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a semicircular form; particularly the stern, which is sometimes seventeen or eighteen feet high, though the boat itlelf is scarcely three. These never go to sea single; but are fastened together, side by side, at the distance os about three feet, by strong poles of wood, which are laid across them and lashed to the gunwales. Upon these, in the fore-part, a stage or platform is raised, about ten or twelve feet long, and somewhat wider than the boats, which is supported by pillars about six feet high: upon this stage stand the sighting men, whose mislile weapons are slings and spears; for, among other singularities in the manners of these people, their bows and arrows are used only for diversion, as we throw quoits: below these stages sit the rowers, who receive from them those that are wounded, and furnish srefli men to ascend in their room. Some of these have a platform of bamboos or other light wood, through their whole length, and considerably broader, by means of which they will carry a great number of men; but we saw only one fitted in this manner.
The fishing Ivahahs vary in length from about forty feet to the smallest size, which is about ten, all that are of the length of twentylive feet and upwards, of whatever fort, occasionally carry fail. The travelling lvahah is always double, and furnished with a small neat house, about five or six feet broad, and six or seven feet long, which is fastened upon the fore-part for the convenience of the principal people, who sit in them by day, and sleep in them at night. The fistiing Ivahahs are sometimes
joined together, and have a house on board; but this is not common.
Those which are shorter than five-' and-twenty feet seldom or never carry sail; and, though the stern rises about four or five feet, have a flat head, and a board that projects forward about four feet.
The Pahie is also of different sizes, from sixty to thirty feet long; but, like the lvahah, is very narrow. One that I measured was fifty-one feet long, and only one foot and a half wide at the top. In the widest part, it was about three feet; and this is the general proportion. It does not, however, widen by a gradual swell; but the sides being strait, and parallel, for a little way below the gunwale, ic swells abruptly, and draws to a ridge at the bottom; so that a transverse section of it has somewhat the appearance of the mark upon cards called a Spade, the whole being much wider in proportion to its length. These, like the largest Ivahahs, are used for fighting; but principally for long voyages. The fighting Pahie, which is the largest, is fitted with the stage or platform which is proportionably larger than those of the Ivahahs, as their form enables them to sustain a much greater weight. Those that are used for sailing are generally double; and the middle size are said to be the best sea-boats. They are sometimes out a month together, going from island to island; and sometimes, as we are credibly informed, they ar« a fortnight or twenty days at sea, and could keep it longer if they had more stowage for provisions, and conveniences to hold fresh
When any of these boats carry fail single, they make use os a log of wood, which is fastened to the end of two poles that lie across the vessel, and project from six to ten feet, according to the size of the ■vessel, beyond its side, somewhat Jike what is used by the flying Proa of the Ladrone isiands, and called in the account of Lord Anion's voyage, an Outrigger. To this outrigger the shrouds are fastened, and it is essentially necessary in trimming the boat when it blows fresh.
Some of them have one mast, and some two; they are made of a single stick, and when the length of the canoe is thirty feet, that of the mast is somewhat less than fiveand-twenty; it is fixed to a frame that is above the canoe, and receives a fail of matting about one third longer than itself: the sail is pointed at the top, square at the bottom, and curved at the side; somewhat resembling what we call a moulder of mutton sail, and used for boats belonging to men of war: it is placed in a frame of wood, which surrounds it on every side, and has no contrivance either for reefing or furling; so that, if either should become necessary, "it must be cut away, which, however, in these equal climates, can seldom happen. At the top of the mast are fastened ornaments of feathers, which are placed inclining obliquely forwards; the shape and position of which will be conceived at once from the figure, in one of the cuts.
The oars or paddles that arc used with these boats, have a long handle, and a flat blade, not unlike a baker's peel. Of these every person in the boat has one, except
those that sit under the awning; and they push her forward with them at a good rate. These boats, however, admit so much water at the seams, that one person at least is continually employed in throwing it out. The only thing in whicn they excel is landing, and putting off from the shore in a surf: by their great length and high sterns they land dry, when our boats could scarcely land at'all; and have the same advantages in putting off by the height of the head.
As connected with the navigation of these people, I (hall mention their wonderful sagacity in foretelling the weather, at least the quarter from which the wind shall blow at a suture time; they have several ways of doing this, of which however I know but one. They fay, that the milky-way is always curved laterally; but sometimes in one direction, and sometimes in another: and that this curvature is the effect of its being already acted upon by the wind, and its hollow part therefore towards it; so that, if the fame curvature continues a night, a corresponding wind certainly blows the next day. Of their rules, 1 shall not pretend to judge; but I know that, by whatever means, they can predict the weather, at least the wind, with much greater certainty than we can.
Jn their longer voyages, they steer by the fun in the day, and in the night by the stars; all of which they distinguish separately by names, and know in what part of the heavens they will appear in any of the months during which they are visible in their horizon; they also know the time of their annual appearing
and and disappearing, with more precision than will easily be believed by an European astronomer.
[We must pass over many other curious particulars, relative to this extraordinary people, to give such an account as could be procured of their form of government. Our author proceeds as follows.]
Though I dare not aslert that these people, to whom the art of writing, and consequently the recording of laws, are utterly unknown, live under a regular form of government; yet a subordination is established among them, that greatly resembles the early state of every nation in Europe under the feudal system, which secured liberty in the most licentious excess to a few, and entailed the molt abject slavery upon the rest.
Their orders are, Earee rabie, which answers to king; Eeret, baron; Matiabouni, vassal; and Teuton, villain. The Earee rahie, of which there are two in this island, one being the sovereign os each os the peninsulas of which it consists, ia treated with great respect by all Tanks, but did not appear to us to be invested with so much power as was exercised by the Earees in their own districts; nor indeed did we, as I have before observed, once see the sovereign of Obcreonoo, while we were in the island. The Earees are lords of one or more of the districts into which each of the peninsulas is divided, of which there may be about one hundred in the whole island; and they parcel out their territories to the Manahounies, who cultivate each his part which he holds under the baron. The lowest class, called Toutous, seem to be nearly under the same circumstances as the villains in feu
dal governments: these do nil the -laborious work; they cultivate the land under the Manahounies, who are only nominal cultivators for the lord; .they fetch wood and water, and, under the direction of the mis" ^ tress of the family, dress the victuals; they also catch the fish.
Each of the Earees keep a kind of court, and has a great number of attendants, chiefly the younger brothers of their own tribe; and among these some hold particular offices, but of what nature exactly we could not tell. One was called the Eonua no I'Earee, and another the Wkanno no I'Earee, and these were frequently dispatched to us with messages. Of all the courts of these Earees, that of Tootahah was the most splendid, as indeed might reasonably be expected, because he administered the government for Outou, his nephew, who was Earee rahie of Obereonoo, and lived, upon his estate. The child of the baron or Earee, as well as of the sovereign or Earee rahie, succeeds to the title and honours of the father as soon as it is born: so that a baron, who was yesterday called Earee, and was approached with the ceremony of lowering the garments, so as to uncover the upper part of the body, is to-day, if his wife was last night delivered of a child, reduced to the rank of a private man, all marks of respect being transferred to the child, if it is suffered to live, though the father still continues possessor and administrator of his estate: probably this custom has its share, among other inducements, in forming the societies called Arrcoy.
If a general attack happens to be made upon the island, every district
C 4 under
under the command of an Earee, is obliged to furnish its proportion of soldiers for the common defence. The number furnished by the principal districts, which Tupia recollected, when added together, amounted, as I have observed before, to six thousand six hundred and eighty.
Upon such occasions, the united force of the whole island is com'manded in chief by the Earee rahie. Private differences between two Earees are decided by their own people, without at all dilturbing the general tranquillity.
Their weapons are flings, which they use with great dexterity, pikes headed with the stings of sting-rays, and clubs, of about six or seven feet long, made of a very hard heavy wood. Thus armed, they are said to fight with great obstinacy, which is the more likely to be true, as it is certain that they give no quarter to either man, woman, or child, who is so unfortunate as to fall into their hands daring the battle, or for some hours afterwards, till their passion, which is always violent, though not lasting, has subsided.
The Earee rahie of Obereonoo, while we were here, was in perfect amity with the Earee rahie of Tiarreboo, the other peninsula, though he took himself the title of king of the whole island: this, however, produced no more jealousy in the other sovereign, than the title of King of France, assumed by our sovereign, does in his most Christian Majesty.
In a government so rude, it cannot be expected that distributive justice should be regularly administered; and indeed where there is so little opposition of interest, in consequence of the facility with
which every appetite and passion is gratified, there can be bat few crimes. There is nothing like money, the common medium by which every want and every wish is supposed to be gratified by those who do not possess it; there is no apparently permanent good, which either fraud or force can unlawfully obtain; and when all the crimes that are committed by the inhabitants of civilized countries, to get money, are set out of the account, not many will remain: add to this, that where the commerce with women is restrained by no law, men will seldom be under any temptation to erramit adultery, especially as one woman is always less preferred to another, where they are less distinguished by personal decorations, and the adventitious circumstances which are produced by the varieties of art, and the refinements of sentiment. That they are thieves is true; but as among these people no .man can be much injured or benefited by theft, it is not necessary to restrain it by such punishments, as in other countrie; are absolutely necessary to the very existence of civil society. Tupia, however, tells us, that adultery is sometimes committed as well as theft. In all cases where an injury has been committed, the punishment of the offender lies with the sufferer: adultery, if the parties are caught in the fact, is sometimes punished with death in the first ardour of resentment; but without circumstances of immediate provocation, the female sinner seldom suffers more than a beating. As punishment, however, is enforced by no law, nor taken into the hand of any magistrate, it is not often inflicted, except the injured party
is is the strongest; though the chiefs do sometimes punish their immediate dependents, for faults committed against each other, and even the dependents of others, if they are accused of any offence committed in their district.
[We shall conclude this article with the behaviour of the natives at parting, and an account of one of them who accompanied our gentlemen on the voyage in the Endeavour, and who was of great use to them upon various occasions: bat who, together with his boy, unfortunately fell a victim to the noxious climate of Batavia.l
Among the natives who were almost constantly with us, was Tupia, whose name has been often mentioned in this narrative. He had been, as I have before observed, the first minister of Oberea, when she was in the height of her power: he was also the chief Tahowa or priest of the island, consequently well acquainted with the religion of the country, as well with respect to its ceremonies as piinciples. He ha! also great experience and knowledge in navigation, and was particularly acquainted with the number -and situation of the neighbouring islands. This man had often expressed a desire to go with us; and on the 12th in the morning, having with the other natives left us the day before, he came on board, with a boy about thirteen years of age, his servant, and urged us to let him proceed with us on our voyage. To have such a person on board, was certainly desirable for many reasons; by learning his language, and teaching him ours, we should be able to acquire a much better knowledge of the customs, policy,
and religion of the people, than our short stay among them could give us; I therefore gladly agreed to receive them on board. As we were prevented from sailing today, by having found it necessary to make new stocks to our small and best bower anchors, the old ones having been totally destroyed by the worms, Tupia said, he would go once more on shore, and make a signal for the boat to fetch him off" in the evening. He went ac. cordingly, and took with him a miniature picture of Mr. Banks's, to shew his friends, and several little things tb give them as parting presents.
After dinner, Mr. Banks being desirous to procure a drawing of the Morai belonging to Tootahah, at Eparie, I attended him thither, accompanied by Dr. Solander, ia the pinnace. As sjon as we landed, many of our friends came to meet us, though some absented themselves in resentment of what had happened the day before. We immediately proceeded to Tootahah's house, where we were joined by Oberea, with several others who had not come out to meet us, and a perfect reconciliation was soon brought about; in consequence of which they promised to visit us early the next day, to take a lift farewel of us, as we told them we should certainly set sail in the after* noon. .At this place also we found Tupia, who returned with us, and slept this night on board the (hip for the first time.
On the next morning, Thursday, the i jth of July, the lhip was very early crowded with our friends, and surrounded by a multitude of canoes, which were silled with the natives of an inferior cliff. Be