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they had heard at the bar, was no charges or cenfures were answered, corporate act, and was signed only by the shortness of the time, and by fourteen proprietors, out of the advantage the Company might about seventeen hundred, of which take of Parliament during the rethe Company consisted ; that the cess. Upon a division the bill was yaft majority by which it was car- carried by nearly a proportional sied through the other House, majority, to that which had atwhere the most ample information tended it in the House of Com. was obtained of the Company's mons, 26 lords having voted for it, affairs, and the very small number to 6 only who opposed its paling that had difsented to it, sufficiently it was, however, followed by a hewed the justice, propriety, and remarkably pointed and severe pro; expediency of the measure. Other tell.
CH A P. VII.
Expedision against the Caribbs in the island of St. Vincent. Some account of
these people; black and yellow Caribbs ; cefion of the island by the late treaty of peace. The Caribbs refuse to have their lands surveyed, and 19 Submit to the proposed iransplantation. New proposals made, and reje&ted. Troops ordered from North-America ; proposal for transporting the Caribbs 10 the coast of Africa. Enquiry set on foot in the Houjė of Commons, as to the nature and causes of the expedition; witnesses examined ; debates ; refolutions moved, and rejected upon a division. Treaty concluded with the Caribbs. Petition from the captains of the navy for an addition to their. palf-pay, opposition to the Petition ; received, upon a divifon, and the request complied with. Fate of the Disenters Bill. Motion relative to tefts required in the Universities ; rejected by a great majority.
A N expedition which had been cent, about a century ago. The H undertaken against the Ca- negroes haying recovered their li. ribbs in the iland of șc. Vincent, berty by this accident, were hora in the Weft-Indies, had occasioned pitably received by the natives, and confiderable debates in the course of accordingly settled amongit them; this session. It appears that these but having women of their own, people coobited of two different they still continued, with some inraces, which, from their colour, termixture, a separate people, and were distinguished by the appella. soon became numerous. The two tions of Black and Yellow Ca. nations were not more different in sibbs; the latter, being descended their colour, than in their 'tera per from the original natives, were the and dispositions ; the Americans natural proprietors of the island; being timid and inoffensive, and the former were the offspring of a the Africans hardy, crafty, suspi. cargo of African negroes, who be- cious, and daring. With these ing on board an English flaving qualities, together with the acceryeffel bound to Barbadoes, had been fion of their runaway countrymen falt away apon the coasts of St. Vin- from the neighbouring islands, they
foon became far superior in power knowledge them as a free and is. and number to the natives, who dependent people, melted away insensibly as the Notwithilanding this migration strangers increased.
and attempt, a friendly intercourse In this state the Caribbs conti. and correspondence was in genera! nued for some time, until the continued, and the French not only French from the neighbouring seem to have said a proper attenihands in Gnuated themselves a. tion to their difpofitions and in anmong them, being temuted by ners, but to have applied them the excellence of the toil, and the selves alliduously to the gaining of cheap purchases which they made their friend hip and affection; of it, for brandy, and the trifling while the Caribbs obtained a power necessaries that were wanted by the of summary juttice in their own favages; and by degrees got such hands, by burning the houses and footing as to become pofleffed of plantations of those from whom all the fertile vallies that intersect they had received any injury. It the mountains on the leeward side is probable that these excesses were of the island, and to bring them not often committed; and it does into a state of cultivation.
not appear, that the French ever Though the French and the Ca- confidered them as sufficient ribbs of both colours, lived in gene- grounds for a general quarrel, or ral together upon very good revenged them as public injuries, terms, and the latter, in proceis of During this state of affairs, and tine, adopted the religion, and ac- until the late treaty of peace, the quired the language of the former; French King, upon every occasion, yet the neighbourhood of cultiva- treated the Caribbs with some dirtion and villages, was as little fuit- tinction, and seemed to confider ed to the convenience and necefi- them as proprietors of the island. ties of a people, who subsisted prin. By that treaty, the island of St. cipally by hunting and fishing, as Vincent was ceded to Great Bri. is was to their genius. Mankind, tain, without any notice being in any ftage near that of nature, taken of the Caribbs. It was then thun crowds, and love reçirenent; supposed to contain between four fill withing to live free and unre- and five thousand French inhabiAtrained in their actions, without tanis, and the Caribbs to aniouat obsorvation or interierence. The to upivards of a thoutand fighting Cariobs accordingly tota'ly aban- men. As this illind was one of doned their ancient poffeffions, and those which had been declared Jetired to the windward, and level neutral, and the French settlements fde of the island. It however ap: on it were infractions of former pears, though we are uninformed treaties between the two nations, as to the time and particulars, that they were passed over in the prean attempt was once made by the funt, witlout the finalleit mention, :French to enllave these people; as it none iuch were in exilience, and that the Cariuts detended their Comaitioners were appointed for liberty so touily, that the French the sale of the profitable lands in fere not only glad to renounce the chose illands; but the French leidesign, but were obligeu 104c- ders were permitted to hold their
former poffeflions, upon leases for reasons, among which the immeyears, and under certain ftipula. diate profits to the crown from the tions. A great number, however, sale of the lands, was strongly of the French, not chusing to live urged; the dangers arising to those under our government, abandoned who had already made purchases their estates, which, together with under the faith and protection of the new lands, were generally pur- government, as well as to the island chaleu by adventurers from these in general, from the neighbourcountries; by which means the hood of a lawless banditti, who English settlers in the island of St. were strongly attached to the Vincent, soon became considerable French, with whom they held a both as to number and property. constant correspondence in the
Though no ftipulation had been neighbouring islands, and who, made in favour of the Caribbs by from their religion and manners, the late treaty of peace, our court were violently averse to our people gave early instructions, in the year and government, were also describ1764, that they should not be dir. ed in the highest degree of colourturbed in the possession of their ing. land; and the commissioners for In consequence of these represenfales were directed, not to attempt tations, instructions were issued any survey of them, without parti. by the lords of the treasury, in the culas orders for that purpoie. beginning of the year 1768, for
The new settlers having time to the survey and disposal of the lands look about them, soon obíerved possessed by the Caribbs; for the with regret, that the plain and fere parts of which that were cleared tile part of the island was in the and cultivated, they were to be hands of the Caribbs, to whom its paid a certain price per acre, in valuable properties rendered it of money, and were to have other little more advantage, than any lands allotted in return, fufficient equal extent of the rudest country, for their support, in a different would have been ; their cottages part of the island. The new lands being scattered at a great distance were to be granted and secured in in the woods, and only small spots perpetuity, to them and their porof ground near them, cleared or terity ; were to be free from all cultivated. In short, fear and ava. quit-rents, charges, and conditions, rice operated strongly to make except peaceable behaviour, and them with the removal of the black obedience to government ; were to inhabitants.
delcend among them, according to Representations were according their own customs and usages of ly made to government, as well by inheritance; and were to be for the principal of the new settlers, as 'ever unalienable to any white perby the commissioners of sales, to son. Five years were given for deprive the Caribbs of their pofier- effecting this transplantation. fions, and to grant them such an The Caribbs, from their conequivalent, whether in the island, nexions with the French, especially or elsewhere, as should be thought in the late war, had imbibed preneceffary. These representations judices against our people and gowere supported by many plaufible vernment, and were at all times,
from our firft poffefsion of the ing, proceeded in making the furisland, extremely suspicious of our vey, and advanced a road into their designs and proceedings ; and this country. Though the Caribbs exdifike and fear operated so strongly pressed great dissatisfaction and reupon then, that some years before, fentment at this measure, they they had applied to the French go. feemed very unwilling to proceed vernor of St. Lucia, for leave to to actual violence Their behaviour settle on that island. For which and countenance became, however, beason, the arrangement proposed at leagih so alarming, that it by the English government excited was thought necessary, in the be. the most general alarm amongtt gioning of May 1769, to send an them.
officer with forty men to protect They now concluded, that this the surveyors and their people. ineafure was only the prelude to This small detachment, having a delign formed, either for their taken post in the heart of the Ca. utter extermination, or for reduc- ribbee country, where some tempoing them to a state of slavery ; ard rary huts had been erected for their a report was spread and believed reception, found themselves in meamong t hem, that the ancient diately to effe&ually surrounded, claim of property, which the Eng. by a strong body of well-armed lish had pretended in the persons Caribbs, that all communication of their ancestors, was now to be with their own people, and all Sevived against themselves. In this means of subsistence, were entirely Shuation, they applied to the go- cut off, so that they were little less vernor of Martinique for advice than prisoners. The prudence and and proteclion; the latter of which temper of the officer, who confiderhe absolutely refused, and as in the ed the inequality of his force, and former, is said to have recommend. the cxtreme unwillingness which ed to them a submission to govern the Caribbs had hitherto thewn, of ment. This advice, however, had bringing matters to the last extré. no effect upon their conduct. in mity, not only preserved the deanswer to the applications of the tachment from being cut off, but commissioners, they said, that the prevented the smallest violence whole island was originally their from being offered on either fide. property; that, however, as they In the mean time the surveyors had permitted the French to settle and their people were so terrified; upon a part of it, their king might that they abandoned their work; dispose of that part as he pleased; and were permitted to retire in but that as they were nos his sub- safety ; but their huts were demojects, he had no authority over lished, and the new roads broke up; them, and consequently could not so far as time would admit. grant or dispose of the part of their The situation and uncertain fate country, which they had reserved of the detachment caused an unito themselves. They concluded, versal alarm, and the English set. by absoluely refusing io part with tlers. having taken up arms, and their lands, or to admit of any ex- joined the few regular troops that change.
were in the island, marched imme. The commisioners, notwithstande diacely to its relief. However, as
they found the detachment safe, it a house belonging to a person who was not thought consistent with was particularly obnoxious to them; prudence, nor authorized by in- and they quietly sobmitted to the ftructions from home, to proceed imprisonment of one of their chiefs, to violence against the Caribbs. It who was suspected of the latter was agreed that nothing further fact ; nor does it appear that there should be done, until the present was a single shot fired, nor a drop transactions were laid before the of blood spilt, in all this commo. King and council, and their final tion. resolutions known. The Caribbs Notwithlanding the warm and immediately agreed to these propo- continua! remonftrances that were fitions, and a stop was for that time made ac home, government seemed put to the survey.
still very unwilling to proceed to Though the planters had not a violence with there people. Acforce in any degree equal to the cordingly the commiflioners, in the reduction of the Caribbs, the num. beginning of the year 1771, held ber of the rivers in the country, another meeting with several of and the richness of the soil through their chiefs, and proposed a new which they had now marched, ope. partition, and exchange of lands, rated so powerfully upon their par- upon a narrower scale, and terms fions, that they could not avoid ex- more favourable to them than the pressing the regret which they felt, arrangement which had been alat being prevented from bringing ready agitated; but every roposal matters to an immediate extremity, for parting with their lands was in terms which gave no favourable rejected by the Caribbs with the idea of their equity or humanity. greatest firmness; and on the quer
False reports were industriously cion being demanded, whether ney raised and circulated, which kept acknowledged themielves subjects the island in a continual alarm: to the King of Great-Britai , and the most passionate complaints were would take the oath or allegiance, sent home : the Caribbs represent. they boldly replied in the negative; ed as molt daring and incorrigible said they were independen', and rebels : and their own danger ex- were not subject either to the King aggerated in the highest degree. of Great Britain or of France. As Nothing less than their coral exter. the continuance of our trarquillity mination could now afford safety; with the courts of France and Spain, and it was proposed to transport seemed at that time very precaricus, them to the coast of Africa, or to there is little room to doubt but fome desart island in that quarter. that the Caribbs were fpirited to In the mean time, the lieutenant. this conduct by the governors of the governor of the new lands arrived neighbouring French ilands. at St. Vincent's, and issued a pro- In consequence of this coniuma. clamation to quiet the minds of cy, orders were ifueu ani
April 18th, the Caribbs, and to remove their from home, that two“ fears and fufpicions; nor do we regiments should be "7720 hear of any further violence they sent from North America to join committed than the destruction of about an equal number that were the new roads, and the burning of either already at St. Vincent's, or