflies and beetles, flesh flies, very like those in Europe, and some musquitos and sand flies, perhaps exactly the fame with those of NorthAmerica, make up the whole catalogue. Of musquitos and sand Siea, however, which are justly accounted the curse of every country where they abound, we did not see many; there were indeed a few in almost every place where we went on shore, but they gave us so little trouble, that we did not make use of the shades which we had provided for the security of our faces.
For this scarcity of animals upon the land, the sea, however, makes an abundant recompence; every creek swarming with fish, which are not only wholesome.butequally delicious with those of Europe: the ship seldom anchored in any iiation, or with a light gale passed any place, that did not afford us enough with hook and line to serve the whole ship's company, especially to the southward: when we lay at anchor, the boats, with hook and line, near the rocks, could take fish in any quantity; and the seine seldom failed of producing a Hill mores ample supply; so that
both times when we anchored ia Crook's Streight, every mess in the (hip, that was not careless and improvident, salted as much as lasted many weeks after they went to sea. Of this article, the variety was equal to the plenty; we had mackerel of many kinds, among which one was exactly the fame as we have in England; these came in immense shoals, snd were taken by the natives in their seines, who fold them to us at a very easy rate. Besides these, there were fish of many species which we had nev?r seen before, but to all which the seamen very readily gave names; so that we talked here as familiarly of hakes, bream, cole-fish, aad many others, as we do in England; and though they are by no means of the fame family, it must be confessed that they do honour to the name. But the highest luxury which the lea afforded us, even in this place, was the lobster, or sea cray-sish, which are probably the same that in the account of Lord Anson's voyage, are said to have been found at the island of Juan Fernandes, except that, although large, they are not quite equal in size: they differ from ours in England in several particulars, they have a greater number of prickles on their backs, and they are red when first taken out of the water. These we also bought every where to the northward in great quantities of the natives, who catch them by diving near the shore, and findingou t where they lie with their feet. We had also, a fish, that Frezier, in his voyage to the Spanish main in South-America, has described by the names of Elefant, Pejegallo,oz PoiJJhn coq, which, though coarse, we eat very heartily. Several species. cies of the skate, or sting-ray, are also sound here, which were still coarser than the Elefant; but as an atonement, we had among many kinds of dog-fish one, spotted with white, which was in flavour exactly similar to our best (kite, but much more delicious. We had also flat £lh, resembling both soles and flounders, besides eels and congers of various kinds, with many others, of which those who shall hereafter visit this coast will not fail to find the advantage; and shell-fish in great variety, particularly clams, cockles, and oysters.
Among the vegetable productions of this country, the trees claim a principal place; for here are forests of vast extent, full of the slraitest, the cleanest, and the largest timber trees that we had ever seen; their size, their grain, and apparent durability, render them fit for any kind of building, and indeed for every other purpose except masts; for which, as I h-vc already observed, they are too hard, and too heavy; there is one in particular, which, when we were upon the coast, was rendered conspicuous by a scarlet flower, that seemed to be a compendage of many fibres; it is about as large as an oak, and the wood is exceedingly hard and heavy, and excellently adapted to the use of the mill-wright. There is another which grows in the swamps, remarkably tall and strait, thick enough to make masts for vessels of any size; and if a judgment may be formed by the direction of its grain, very tough: this, which, as has been before remarked, our carpenter thought to resemble the pitch pine, may pro. bably be lightened by tapping, and it will then make the finest masts
in the world: it has a leaf not unlike a yew, and bears berries in small bunches.
Great part of the country is covered with luxuriant verdure, and our natural historians were gratified by the novelty, if not the variety of the plants. Sow-thistle, garden night-shade, one or two kinds of grafs, the fame as in England, and two or three kinds of tern, like those of the Welt-Indies, with a few of the plants that are to be found io almost every part of the world, were all, out of about four hundred species, that have hitherto been described by any botanists, or had been seen elsewhere during the course of this voyage, except about five or six which had been gathered at Terra del Fuego.
Of eatable vegetables there are but few; our people, iadeed, who had been long at sea, eat, with equal pleasure and advantage, of wild celery, and a kind of cresses, which grew in great abundance upon all parts of the sea-shore. We also, once or twice, met with a plant like what the country people in England call Lamb's quarter:, or Fat-hen, which we boiled instead pfgreens; and once we had the good fortune to find a cabbagetree, which afforded us a delicious meal; and, except the fern root, and one other vegetable, totally unknown in Europe, and which, though eaten by the natives, was extremely disagreeable to us, we found no other vegetable production that was fit for food, among those that appeared to be the wild produce of the country; and we could find butthree esculent plants among those which are raised by cultivation, yams, sweet potatoes, and coccof. Of the yams and
H * pott. potatoes, there are plantations confisting of many acres, and I believe that any silip which should happen to be here in the autumn, when they are dug up, might purchase them in any quantity.'
Gourds are also cultivated by the natives of this place., the fruit of which furnishes them with vessels for various uses. We also found here the Chinese paper mulberrytree, the fame as that of which the inhabitantsofthe South-Sea Iflands make their cloth; but it is so scarce, that though theNew-Zealandersalso make cloth of it, they have not enough for any other purpose, than to wear as an ornament in the holes which they make in their ears, as I have observed before.
But among all the trees, stirubs, and plants rf this country, there if not one that produces truif; except a berry, which has n. kher sweetness nor flavour, ad which none but the beys to. I?: ns topather, should be honoured .\ith thai appeila'ion. There 15, hcwe<>er,a plant which serves the inhabitants Instead of hemp and flax, which excels all that are put to the fame purposes in other countries. Of this plant there ae two forts; the leaves cf both reicrr.ble those of flags, but the Howers are smaller, and their ci'-sters more numerous; in one 1 n/1 rhev are yellow, and in the othr a deep red. Of she leaves of theseplant.',with very little preparation, thev make all their common apparel; and of these they make also their strings, lines, and cordage for »very purpose, which are so much stronger than any thing we can make with hemp, that they will not bear a Comparison. From the'samepl^nt,
by another preparation, they draw long slender fibres which (bine like silk, and are as white as snow: of these, which are alto surprisingly strong, the finer cloths are made; and of the leaves, without any other preparation than splitting them into proper breadths, and tying the strips together, they make their fisliing nets; some of which, as I have before remarked, are of an enormous size.
A plant, which with such advantage might be applied to so many useful and important purposes, would certainly be a great acquisition to England, where it would probably thrive with very little trouble, as it seems to be hardy, and to affect no particular soil; being found, equally in hill and valley; in the driest mould, and the deepest bogs: the bog however, it seems rather to prefer, as near luch places we observed it to be larger Mian elsewhere.
We found great plenty of iron sand in Mercury B^y, and therefort iron ore is undoubtedly to be fount, at no great distance. As to other metah, we had scarcely knowledge enough of the country for conjecture.
$.irfrifiug Sea WeedintbtNeighbourhood os tie Streigbt os Le ivJjire. From the same.
BEfore this anchoring ground, however, lay levcral rocky IfiJges, that were covered with seaweed; but I was told that there was not less than eight and nine fathom over all of them. It will probably be thought strange, that where weeds, which grow at the bottom, appear above the surface,
*here Ihould be this depth of water; but the weeds which grow upon rocky ground in these countries, and which always distinguish it from land and ooz<', are of an enormou: size. The leaves are four feet long, and some of the stalks, though not thicker than a man's thumb, above one hundred and twet.ty; Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander e>amined some ot ihem, o-pr which we sounded and had fourteen fathom, which is eightysoar feet; and, as they made a very acute ;ngle with the bottom, they were thought to be at least one half longer: the foot stalks were swelled into an air vessel, and Mr. Banks .mdPr. Solander called this plant Futut giganteus.
Some Account of the Peak ofTene. riffe; from the/ame.
ON Fridav Sept. 23, 1768, we saw the Peak ot Teneriffe, bearing W. by S. |S. and found th« variation of the compass to befrom 17° 22' to 160 30'. The height of this mountain, from which 1 took a new departure, has been determined by Dr. Heberden, who has been upon it, to be 15.396 feet, which is but 148 yards less than three milts, reckoning the mile at 1760 yards. Its appearance at sunset was very striking; when the fun was below the horizon, and the rest ot the island appeared of a deep black, the mountain still reflected his rays, and glowed with a warmth of colour which no painting can express. There is no eruption of visible fire from it, but a heat issues from the chinks near the top, too strong to be borne by the hand when it is held near them. We
had received from Dr. Heberden, among other favours, some salt which he c -llected on the top of the mountain, where it is found in lars J quantities, and which he supposes to be the true natriim or «/'trum of the ancients; he gave us also some native sulphur, exceedingly pure, which he had likewise found upon the surface in great plenty.
Of an extraordinary Fog-Bank, en the Passage from Rio de Janeiro to Port Detire ; from Commodcre Byron'/ Vojage round the World.
ON Monday Nov. 12, 1764, a-, bout four o'clock in theafternoon, as I was walkingon the quarter-deck, all the people upon the fpreCofilecalled outatonce, " Land right a.head;" it was then very black almost round the horizon, and we had had much thunder and lightning; I looked forward under the forelail, and upon the lee bow, and saw what at first appeared to be an island, rising in two rude craggy hills, but upon looking to leeward, I saw Kind joining to it, and running a long way to the south-east: we were then steering S. W. and) I sent officers to the mast-head to look out upon the weather-beam, and they called out that they saw lapd also a great way to the windward. I immediately brought to, and sounded; we had still fifty-two fathom, but I thought that we were embayed, and rather wished than hoped that we should get clear before night. We made sail and steered E. S. E. the land still having the fame appearance, and the hills lookingblue, as they generally do at a little distance in dark rainy weatherj